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1.  Correlation of three immunohistochemically detected markers of neuroendocrine differentiation with clinical predictors of disease progression in prostate cancer 
BMC Urology  2008;8:21.
Background
The importance of immuno-histological detection of neuroendocrine differentiation in prostatic adenocarcinoma with respect to disease at presentation and Gleason grade is gaining acceptance. There is limited literature on the relative significance of three commonly used markers of NE differentiation i.e. Chromogranin A (CgA), Neuron specific enolase (NSE) and Synaptophysin (Syn). In the current work we have assessed the correlation of immuno-histological detection of neuroendocrine differentiation in prostatic adenocarcinoma with respect to disease at presentation and Gleason grade and to determine the relative value of various markers.
Materials and methods
Consecutive samples of malignant prostatic specimens (Transurethral resection of prostate or radical retropubic prostatectomy) from 84 patients between January 1991 and December 1998 were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining (PAP technique) using selected neuroendocrine tumor markers i.e. Chromogranin A (CgA), Neuron specific enolase (NSE), and Synaptophysin (Syn). According to the stage at diagnosis, patients were divided into three groups. Group (i) included patients who had organ confined disease, group (ii) included patients with locally invasive disease, and group (iii) with distant metastasis. NE expression was correlated with Gleason sum and clinical stage at presentation and analyzed using Chi-Square test and one way ANNOVA.
Results
The mean age of the patients was 70 ± 9.2 years. Group I had 14 patients, group II had 31 patients and group III had 39 patients. CgA was detected in 33 cases, Syn in 8 cases, and NSE in 44 cases. Expression of CgA was seen in 7% of group I, 37% in group II and 35% of group III patients (p 0.059). CgA (p 0.024) and NSE (p 0.006) had a significantly higher expression with worsening Gleason grade.
Conclusion
CgA has a better correlation with disease at presentation than other markers used. Both NSE and CgA had increasing expression with worsening histological grade this correlation has a potential for use as a prognostic indicator. Limitations in the current work included small number and retrospective nature of work. The findings of this work needs validation in a larger cohort.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-8-21
PMCID: PMC2628675  PMID: 19115997
2.  Prostate Cancer – To screen, or not to screen, is that the question? 
BMC Urology  2008;8:20.
There continues to be controversy regarding serum Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) and prostate cancer screening. We anxiously await the results of two large prospective randomized clinical trials (Prostate, Lung, Colon, and Ovary-PCLO screening trial in the US and European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer-ERSPC in Europe) assessing the benefits of prostate cancer screening. However the true question to answer may be which cancer to treat and when should we treat it.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-8-20
PMCID: PMC2630990  PMID: 19105847
3.  The prognostic relevance of interactions between venous invasion, lymph node involvement and distant metastases in renal cell carcinoma after radical nephrectomy 
BMC Urology  2008;8:19.
Background
To investigate a possible prognostic significance of interactions between lymph node invasion (LNI), synchronous distant metastases (SDM), and venous invasion (VI) adjusted for mode of detection, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and tumour size (TS) in 196 patients with renal cell carcinoma treated with radical nephrectomy.
Methods
Median follow-up was 5.5 years (mean 6.9 years; range 0.01–19.4). The mode of detection, ECOG PS, ESR and TS were obtained from the patients' records. Vena cava invasion and distant metastases were detected by preoperative imaging. The surgical specimens were examined for pathological stage, LNI and VI.
Results
The univariate analyses showed significant impact of VI, LNI, SDM, ESR and TS (p < 0.001), as well as mode of detection (p = 0.003) and ECOG PS (p = 0.002) on cancer specific survival. In multivariate analyses LNI was significantly associated with survival only in patients without SDM or VI (p < 0.001) with a hazard ratio of 9.0. LNI lost its prognostic significance when SDM or VI was present.
Conclusion
Our findings underline the prognostic importance of the status of the lymph nodes. LNI, SDM, ESR, and VI were independently associated with cancer specific survival after radical nephrectomy. LNI provided the strongest prognostic information for patients without SDM or VI whereas SDM and VI had strongest impact on survival when there was no nodal involvement.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-8-19
PMCID: PMC2635370  PMID: 19099564
4.  Transurethral resection of the prostate in Northern Nigeria, problems and prospects 
BMC Urology  2008;8:18.
