PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-6 (6)
 

Clipboard (0)
None
Journals
Authors
more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Situs ambiguus in a Brown Swiss cow with polysplenia: case report 
Background
Laterality defects are rare in cattle and usually manifest as asplenia or polysplenia syndrome. These syndromes may be associated with situs ambiguus, which is a dislocation of some but not all internal organs. The objective of this report was to describe the clinical and post-mortem findings including the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of selected organs in a cow with polysplenia and situs ambiguus.
Case presentation
A 3.5-year-old Brown Swiss cow was referred to the Department of Farm Animals, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, because of poor appetite and recurrent indigestion. A diagnosis of situs ambiguus was based on the results of physical examination, ultrasonography, exploratory laparotomy and post-mortem examination. The latter revealed that the rumen was on the right side and lacked compartmentalisation. There were two spleens, one on the left (26.5 x 12.0 cm) and one on the right (20.5 x 5.5 cm), and the omasum was located craniolateral to the ruminoreticulum on the left. The abomasum was located on the right, although it had initially been displaced to the left. The three-lobed liver occupied the left and central cranioventral aspect of the abdominal cavity (cavum abdominis). Only the right and left hepatic veins (vena hepatica dextra and sinistra) drained into the thoracic segment of the caudal vena cava (vena cava caudalis), and histological changes in the liver were indicative of impaired haemodynamics. The mesojejunum was not fused with the mesentery of the spiral loop (ansa spiralis) of the ascending colon (colon ascendens). The latter was folded and the transverse colon (colon transversum) ran caudal to the cranial mesenteric artery (arteria mesenteria cranialis). Fibrotic constrictions were seen in the lumen of the caecum and proximal loop (ansa proximalis) of the ascending colon. Both kidneys were positioned retroperitoneally in a lumbar position. The lumbar segment of the caudal vena cava did not descend to the liver and instead drained into the right azygous vein (vena azygos dextra).
Conclusions
Recurrent digestive problems and poor production in this patient may have been caused by a lack of rumen compartmentalisation, abnormal abomasal motility, constrictions in the large intestine (intestinum crassum) and fibrosis of the liver. The abomasum had abnormal motility most likely because it was anchored inadequately and only at its cranial aspect to the liver by the lesser omentum (omentum minus) and to the dorsal abdominal wall and rumen by a short greater omentum (omentum majus).
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-9-34
PMCID: PMC3599286  PMID: 23421814
2.  Clinical findings and treatment in cattle with caecal dilatation 
Background
This retrospective study describes the clinical and laboratory findings, treatment and outcome of 461 cattle with caecal dilatation.
Results
The general condition and demeanor were abnormal in 93.1% of cases, and 32.1% of the patients had colic. Ruminal motility was reduced or absent in 78.3% of cattle. In 82.6% of cases, swinging and/or percussion auscultation were positive on the right side, and 82.4% had little or no faeces in the rectum. Caecal dilatation could be diagnosed via rectal palpation in 405 (88.0%) cattle. There was caudal displacement of the dilated caecum in 291 patients, torsion around the longitudinal axis in 20 and retroflexion in 94. The most important laboratory finding was hypocalcaemia, which occurred in 85.1% of cases. Of the 461 cattle, 122 (26.5%) initially received conservative therapy (intravenous fluids, neostigmine, calcium borogluconate) and 329 (71.4%) underwent surgical treatment. Ten patients were slaughtered or euthanased after the initial physical examination. Of the 122 cattle that received conservative treatment, 42 did not respond after one to two days of therapy and required surgical treatment. The final number of cattle that were operated was 371 (80.5%). Because of a grave prognosis, 24 cases were euthanased or slaughtered intraoperatively. Another 24 cattle did not respond to one or more operations and were euthanased or slaughtered. Of the 461 patients, 403 (87.4%) responded to either conservative or surgical treatment and were cured, and 58 were euthanased or slaughtered.
Conclusions
Caecal dilatation can usually be diagnosed based on clinical findings and treated conservatively or surgically. Swinging and percussion auscultation as well as rectal examination are important diagnostic tools. Conservative treatment is not rewarding in cattle considered surgical candidates with suspected caecal torsion or retroflexion and surgery should not be delayed in these patients.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-75
PMCID: PMC3391992  PMID: 22656369
3.  A possible case of caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Switzerland 
Background
Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF). This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland.
