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1.  Quadricuspid aortic valve and a ventricular septal defect in a horse 
BMC Veterinary Research  2014;10:142.
Background
Quadricuspid aortic valve (QAV) and ventricular septal defect (VSD) are congenital heart defects and have been described in both human and veterinary medical literature.
Case presentation
A 5-year-old half-bred bay stallion was referred for surgical castration. Cardiac murmurs were heard on the presurgical clinical examination and the cardiac examination revealed subcutaneous oedema, tachycardia with a precodrial thrill and a grade 5/6 pansystolic murmur, which was heard on auscultation of the right and left side of the chest. Examination of the B-mode echocardiograms revealed the presence of a QAV (one small cusp, two equal-sized cusps, and one large cusp) and VSD in the membranous portion of the intraventricular septum. These two congenital cardiac defects were accompanied by mild aortic valve regurgitation and severe tricuspid regurgitation. Despite the presence of these cardiac defects, the horse underwent surgical castration under general anesthesia. Surgery, anaesthesia and recovery from anaesthesia were uneventful. The gelding was euthanasied after 17 months because of a progressive loss of body weight, weakness and recumbency.
Conclusion
A QAV in combination with VSD in a horse is an interesting finding, because to the best of our knowledge, this has not been previously described in equine literature.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-10-142
PMCID: PMC4134333  PMID: 24981768
Horse; Quadricuspid aortic valve; Ventricular septal defect; Congenital heart defect; Echocardiography
2.  Methamphetamine intoxication in a dog: case report 
BMC Veterinary Research  2014;10:139.
Background
Methamphetamine abuse has undergone a dramatic worldwide increase, and represents a significant and global issue for public health. Incidents of methamphetamine intoxication and death in humans are relatively commonplace. Because of its increasing illicit availability, together with legitimate use in human medicine, accidental or intentional exposure to methamphetamine in dogs is becoming a more likely scenario.
Case presentation
A 3-year-old, 3.7 kg intact female Miniature Poodle who had been intentionally fed an unknown amount of a crystalline-like substance developed extreme agitation, seizures, tachycardia, hyperthermia, hypertension, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), bloody diarrhea, and dilated pupils. Blood work revealed leukocytosis, erythropenia, lymphocytosis, thrombocytopenia, coagulation abnormalities, but all to a mild extent, together with mild elevation in both alanine aminotranferease (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), and a mild decreased in glucose. Radiologic diagnosis revealed generalized, severe distension of the stomach and small intestinal tract with air. Immunochromatographic screening tests and gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis confirmed methamphetamine intoxication and revealed concentrations of methamphetamine in blood and urine of 0.32 μg/mL and 2.35 μg/mL respectively. The dog demonstrated progressive improvement after supportive care, with the high fever resolved over the initial 24 hours of hospitalization, and agitation was successfully controlled beyond 48 hours after initial hospitalization. Hemostatic abnormalities were progressive improved after heparin therapy and supportive care. By the sixth day of hospitalization the dog was clinically well, and all laboratory data had returned to normal with the exception of a mild elevateion of ALKP.
Conclusion
To the authors’ knowledge, this is the second case report of methamphetamine intoxication in dogs presented in veterinary practice in open literature so far. Although rare, methamphetamine intoxication should be considered as a differential diagnosis in dogs with a toxic substance ingestion history and with typical nervous and cardiovascular system symptoms. In such cases rapid diagnosis and aggressive intervention is important for prognosis. Blood methamphetamine concentration may be a helpful value for assessment of the severity of intoxication and prediction of clinical outcomes.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-10-139
PMCID: PMC4078017  PMID: 24962469
Methamphetamine; Intoxication; Dog; Agitation; Tachycardia; Hyperthermia; Disseminated intravascular coagulation; Urine screen test; Gas chromatography mass spectrometry
3.  Molecular and pathological insights into Chlamydia pecorum-associated sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis (SBE) in Western Australia 
BMC Veterinary Research  2014;10:121.
Background
Despite its global recognition as a ruminant pathogen, cases of Chlamydia pecorum infection in Australian livestock are poorly documented. In this report, a C. pecorum specific Multi Locus Sequence Analysis scheme was used to characterise the C. pecorum strains implicated in two cases of sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis confirmed by necropsy, histopathology and immunohistochemistry. This report provides the first molecular evidence for the presence of mixed infections of C. pecorum strains in Australian cattle.