Background
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the commonest disease of the urinary tract afflicting the ageing male and is the commonest neoplastic disease in men aged 50 years and above.
Transurethral prostatectomy (TURP) is the ultimate treatment of choice for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) due mainly to the preference of minimally invasive surgery, long term relief of symptoms and cost effectiveness. It is however not available to the majority of Nigerians in need of prostatic surgery in Public Health Institutions.
Methods
The records of patients who underwent prostatectomy in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, over the period June 2001 to July 2007 were examined. The bio data of patients and laboratory investigations performed were retrieved.
Results
Five Hundred and forty two patients were operated upon, out of which 40 were excluded due to open prostatectomy (22 patients), bladder neck stenosis (16 patients) or bladder tumour around the trigon (2 patients). The age range of the patients was 47–110 years with a mean of 67.2 years. 289 patients (80.1%) had urethral catheter in situ at presentation and 11 (3%) patients had suprapubic cystostomy of which only 3 (0.85%) had combined urethral stricture and BPH.
Only 131 (26%) had their PSA measured which ranged from 2–100 ng/ml out of which 39(29.8% n = 131) patients had more than 4 ng/ml and cancer of the prostate and 1(0.8%, n = 131) patient had a PSA level of 4 ng/ml and malignant prostate.
Hospital stay was 1–32 days (mean 7.9) and the mean follow up period was 5.6 months (range 0–60) and there were 17.5% complications comprising of urinary tract infection (UTI) 7.2%, Orchitis 2.2%, urinary incontinence 0.6%, atonic bladder 1%, erectile dysfunction 0.6%, cerebrovascular accident 0.4%, myocardial infarction 0.4%, deep vein thrombosis 0.4% and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) 0.6% and 1.2% mortality. The cost of treatment inclusive of pre-admission investigations was US$ 615.00 (range US$ 300–1,300)
Conclusion
Despite advances in minimally invasive therapy for LUTH/BPH, TURP is the optimum treatment of choice for the ageing male of sub-Saharan Africa. It is however not available to the majority of patients in this region due to poor health allocation and inadequate facilities and training.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-8-18
PMCID: PMC2630306  PMID: 19061519
5.  The trends in prostate specific antigen usage amongst United Kingdom urologists – a questionnaire based study 
BMC Urology  2008;8:17.
Background
Worldwide, the use of prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing as a screen for prostate cancer is contentious. Whilst there is no National UK Screening programme, many men undergo opportunistic screening. This study investigates UK urologist's usage of PSA and the awareness surrounding the Department of Health (DoH) PSA guidelines.
Methods
Urologists were sent a questionnaire regarding PSA cut-off values.
Results
Of the 733 urologists eligible to participate in this study 346 returned completed questionnaires giving a response rate of 47%. The most commonly generally used age-related PSA cut-off values (36% of respondents) are – 3.5 ng/ml for 50 – 59 year olds, 4.5 ng/ml for 60 – 69 year olds and 6.5 ng/ml for over 70 year olds. Two-thirds (58%, 200/346) of respondents were aware of the DoH PSA guidelines but only 20% (n = 69/346) follow these guidelines. The majority of respondents (68%, n = 234/346) used higher PSA cut-offs than recommended by the DoH. The level of compliance showed marked regional variation with a range from 7% to 44% (median 19%). In addition, it was apparent that lower PSA cut-off values were used in private practice as opposed to the National Health Service.
Conclusion
A nationwide lack of agreement on PSA cut-off values may generate a variable standard of care both regionally and in NHS versus private practice. Generally, higher PSA cut-off values are being used than recommended by the DoH guidance.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-8-17
PMCID: PMC2606676  PMID: 19021912
6.  The influence of high and low levels of estrogen on diurnal urine regulation in young women 
BMC Urology  2008;8:16.
Background
Sex hormones have a pronounced effect on arginine vasopressin (AVP), and therefore on the diurnal water homeostasis. Low and high levels of plasma-estradiol as seen in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle may therefore alter the diurnal regulation of urine production. Furthermore the structural resemblance of oxytocin to vasopressin has led to speculations about the possible antidiuretic properties of oxytocin under normal physiological conditions. To elucidate the influence of high and low p-estradiol on the regulation of the diurnal urine production, 15 normal menstruating women (21–33 y) underwent two circadian in-patient investigations, both situated in follicular phase.