Case presentation
The buffalo cow presented with persistent fever, dyspnoea, nasal bleeding and haematuria. Despite symptomatic therapy, the buffalo died and was submitted to post mortem examination. Major findings were an abomasal ulceration, a mild haemorrhagic cystitis and multifocal haemorrhages on the epicardium and on serosal and mucosal surfaces. Eyes and oral cavity were not affected. Histopathology revealed a mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic vasculitis limited to the brain and the urinary bladder. Although these findings are typical for MCF, OvHV-2 DNA was not detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes or in paraffin-embedded brain, using an OvHV-2 specific real time PCR. With the aid of a panherpesvirus PCR, a caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2) sequence could be amplified from both samples.
Conclusions
To our knowledge, this is the first report of malignant catarrhal fever in the subfamily Bovinae, where the presence of CpHV-2 could be demonstrated. The etiological context has yet to be evaluated.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-7-78
PMCID: PMC3259070  PMID: 22132808
4.  Ultrasonographic findings in a cow with vascular hamartoma of the liver: case report 
Background
This is the first description of the ultrasonographic findings in a cow with vascular hamartoma of the liver.
Case presentation
Ultrasonographic examination of a six-year-old Swiss Braunvieh cow revealed an excessive number of hypoechogenic blood vessels in the liver parenchyma and a thrombus in the right hepatic vein. The activities of the liver enzymes and the concentration of bilirubin were within the reference ranges. At postmortem examination, a poorly delineated, non-encapsulated lesion, measuring approximately 10 cm × 10 cm in diameter, was found in the right liver lobe. The cut surface of the lesion was sponge-like and contained extremely dilated blood vessels, one of which was occluded with a branching red thrombus. A vascular hamartoma of the liver with thrombosis was diagnosed based on the histological findings.
Conclusions
To our knowledge, this is the first description of the ultrasonographic findings of vascular hamartoma of the liver in a cow. Hamartoma should be considered part of the differential diagnosis in cows with an abnormally large number of blood vessels in the liver parenchyma. This case report broadens the spectrum of liver diseases and ultrasonographic findings of the liver in cattle.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-7-52
PMCID: PMC3179716  PMID: 21888668
5.  Ultrasonographic findings in a cow with abomasal lymphosarcoma: Case report 
Background
This case report describes the clinical and ultrasonographic findings in a Swiss Braunvieh cow with lymphosarcoma of the abomasum.
Case Presentation
The main clinical findings were vomiting in response to eating and melena. The results of serum biochemistry and rumen fluid analysis were indicative of abomasal reflux syndrome. The main ultrasonographic findings were two enlarged lymph nodes caudal to the reticulum and a severely enlarged abomasum with thickening of the abomasal wall and folds. Based on all the findings, pyloric stenosis caused by lymphosarcoma was tentatively diagnosed and later confirmed at postmortem examination.
Conclusions
This is an interesting case, which broadens the spectrum of abomasal reflux syndrome.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-7-20
PMCID: PMC3113951  PMID: 21612590
6.  Duodenal ileus caused by a calf feeding nipple in a cow 
Background
The aim of this report was to describe duodenal obstruction caused by a rubber foreign body in a cow.
Case Presentation
The clinical, biochemical and ultrasonographic findings in a five-year-old Swiss Braunvieh cow with duodenal ileus caused by a calf feeding nipple are described. The main clinical signs were anorexia, ruminal tympany, decreased faecal output and abomasal reflux syndrome. Ultrasonographic examination revealed reticular hyperactivity and a dilated duodenum. A diagnosis of duodenal ileus was made and the cow underwent right-flank laparotomy, which revealed a dilation of the cranial part of the duodenum because of obstruction by a pliable foreign body. This was identified via enterotomy as a calf feeding nipple. The cow was healthy at the time of discharge four days after surgery and went on to complete a successful lactation.
Conclusions
To our knowledge, this is the first description of duodenal obstruction by a calf feeding nipple. This is an interesting case, which broadens the spectrum of the causes of duodenal ileus, which is usually caused by obstruction of the duodenum by a phytobezoar.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-7-2
PMCID: PMC3023694  PMID: 21211012

Results 1-6 (6)