Case presentation
Affected animals were two markedly depressed, dehydrated and blind calves, 12 and 16 weeks old. The calves were euthanized and necropsied. In one calf, a severe fibrinous polyserositis was noted with excess joint fluid in all joints whereas in the other, no significant lesions were seen. No gross abnormalities were noted in the brain of either calf. Histopathological lesions seen in both calves included: multifocal, severe, subacute meningoencephalitis with vasculitis, fibrinocellular thrombosis and malacia; diffuse, mild, acute interstitial pneumonia; and diffuse, subacute epicarditis, severe in the calf with gross serositis. Immunohistochemical labelling of chlamydial antigen in brain, spleen and lung from the two affected calves and brain from two archived cases, localised the antigen to the cytoplasm of endothelium, mesothelium and macrophages. C. pecorum specific qPCR, showed dissemination of the pathogen to multiple organs. Phylogenetic comparisons with other C. pecorum bovine strains from Australia, Europe and the USA revealed the presence of two genetically distinct sequence types (ST). The predominant ST detected in the brain, heart, lung and liver of both calves was identical to the C. pecorum ST previously described in cases of SBE. A second ST detected in an ileal tissue sample from one of the calves, clustered with previously typed faecal bovine isolates.
Conclusion
This report provides the first data to suggest that identical C. pecorum STs may be associated with SBE in geographically separated countries and that these may be distinct from those found in the gastrointestinal tract. This report provides a platform for further investigations into SBE and for understanding the genetic relationships that exist between C. pecorum strains detected in association with other infectious diseases in livestock.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-10-121
PMCID: PMC4064815  PMID: 24884687
Sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis; Chlamydia pecorum; Cattle; MLSA; Histopathology; Immunohistochemistry
4.  Acute gastroesophageal intussusception in a juvenile Australian shepherd dog: endoscopic treatment and long-term follow-up 
BMC Veterinary Research  2014;10:109.
Background
Canine gastroesophageal intussusception (GEI) is a rare and potentially fatal disease usually affecting puppies or young dogs < 3 months of age and of medium to large breeds. Surgical intervention has been advocated as the therapy of choice by most authors. Endoscopic treatment may offer an advantageous or alternative method of treatment.
Case presentation
GEI was diagnosed in a nine-week-old Australian Shepherd dog with an acute onset of vomiting and regurgitation and compatible radiographic findings on thoracic radiography. Treatment consisted of endoscopic gastric repositioning and placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube to prevent repeated dislocation of the stomach, and to allow for nutritional supplementation During a follow- up period of eight months, thoracic radiographs were obtained showing persistent esophageal dilatation in the absence of compatible clinical signs.
Conclusion
Endoscopic intervention is an effective, alternative in selected canine GEI- cases, allowing for rapid, minimally invasive confirmation of diagnosis and therapy. After initial treatment, radiographic long-term follow-up seems prudent even in asymptomatic patients.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-10-109
PMCID: PMC4024095  PMID: 24885648
Esophageal obstruction; Canine; Eso2phagoscopy; PEG tube; Gastroesophageal intussusception
5.  Cryptococcal meningitis in a goat – a case report 
Background
Cryptococcus spp. are saprophytic and opportunistic fungal pathogens that are known to cause severe disease in immunocompromised animals. In goats there are reports of clinical cryptococcal pneumonia and mastitis but not of meningitis.
Case presentation
The following report describes a case of a five year old buck showing severe neurological signs, including paraplegia and strong pain reaction to touch of the hindquarters region. Treatment with antibiotics was unsuccessful and the animal was euthanized for humanitarian reasons. Postmortem examination revealed lumbar meningitis, lung nodules and caseous lymphadenitis lesions. Encapsulated Cryptococcus neoformans were identified from the lungs and meninges, showing that cryptococcal meningitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of goats showing paresis and hyperesthesia. The possibility of concurrent immunosuppression due to Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection is raised.
Conclusions
Cryptoccocal meningitis should be included in the differential diagnosis list of goat diseases with ataxia and hyperesthesia.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-10-84
PMCID: PMC4020613  PMID: 24708822
Cryptococcus; Meningitis; Goat; Allodynia; Ataxia; Caseous lymphadenitis
6.  Japanese encephalitis in a 114-month-old cow: pathological investigation of the affected cow and genetic characterization of Japanese encephalitis virus isolate 
Background
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is classified into the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. JEV can cause febrile illness and encephalitis mainly in humans and horses, and occasionally in cattle.