Methods
Admitting the participants solely in the follicular phase resulted in high and low plasma-estradiol whereas plasma-progesterone was similar. Urine and blood samples were taken at predetermined time points to determine plasma AVP, plasma oxytocin, plasma aldosterone, plasma natriuretic peptide (ANP), urinary solute excretions, and urinary excretions of prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) and aquaporin-2 (AQP-2). Blood pressure was measured every hour.
Results
Plasma AVP, plasma aldosterone and plasma ANP were unaffected by the different levels of estradiol. All had marked circadian variations whereas oxytocin did not display any circadian rhythm. High estradiol resulted in lower p-osmolality and p-sodium reflecting the downward resetting of the osmoreceptors. Oxytocin did not correlate with either diuresis or urine osmolality. The diurnal urine production was similar in the two groups as were urine osmolality, excretion of PGE-2 and AQP-2. AQP-2 does not have a circadian rhythm and is not significantly correlated to either AVP or oxytocin under normal physiological conditions.
Conclusion
High and low level of estradiol has no influence on the circadian rhythm of AVP or the subsequent urine production. High p-estradiol resets the osmoreceptors for AVP release. Furthermore it appears that oxytocin under normal physiological conditions do not contribute to the overall antidiuretic effect.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-8-16
PMCID: PMC2626595  PMID: 19019246
7.  GOLPH2 expression in renal cell cancer 
BMC Urology  2008;8:15.
Background
Renal cell carcinomas (RCC) are among the most common and most lethal genitourinary malignancies. GOLPH2 (golgi phosphoprotein 2, GOLM1) has recently been proposed as a biomarker for hepatocellular and prostate cancer. In this study we analysed the expression patterns and the prognostic and diagnostic value of GOLPH2 in RCC.
Methods
GOLPH2 protein expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry in 104 clinically well characterized RCC cases in comparison with matched normal kidney tissue and in association with clinico-pathological parameters. Statistical analyses including Kaplan Meier analyses were performed with SPSS version 15.0.
Results
GOLPH2 was highly expressed in normal renal tubules and in almost half of RCC with a statistically significant predominance in the papillary and chromophobe histological subtypes. No other associations with clinico-pathological parameters were detectable. The Kaplan-Meier curves showed a weak trend for unfavourable prognosis of tumours with high GOLPH2 expression, but failed significance.
Conclusion
GOLPH2 protein is expressed in normal renal tissue (especially in distal tubular epithelia) and is down-regulated in the majority of clear cell RCC. In papillary and chromophobe RCC GOLPH2 expression is consistently present. In contrast to its diagnostic value in hepatocellular and prostatic carcinomas, a prognostic or diagnostic value of GOLPH2 in RCC appears to be unlikely.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-8-15
PMCID: PMC2614419  PMID: 19014428
8.  Characterization of prostate cancer detected at repeat biopsy 
BMC Urology  2008;8:14.
Background
The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of prostate cancer patients who were diagnosed at repeat biopsy and compare them to non-cancerous patients or patients who were diagnosed at initial biopsy.
Methods
We carried out a retrospective analysis of clinical and pathological data from 576 patients, which included data on the period of time from radical prostatectomy to biochemical failure.
Results
Cancer was diagnosed in 191 (33%) of 576 patients at initial biopsy and in 23 (18%) of 127 patients who underwent a repeat biopsy. Cut-off values of 0.80 and 0.30 for prostate specific antigen velocity (PSAV) and prostate specific antigen density (PSAD), respectively, were determined using ROC curve analysis. Based on these values, PSAV and PSAD were able to predict 94% (46 of 49) of negative repeat biopsies, indicating that these patients had undergone unnecessary repeat biopsies. Although the patients who were diagnosed at repeat biopsy had a higher rate of organ-confined tumor than those who were diagnosed at initial biopsy (73% and 44%, respectively; P = 0.041), there were no differences in the recurrence rate or the duration of biochemical failure-free survival between the two groups.
Conclusion
PSAV and PSAD may be useful indicators of the results of repeat biopsies. Although prostate cancer that was diagnosed at repeat biopsy was associated with a more favorable pathological profile, it was not associated with a better outcome after radical prostatectomy.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-8-14
PMCID: PMC2606675  PMID: 19000320
9.  Implications of computer tomography measurement in the management of renal tumours 
BMC Urology  2008;8:13.