Case presentation
In late September 2010, a 114-month-old cow showed neurological symptoms similar to the symptoms observed in previous bovine cases of Japanese encephalitis (JE); therefore, we conducted virological and pathological tests on the cow. As a result, JEV was isolated from the cerebrum of the affected cow. We determined the complete genome sequence of the JEV isolate, which we named JEV/Bo/Aichi/1/2010, including the envelope (E) gene region and 3’ untranslated region (3’UTR). Our phylogenetic analyses of the E region and complete genome showed that the isolate belongs to JEV genotype 1 (G1). The isolate, JEV/Bo/Aichi/1/2010, was most closely related to several JEV G1 isolates in Toyama Prefecture, Japan in 2007–2009 by the phylogenetic analysis of the E region. In addition, the nucleotide alignment revealed that the deletion in the 3’UTR was the same between JEV/Bo/Aichi/1/2010 and several other JEV G1 isolates identified in Toyama Prefecture in 2008–2009. A hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test was conducted for the detection of anti-JEV antibodies in the affected cow, and the test detected 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME)-sensitive HI antibodies against JEV in the serum of the affected cow. The histopathological investigation revealed nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis in the affected cow, and the immunohistochemical assay detected JEV antigen in the cerebrum.
Conclusion
We diagnosed the case as JE of a cow based on the findings of nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis observed in the central nervous system, JEV antigen detected in the cerebrum, JEV isolated from the cerebrum, and 2-ME-sensitive HI antibodies against JEV detected in the serum. This is the first reported case of JE in a cow over 24 months old.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-10-63
PMCID: PMC4007642  PMID: 24618225
Japanese encephalitis; Cow; Arthropod-borne virus; Viral encephalomyelitis
7.  Spinal dermoid sinus in a Dachshund with vertebral and thoracic limb malformations 
Background
Dermoid sinus is an uncommon epithelial-lined fistula that may be associated with vertebral malformations. In humans, Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) is a rare condition characterized by congenital cervical vertebral fusion and may be associated with other developmental defects, including dermoid sinus. The present case report describes an adult Dachshund with cervical and cranial thoracic vertebral malformations as well as thoracic limb malformations resembling KFS with a concurrent type IV dermoid sinus.
Case presentation
A 1.5 year-old Dachshund with congenital thoracic limbs deformities and cervical-thoracic vertebral malformations presented with cervical hyperesthesia, rigidity of the cervical musculature and tetraparesis. Neurologic, radiographic, and computed tomography (CT) (2D, 3D, CT fistulography) examinations revealed skeletal anomalies, a dermoid sinus in the cranial thoracic region and epidural gas within the vertebral canal. Surgical resection and histopathological evaluation of the sinus tract were performed and confirmed a type IV dermoid sinus. The clinical signs progressively recovered postoperatively, and no recurrent signs were observed after 6 months of follow-up.
Conclusions
Cervical vertebral malformations associated with limbs anomalies have not been reported in dogs and may represent a condition similar to KFS in humans. KFS can occur concurrently with other congenital conditions including dermoid sinus and should be included among the complex congenital anomalies described in dogs.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-10-54
PMCID: PMC3975874  PMID: 24593884
Dermoid sinus; Klippel-Feil syndrome; Limbs malformations; Dog
8.  Management of a congenital tracheoesophageal fistula in a young Spanish water dog 
Background
Tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) in dogs is a rare disease with only few reports in the literature. This report aims to contribute to the current literature on suitable diagnostic methods for TEF and to provide follow-up information after successful surgical treatment.
Case presentation
A seven-month-old intact female Spanish Water Dog was presented for further investigation of recurrent respiratory symptom. Bronchoscopy revealed a small hole-like defect in the tracheal wall at the bifurcation. The finding of the contrast material swallow study under fluoroscopy was indicative of a TEF. To further evaluate the connection between the trachea and esophagus, a computed tomography scan was performed. The TEF was surgically approached by thoracotomy through the right lateral sixth intercostal space. The fistula was identified, double ligated and divided. Histopathology confirmed the process to originate from the esophagus and to be patent. The dog was re-examined two weeks and ten months after surgery, with no evidence of recurring clinical signs.
Conclusions
Contrast material swallow study using fluoroscopy was the most reliable diagnostic method. Bronchoscopy may allow the fistula to be visualized, but due to a small fistular opening it can lead to a false negative result. Surgical correction by ligation and dividing of the fistula suggests a good prognosis for early diagnosed and operated TEF.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-10-16
PMCID: PMC3895692  PMID: 24423070
Congenital tracheoesophageal fistula; Dog; Bronchoscopy; Fluoroscopy; Computed tomography; Histopathology
9.  Outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes in an urban poultry flock 
Background
Listeria monocytogenes infection is most commonly recognized in ruminants, including cattle, sheep, and goats; but it is rarely diagnosed in poultry. This report describes an outbreak of L. monocytogenes in a backyard poultry flock. Also, it points out the importance of collaboration between veterinarians and public health departments and the possible implications of zoonotic diseases.
Case presentation
Depression, lack of appetite, labored breathing, and increased mortality were noted for 5 months in several affected birds within the flock. The pathologic changes in the internal organs of infected birds included severe myocarditis, pericarditis, pneumonia, hepatitis, and splenitis. No lesions were noted in the brain. Gram-positive organisms were seen in histologic sections of the heart and spleen. Listeria monocytogenes was detected by real time PCR from formalin fixed heart and spleen, and was isolated from fresh lung, spleen, and liver. This isolate was identified as L. monocytogenes serotype 4b by 16S rDNA sequencing and by PCR-based serotyping assay.
Conclusions
This is the first report describing outbreak of L. monocytogenes in backyard poultry flock in Washington State and use of molecular methods to confirm L. monocytogenes infection from formalin fixed tissues.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-9-204
PMCID: PMC3852838  PMID: 24119838
10.  Unusual presentation of alveolar echinococcosis as prostatic and paraprostatic cysts in a dog 
Background
Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is caused by the larval stage (metacestode) of Echinococcus multilocularis. The domestic dog can act as a definitive host and harbor adult cestodes in its small intestine or become an aberrant intermediate host carrying larval stages that may cause severe lesions in the liver, lungs and other organs with clinical signs similar to AE in humans.
Case presentation
A case of canine AE, affecting the liver and prostate with development of multilocular hydatid paraprostatic cysts and possible lung involvement is described in an 8–year-old neutered male Labrador retriever dog.
The dog presented with progressive weight loss, acute constipation, stranguria and a suspected soft tissue mass in the sublumbar region. Further evaluation included computed tomography of the thorax and abdomen, which revealed cystic changes in the prostate, a paraprostatic cyst, as well as lesions in the liver and lungs. Cytological examination of fine-needle aspirates of the liver, prostate and paraprostatic cyst revealed parasitic hyaline membranes typical of an Echinococcus infection and the presence of E. multilocularis-DNA was confirmed by PCR.
The dog was treated with albendazole and debulking surgery was considered in case there was a good response to antiparasitic treatment. Constipation and stranguria resolved completely. Six months after the definitive diagnosis, the dog was euthanized due to treatment-resistant ascites and acute anorexia and lethargy.
Conclusions
To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first publication of an E. multilocularis infection in a dog causing prostatic and paraprostatic cysts. Although rare, E. multilocularis infection should be considered as an extended differential diagnosis in dogs presenting with prostatic and paraprostatic disease, especially in areas where E. multilocularis is endemic.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-9-159
PMCID: PMC3765175  PMID: 23938212
Echinococcus multilocularis; Prostatic cyst; Paraprostatic cysts; Cytology; Radiology; PCR; Canine alveolar echinococcosis; Dog
11.  Detection and assessment of electrocution in endangered raptors by infrared thermography 
Background
Most European birds of prey find themselves in a poor state of conservation, with electrocution as one of the most frequent causes of unnatural death. Since early detection of electrocution is difficult, treatment is usually implemented late, which reduces its effectiveness. By considering that electrocution reduces tissue temperature, it may be detectable by thermography, which would allow a more rapid identification. Three individuals from three endangered raptor species [Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), Lammergeier (Gypaetus barbatus) and Osprey (Pandion haliaetus)] were studied thermographically from the time they were admitted to a rehabilitation centre to the time their clinical cases were resolved.
Cases presentation
The three raptors presented lesions lacking thermal bilateral symmetry and were consistent with electrocution of feet, wings and eyes, visible by thermography before than clinically; lesions were well-defined and showed a lower temperature than the surrounding tissue. Some lesions evolved thermally and clinically until the appearance of normal tissue recovered, while others evolved and became necrotic. A histopathological analysis of a damaged finger amputated off a Lammergeier, and the necropsy and histopathology examination of an osprey, confirmed the electrocution diagnosis.
Conclusions
These results suggest that thermography is effective and useful for the objective and early detection and monitoring of electrocuted birds, and that it may prove especially useful for examining live animals that require no amputation or cannot be subjected to invasive histopathology.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-9-149
PMCID: PMC3726331  PMID: 23880357
Thermography; Electrocution; Raptor; Bird of prey; Spanish imperial eagle; Lammergeier; Osprey
12.  Unusual striped dolphin mass mortality episode related to cetacean morbillivirus in the Spanish Mediterranean sea 
Background
In the last 20 years, Cetacean Morbillivirus (CeMV) has been responsible for many die-offs in marine mammals worldwide, as clearly exemplified by the two dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) epizootics of 1990–1992 and 2006–2008, which affected Mediterranean striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). Between March and April 2011, the number of strandings on the Valencian Community coast (E Spain) increased.