Background
To compare radiographic measurement and pathological measurement of renal tumours to see if there was a significant difference between the two as this may have implications in the management.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed CT measurements of 106 consecutive patients who underwent either radical or nephron sparing surgery in our institution and compared this to the actual measurement of the surgical specimen. The largest axial measurement was compared as this is the primary consideration before offering either treatment modality.
Results
The mean age of the patients was 64 years (range 31–92). There were 76 males and 30 females. The median tumour size was 70 mm (range 16–175) on CT and 65 mm (range 15–90) on pathological measurement. 25 patients had a CT size ≤ 40 mm. CT tended to overestimate the size of tumours in 41 patients, underestimate in 45 and agree with surgical size in 20 patients. Statistically there was no significant difference between the two measurements (p = 0.7, Wilcoxon sign ranked test). When subdivided into tumours less than 40 mm (p = 0.7) and more than 40 mm (p = 0.09) again there was no statistically significant difference between the two measurements. However in 5(5%) patients who were not offered nephron sparing surgery based on CT findings (size > 40 mm) the pathological size was ≤ 40 mm (p = < 0.001, Fishers Exact test). Pathologically the tumours were classified as renal cell carcinoma (n = 98), angiomyolipoma (3), and oncocytoma (5).
Conclusion
CT measurement of renal tumour size correlates well with the actual size of the tumour. However CT does tend to overestimate the size in a small number of patients which may have a bearing on the modality of treatment offered.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-8-13
PMCID: PMC2588443  PMID: 18980699
10.  RASSF1A protein expression and correlation with clinicopathological parameters in renal cell carcinoma 
BMC Urology  2008;8:12.
Background
Epigenetic silencing of RAS association family 1A (RASSF1A) tumor suppressor gene occurs in various histological subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) but RASSF1A protein expression in clear cell RCC as well as a possible correlation with clinicopathological parameters of patients has not been analyzed at yet.
Methods
318 primary clear cell carcinomas were analyzed using tissue microarray analysis and immunohistochemistry. Survival analysis was carried out for 187 patients considering a follow-up period of 2–240 month.
Results
Expression of RASSF1A was found to be significantly decreased in tumoral cells when compared to normal tubular epithelial cells. RASSF1A immunopositivity was significantly associated with pT stage, group stage and histological grade of tumors and showed a tendency for impaired survival in Kaplan-Meier analysis.
Conclusion
While most tumors demonstrate a loss of RASSF1A protein, a subset of tumors was identified to exhibit substantial RASSF1A protein expression and show increased tumor progression. Thus RCC tumorigenesis without depletion of RASSF1A may be associated with an adverse clinical outcome.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-8-12
PMCID: PMC2572051  PMID: 18822131
11.  Nonoperative management of blunt renal trauma: Is routine early follow-up imaging necessary? 
BMC Urology  2008;8:11.
Background
There is no consensus on the role of routine follow-up imaging during nonoperative management of blunt renal trauma. We reviewed our experience with nonoperative management of blunt renal injuries in order to evaluate the utility of routine early follow-up imaging.
Methods
We reviewed all cases of blunt renal injury admitted for nonoperative management at our institution between 1/2002 and 1/2006. Data were compiled from chart review, and clinical outcomes were correlated with CT imaging results.
Results
207 patients were identified (210 renal units). American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grades I, II, III, IV, and V were assigned to 35 (16%), 66 (31%), 81 (39%), 26 (13%), and 2 (1%) renal units, respectively. 177 (84%) renal units underwent routine follow-up imaging 24–48 hours after admission. In three cases of grade IV renal injury, a ureteral stent was placed after serial imaging demonstrated persistent extravasation. In no other cases did follow-up imaging independently alter clinical management. There were no urologic complications among cases for which follow-up imaging was not obtained.
Conclusion
Routine follow-up imaging is unnecessary for blunt renal injuries of grades I-III. Grade IV renovascular injuries can be followed clinically without routine early follow-up imaging, but urine extravasation necessitates serial imaging to guide management decisions. The volume of grade V renal injuries in this study is not sufficient to support or contest the need for routine follow-up imaging.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-8-11
PMCID: PMC2535773  PMID: 18768088
12.  Artificial neural network (ANN) velocity better identifies benign prostatic hyperplasia but not prostate cancer compared with PSA velocity 
BMC Urology  2008;8:10.