Case presentation
Necropsy and sample collection were performed in all stranded animals, with good state of conservation. Subsequently, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Universal Probe Library (UPL) RT-PCR assays were performed to identify Morbillivirus. Gross and microscopic findings compatible with CeMV were found in the majority of analyzed animals. Immunopositivity in the brain and UPL RT-PCR positivity in seven of the nine analyzed animals in at least two tissues confirmed CeMV systemic infection. Phylogenetic analysis, based on sequencing part of the phosphoprotein gene, showed that this isolate is a closely related dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) to that responsible for the 2006–2008 epizootics.
Conclusion
The combination of gross and histopathologic findings compatible with DMV with immunopositivity and molecular detection of DMV suggests that this DMV strain could cause this die-off event.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-9-106
PMCID: PMC3666923  PMID: 23702190
Cetacean morbillivirus; Dolphin morbillivirus; Mediterranean sea; Mass mortality; Striped dolphin
13.  Magnetic resonance imaging and genetic investigation of a case of rottweiler leukoencephalomyelopathy 
Background
Leukoencephalomyelopathy is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder that affects the white matter of the spinal cord and brain and is known to occur in the Rottweiler breed. Due to the lack of a genetic test for this disorder, post mortem neuropathological examinations are required to confirm the diagnosis. Leukoencephalopathy with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and elevated lactate levels is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder in humans that was recently described to have clinical features and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings that are similar to the histopathologic lesions that define leukoencephalomyelopathy in Rottweilers. Leukoencephalopathy with brain stem and spinal cord involvement is caused by mutations in the DARS2 gene, which encodes a mitochondrial aspartyl-tRNA synthetase. The objective of this case report is to present the results of MRI and candidate gene analysis of a case of Rottweiler leukoencephalomyelopathy to investigate the hypothesis that leukoencephalomyelopathy in Rottweilers could serve as an animal model of human leukoencephalopathy with brain stem and spinal cord involvement.
Case presentation
A two-and-a-half-year-old male purebred Rottweiler was evaluated for generalised progressive ataxia with hypermetria that was most evident in the thoracic limbs. MRI (T2-weighted) demonstrated well-circumscribed hyperintense signals within both lateral funiculi that extended from the level of the first to the sixth cervical vertebral body. A neurodegenerative disorder was suspected based on the progressive clinical course and MRI findings, and Rottweiler leukoencephalomyelopathy was subsequently confirmed via histopathology. The DARS2 gene was investigated as a causative candidate, but a sequence analysis failed to identify any disease-associated variants in the DNA sequence.
Conclusion
It was concluded that MRI may aid in the pre-mortem diagnosis of suspected cases of leukoencephalomyelopathy. Genes other than DARS2 may be involved in Rottweiler leukoencephalomyelopathy and may also be relevant in human leukoencephalopathy with brain stem and spinal cord involvement.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-9-57
PMCID: PMC3614464  PMID: 23531239
Rottweiler; DARS2; LBSL; White matter disease; Progressive ataxia
14.  Disseminated intravascular coagulation in a dog naturally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi from Rio de Janeiro – Brazil 
Background
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is an acquired disorder characterized by the activation of intravascular coagulation and excessive fibrin formation. It always occurs in association with other clinical conditions, including parasitic diseases. DIC has been described as a unusual complication in human and canine visceral leishmaniasis.
Case presentation
DIC was found in a seven-year-old male mongrel dog naturally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. Haemostasis parameters demonstrated changes in primary and secondary haemostasis and fibrinolysis.
Conclusion
DIC is a unusual condition described in canine visceral leishmaniasis and it seems to be associated with several immunological and pathological mechanisms involved in the disease.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-9-43
PMCID: PMC3599858  PMID: 23497531
Disseminated intravascular coagulation; Dog; Visceral leishmaniasis
15.  Physical reparative treatment in reptiles 
Background
The tissue growth necessary to achieve a complete or partial restitution ad integrum as a result of injury to soft tissue and/or hard times in reptiles is variable and often needs long time in relation to the species, to the habitat and to their intrinsic physiological characteristics. The purpose of this work was to see if the tissue optimization (TO) treatment with radio electric asymmetric conveyer (REAC) provided good results in these animals and whether its use translates into reduced time of tissue repair. This paper describes preliminary results with in promoting the tissue repair in reptiles.
Cases presentation
A 5 year old male Testudo graeca (Leo) and Trachemys scripta scripta (Mir) and a 15 year old female Testudo hermanni (Juta) were evaluated because of soft tissue injuries. A female 25 year old Trachemys scripta elegans (Ice), a female 2.5 year old Trachemys scripta scripta (Penelope) as well as a 50 year old male Testudo graeca (Margherito) were evaluated because of wounds of the carapace. Following debridement and traditional therapies, Leo, Penelope and Margherito were exposed to the radio electric asymmetric conveyer (REAC) device, with a specific treatment protocol, named tissue optimization-basic (TO-B). Also Ice and Mir were subjected to REAC treatment after wounds debridement. Juta was treated only with REAC treatment.
Complete wound healing was evident after 17 days for Leo, 7 days for Penelope, 27 days for Mir, 78 days for Ice and after 14 days for Margherito. Juta showed a considerable tissue activation in 2 days and complete wound healing in 5 days.
Conclusion
Our findings suggest that REAC TO-B treatment may provide advantages over other traditional methods after complete wound healing in Leo, and also suitable healing in the other patients. Then REAC device with its specific treatment TO-B protocol, which induces tissue repair without causing severe stress to the patient, could be a potential therapy for tissue damage healing in reptiles. Further studies still need to be conducted to support our observations.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-9-39
PMCID: PMC3637559  PMID: 23442770
Tissue repair; Tissue optimization; Tortoise; Turtle; Radio electric asymmetric conveyer
16.  Situs ambiguus in a Brown Swiss cow with polysplenia: case report 
Background
Laterality defects are rare in cattle and usually manifest as asplenia or polysplenia syndrome. These syndromes may be associated with situs ambiguus, which is a dislocation of some but not all internal organs. The objective of this report was to describe the clinical and post-mortem findings including the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of selected organs in a cow with polysplenia and situs ambiguus.
Case presentation
A 3.5-year-old Brown Swiss cow was referred to the Department of Farm Animals, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, because of poor appetite and recurrent indigestion. A diagnosis of situs ambiguus was based on the results of physical examination, ultrasonography, exploratory laparotomy and post-mortem examination. The latter revealed that the rumen was on the right side and lacked compartmentalisation. There were two spleens, one on the left (26.5 x 12.0 cm) and one on the right (20.5 x 5.5 cm), and the omasum was located craniolateral to the ruminoreticulum on the left. The abomasum was located on the right, although it had initially been displaced to the left. The three-lobed liver occupied the left and central cranioventral aspect of the abdominal cavity (cavum abdominis). Only the right and left hepatic veins (vena hepatica dextra and sinistra) drained into the thoracic segment of the caudal vena cava (vena cava caudalis), and histological changes in the liver were indicative of impaired haemodynamics. The mesojejunum was not fused with the mesentery of the spiral loop (ansa spiralis) of the ascending colon (colon ascendens). The latter was folded and the transverse colon (colon transversum) ran caudal to the cranial mesenteric artery (arteria mesenteria cranialis). Fibrotic constrictions were seen in the lumen of the caecum and proximal loop (ansa proximalis) of the ascending colon. Both kidneys were positioned retroperitoneally in a lumbar position. The lumbar segment of the caudal vena cava did not descend to the liver and instead drained into the right azygous vein (vena azygos dextra).
Conclusions
Recurrent digestive problems and poor production in this patient may have been caused by a lack of rumen compartmentalisation, abnormal abomasal motility, constrictions in the large intestine (intestinum crassum) and fibrosis of the liver. The abomasum had abnormal motility most likely because it was anchored inadequately and only at its cranial aspect to the liver by the lesser omentum (omentum minus) and to the dorsal abdominal wall and rumen by a short greater omentum (omentum majus).
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-9-34
PMCID: PMC3599286  PMID: 23421814
17.  Porencephaly and cortical dysplasia as cause of seizures in a dog 
Background
Seizures are a common problem in small animal neurology and it may be related to underlying diseases. Porencephaly is an extremely rare disorder, and in Veterinary Medicine it affects more often ruminants, with only few reports in dogs.
Case presentation
A one-year-old intact male Shih-Tzu dog was referred to Veterinary University Hospital with history of abnormal gait and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Signs included hypermetria, abnormal nystagmus and increased myotatic reflexes. At necropsy, during the brain analysis, a cleft was observed in the left parietal and occipital lobes, creating a communication between the subarachnoid space and the left lateral ventricle, consistent with porencephaly; and also a focal atrophy of the caudal paravermal and vermal portions of the cerebellum. Furthermore, the histological examination showed cortical and cerebellar neuronal dysplasia.