Background
To validate an artificial neural network (ANN) based on the combination of PSA velocity (PSAV) with a %free PSA-based ANN to enhance the discrimination between prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH).
Methods
The study comprised 199 patients with PCa (n = 49) or BPH (n = 150) with at least three PSA estimations and a minimum of three months intervals between the measurements. Patients were classified into three categories according to PSAV and ANN velocity (ANNV) calculated with the %free based ANN "ProstataClass". Group 1 includes the increasing PSA and ANN values, Group 2 the stable values, and Group 3 the decreasing values.
Results
71% of PCa patients typically have an increasing PSAV. In comparison, the ANNV only shows this in 45% of all PCa patients. However, BPH patients benefit from ANNV since the stable values are significantly more (83% vs. 65%) and increasing values are less frequently (11% vs. 21%) if the ANNV is used instead of the PSAV.
Conclusion
PSAV has only limited usefulness for the detection of PCa with only 71% increasing PSA values, while 29% of all PCa do not have the typical PSAV. The ANNV cannot improve the PCa detection rate but may save 11–17% of unnecessary prostate biopsies in known BPH patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-8-10
PMCID: PMC2543033  PMID: 18764937
13.  ProCOC: The prostate cancer outcomes cohort study 
BMC Urology  2008;8:9.
Background
Despite intensive research over the last several decades on prostate cancer, many questions particularly those concerning early diagnosis and the choice of optimal treatment for each individual patient, still remain unanswered. The goal of treating patients with localized prostate cancer is a curative one and includes minimizing adverse effects to preserve an adequate quality of life. Better understanding on how the quality of life is affected depending on the treatment modality would assist patients in deciding which treatment to choose; furthermore, the development of prognostic biomarkers that indicate the future course of the illness is a promising approach with potential and the focus of much attention. These questions can be addressed in the context of a cohort study.
Methods/Design
This is a prospective, multi-center cohort study within the canton of Zurich, Switzerland. We will include patients with newly diagnosed localized prostate cancer independently of treatment finally chosen. We will acquire clinical data including quality of life and lifestyle, prostate tissue specimen as well as further biological samples (blood and urine) before, during and after treatment for setup of a bio-bank. Assessment of these data and samples in the follow up will be done during routine controls. Study duration will be at least ten years. Influence of treatment on morbidity and mortality, including changes in quality of life, will be identified and an evaluation of biomarkers will be performed. Further we intend to set up a bio-bank containing blood and urine samples providing research of various natures around prostate cancer in the future.
Discussion
We presume that this study will provide answers to pertinent questions concerning prognosis and outcomes of men with localised prostate cancer.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-8-9
PMCID: PMC2441625  PMID: 18559088
14.  Optimized haemostasis in nephron-sparing surgery using small-intestine submucosa 
BMC Urology  2008;8:8.
Background
The indications for nephron-sparing surgery are expanding constantly. One major contributing fact for this development is the improvement of haemostatic techniques following excision of the tumor. Nevertheless, postoperative bleeding complications still occur. To prevent this, we prospectively studied the effect of application of small-intestine submucosa (SIS) over the renal defect.
Methods
We performed 55 nephron-sparing surgeries applying SIS between 08/03 and 10/06 in 53 pts. (mean age: 59 yrs., range 29 – 79 yrs.). After resection of the renal tumor and application of a haemostyptic agent, we used SIS to secure and apply compression on the defect.
Results
The final pathology revealed clear-cell and papillary carcinoma, papillary adenoma, oncocytoma, and angiomyolipoma in 39 (70.9%), 6 (10.9), 1 (1.8%), 2 (3.6%) and 7 (12.7%) patients, respectively. The 45 malignant lesions (81.8%) were classified as pT1a and pT1b in 35 (77.8%) and 10 (22.2%) patients, respectively. The median tumor size was 4.5 cm (range: 1.3 – 13 cm). The median operating time was 186 min (range: 90 – 260 min). 18 (32.7%) procedures were performed without ischemia. 23 (41.8%) and 14 (25.5%) cases were operated in in-situ cold and warm ischemia, respectively. The median intraoperative blood loss was 730 cc (range: 100 – 2500 cc). No open operative revision was indicated due to postoperative bleeding complications. Furthermore, there was no necessity to substitute persistent blood loss from the drains postoperatively. No urinoma occurred.