Conclusions
Reports of seizures due to porencephaly are rare in dogs. In this case, the dog presented a group of brain abnormalities which per se or in assemblage could result in seizure manifestation.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-246
PMCID: PMC3538049  PMID: 23269021
Brain; Canine; Central nervous system diseases; Cerebellum; Hippocampus; Neuropathology
18.  Uncommon mandibular osteomyelitis in a cat caused by Nocardia africana 
Background
Nocardiosis is an unusual infection in companion animals characterized by suppurative to pyogranulomatous lesions, localized or disseminated. Cutaneous-subcutaneous, pulmonary and systemic signs are observed in feline nocardiosis. However, osteomyelitis is a rare clinical manifestation in cats. Nocardia cyriacigeorgica (formerly N. asteroides sensu stricto), Nocardia brasiliensis, Nocardia otitidiscaviarum, and Nocardia nova are the most common pathogenic species identified in cats, based on recent molecular classification (16S rRNA gene). The present report is, to our knowledge, the first case of mandibular osteomyelitis in a cat caused by Nocardia africana, diagnosed based upon a combination of methods, including molecular techniques.
Case presentation
A one-year-old non-neutered female cat, raised in a rural area, was admitted to the Companion Animal Hospital-PUCPR, São José dos Pinhais, State of Paraná, Brazil, with a history a progressive facial lesion, difficulty apprehending food, loss of appetite, apathy and emaciation. Clinical examination showed fever, submandibular lymphadenitis, and a painless, 8 cm diameter mass, which was irregularly-shaped, of firm consistency, and located in the region of the left mandible. The skin around the lesion was friable, with diffuse inflammation (cellulitis), multiple draining sinuses, and exudation of serosanguinous material containing whitish “sulfur” granules.
Diagnosis was based initially in clinical signs, microbiological culture, cytological, and histopathological findings, and radiographic images. Molecular sequencing of 16S rRNA of isolate allowed diagnosis of Nocardia africana. Despite supportive care and antimicrobial therapy based on in vitro susceptibility testing the animal died.
Conclusion
The present report describes a rare clinical case of feline osteomyelitis caused by Nocardia africana, diagnosed based upon a combination of clinical signs, microbiological culture, cytological and histopathological findings, radiographic images, and molecular methods. The use of modern molecular techniques constitutes a quick and reliable method for Nocardia species identification, and may contribute to identification to new species of Nocardia that are virulent in cats.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-239
PMCID: PMC3528425  PMID: 23216681
Cat; Nocardia africana; Feline nocardiosis; Osteomyelitis
19.  Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii in a Zebu cow 
Background
Stratified keratinizing squamous epithelium in the ovary has been associated with the diagnosis of ovarian teratoma in cows. Recently, the diagnosis of “epidermoid cyst” has been proposed. A case of squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii in a Zebu cow is described in this report.
Case presentation
A crossbreed Zebu cow had both ovaries enlarged with multiple cysts. Most cysts were lined by well differentiated keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium and filled with keratinized lamellar material. Some cysts were lined by an epithelial layer that ranged from single cuboidal, double cuboidal epithelium, stratified non keratinized epithelium, and areas of keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium. Single or double layered cuboidal epithelia of the cysts expressed low molecular weight cytokeratin 7, whose expression was absent in the keratinizing stratified squamous epithelia of same cysts. Conversely, high molecular weight cytokeratins 1, 5, 10, and 14 were strongly expressed by the keratinizing stratified epithelium.
Conclusion
Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii was diagnosed. Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii, may account for some of the previously described squamous lesions in the ovary, which may have been misinterpreted as teratoma or epidermoid cysts.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-235
PMCID: PMC3528438  PMID: 23217175
Ovary; Cow; Rete ovarii; Squamous metaplasia; Epidermoid cyst
20.  Hypovitaminosis A coupled to secondary bacterial infection in beef cattle 
Background
Vitamin A is essential for normal growth, development, reproduction, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, immune function and vision. Hypovitaminosis A can lead to a series of pathological damage in animals. This report describes the case of hypovitaminosis A associated with secondary complications in calves.
Case presentation
From February to March in 2011, 2-and 3-month old beef calves presented with decreased eyesight, apparent blindness and persistent diarrhea occurred in a cattle farm of Hubei province, China. Based on history inspection and clinical observation, we made a tentative diagnosis of hypovitaminosis A. The disease was confirmed as a congenital vitamin A deficiency by determination of the concentrations of vitamin A in serum and feed samples. Furthermore, pathological and microbiological examination showed that the disease was associated with pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) infection and mucosal barriers damage in intestines. The corresponding treatments were taken immediately, and the disease was finally under control for a month.
Conclusions
To our knowledge, this is the first report of hypovitaminosis A coupled to secondary infection of E. coli in beef cattle, advancing our knowledge of how vitamin A affects infection and immunity in animals. This study could also be contributed to scientific diagnosis and treatments of complex hypovitaminosis A in cattle.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-222
PMCID: PMC3534487  PMID: 23151297
Vitamin A; Hypovitaminosis A; Calves; E. coli
21.  Fire ignition during laser surgery in pet rodents 
Background
Laser surgery is an attractive alternative to other means of section device in terms of tissue inflammation and interaction, which has been extensively used in human and veterinary medicine. Although accidental ignition during laser surgeries is sporadically reported in human medical literature, to the authors’ knowledge this is the first report regarding laser-dependent fire ignition during surgery in veterinary medicine.
Case presentation
Two rodents, a 13-month old, 27-gram, male pet mouse (Mus musculus) and a 1-year old, female Russian hamster (Phodopus sungorus), underwent surgical removal of masses with diode laser. During the surgical procedures fires ignited from the face masks. The mouse presented severe burns on the head and both forelimbs, it was hospitalized and approximately 2 months after surgery burns were resolved. The hamster presented severe burns on the face and the proximal regions of the body. At 72 hours from the accident the hamster was euthanized.
Conclusion
The present report suggests that fire ignition is a potential life-threatening complication of laser surgery in non-intubated rodents maintained under volatile anesthesia. High oxygen concentrations, the presence of combustible, and the narrowness of the surgical field with the face mask during laser surgery on rodents are risk factors for fire ignition.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-177
PMCID: PMC3514373  PMID: 23009047
Laser; Rodent; Pet; Surgery; Fire; Ignition; Face mask; Burn
22.  Ocular melanoma and mammary mucinous carcinoma in an African lion 
Background
Reports of neoplasms in Panthera species are increasing, but they are still an uncommon cause of disease and death in captive wild felids. The presence of two or more primary tumor in large felids is rarely reported, and there are no documented cases of ocular melanoma and mammary mucinous carcinoma in African lions.
Case presentation
An ocular melanoma and a mammary mucinous carcinoma are described in an African lion (Panthera leo). The first tumour was histologically characterized by the presence of epithelioid and fusiform melanocytes, while the latter was composed of mucus-producing cells with an epithelial phenotype that contained periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and Alcian blue staining mucins. Metastases of both tumor were identified in various organs and indirect immunohistochemistry was used to characterize them. Peribiliary cysts were observed in the liver.
Conclusions
This is the first description of these tumor in African lions.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-176
PMCID: PMC3517319  PMID: 23009723
Panthera leo; Ocular neoplasms; Mammary gland; Melanocytic neoplasms; Peribiliary cysts
23.  First report of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in two threatened carnivores: the Marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna and the European mink, Mustela lutreola (Mammalia: Mustelidae) 
Background
Lyme disease is a widespread cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by species belonging to the genus Borrelia. It is transmitted from animal reservoir hosts to humans through hard - ticks of genus Ixodes which are vectors of the disease.
Case presentation
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection was identified in a marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna, and two European minks, Mustela lutreola, from Romania, by PCR. RFLP revealed the presence of a single genospecies, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto.
Conclusions
This is the first report of the Lyme disease spirochetes in the two mentioned hosts.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-137
PMCID: PMC3514366  PMID: 22901862
Borrelia burgdorferi s.s; First report; Mustela lutreola; Vormela peregusna; Romania
24.  Immunohistochemical and morphological features of a small bowel leiomyoma in a black crested macaque (Macaca nigra) 
Background
Spontaneous gastrointestinal neoplasms in non-human primates are commonly seen in aged individuals. Due to genetic similarities between human and non-human primates, scientists have shown increasing interest in terms of comparative oncology studies.
Case presentation
The present study is related to a case of an intestinal leiomyoma in a black crested macaque (Macaca nigra), kept on captivity by Matecaña Zoo, Pereira City, Colombia. The animal had abdominal distension, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea and behavioral changes. Clinical examination showed an increased volume in the upper right abdominal quadrant caused by a neoplastic mass. The patient died during the surgical procedure. Necropsy revealed several small nodules in the peritoneum with adhesion to different portions of the small and large intestines, liver, stomach and diaphragm. Tissue samples were collected, routinely processed and stained by H&E. Microscopic examination revealed a mesenchymal tumor limited to tunica muscularis, resembling normal smooth muscle cells. Neoplastic cells were positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin and vimentin, and negative for cytokeratin AE1/AE3 by immunohistochemistry. Those morphological and immunohistochemical findings allowed to diagnose the intestinal leiomyoma referred above.
Conclusion
Neoplastic diseases in primates have multifaceted causes. Their manifestations are understudied, leading to a greater difficulty in detection and measurement of the real impact provides by this disease.
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-97
PMCID: PMC3488556  PMID: 22747606
Neoplasm; Small bowel; Macaca; Monkey; Leiomyoma; Intestine

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