Conclusion
SIS is a highly effective and easy-to-use instrument for preventing postoperative bleeding and urinary fistula complications in nephron-sparing surgery.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-8-8
PMCID: PMC2386496  PMID: 18445250
15.  Androgenic dependence of exophytic tumor growth in a transgenic mouse model of bladder cancer: a role for thrombospondin-1 
BMC Urology  2008;8:7.
Background
Steroid hormones influence mitogenic signaling pathways, apoptosis, and cell cycle checkpoints, and it has long been known that incidence of bladder cancer (BC) in men is several times greater than in women, a difference that cannot be attributed to environmental or lifestyle factors alone. Castration reduces incidence of chemically-induced BC in rodents. It is unclear if this effect is due to hormonal influences on activation/deactivation of carcinogens or a direct effect on urothelial cell proliferation or other malignant processes. We examined the effect of castration on BC growth in UPII-SV40T transgenic mice, which express SV40 T antigen specifically in urothelium and reliably develop BC. Furthermore, because BC growth in UPII-SV40T mice is exophytic, we speculated BC growth was dependent on angiogenesis and angiogenesis was, in turn, androgen responsive.
Methods
Flat panel detector-based cone beam computed tomography (FPDCT) was used to longitudinally measure exophytic BC growth in UPII-SV40T male mice sham-operated, castrated, or castrated and supplemented with dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Human normal bladder and BC biopsies and mouse bladder were examined quantitatively for thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) protein expression.
Results
Mice castrated at 24 weeks of age had decreased BC volumes at 32 weeks compared to intact mice (p = 0.0071) and castrated mice administered DHT (p = 0.0233; one-way ANOVA, JMP 6.0.3, SAS Institute, Inc.). Bladder cancer cell lines responded to DHT treatment with increased proliferation, regardless of androgen receptor expression levels. TSP1, an anti-angiogenic factor whose expression is inhibited by androgens, had decreased expression in bladders of UPII-SV40T mice compared to wild-type. Castration increased TSP1 levels in UPII-SV40T mice compared to intact mice. TSP1 protein expression was higher in 8 of 10 human bladder biopsies of normal versus malignant tissue from the same patients.
Conclusion
FPDCT allows longitudinal monitoring of exophytic tumor growth in the UPII-SV40T model of BC that bypasses need for chemical carcinogens, which confound analysis of androgen effects. Androgens increase tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo and decrease TSP1 expression, possibly explaining the therapeutic effect of castration. This effect may, in part, explain gender differences in BC incidence and implies anti-androgenic therapies may be effective in preventing and treating BC.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-8-7
PMCID: PMC2374790  PMID: 18433501
16.  Sutureless prepuceplasty with wound healing by second intention: An alternative surgical approach in children's phimosis treatment 
BMC Urology  2008;8:6.
Background
A new technique for the treatment of children's phimosis is presented that minimizes the repairing time, the postoperative complications and maintains the physical foreskin appearance intact.
Methods
Eightyseven children with phimosis were treated with this new developed technique, between 2003 and 2005. Sutureless prepuceplasty creates a permanent surgical extension of the close prepuce. Stretching and retraction of phimotic foreskin reveals a tight prepuce ring that is cutting in its dorsal surface longitudinally. Rarely triple symmetric incisions in the preputial outlet are necessary. The foreskin is loose and moves absolutely free in bilateral courses. The wounds are healing by second intention. Antisepsis, steroids and Elicina cream, (which contains allantoin, collagen, elastin, glycolic acid and vitamins A, D, and E) should apply daily, for twenty to thirty days.
Results
The foreskin is moving in centripetal or efferent courses absolutely loosely, painlessly and bloodlessly. The mean time of follow-up was 27 months (one to four years). No complications were observed.
Conclusion
Sutureless prepuceplasty may present an acceptable alternative in children's phimosis reconstruction.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-8-6
PMCID: PMC2311323  PMID: 18318903
17.  Antimicrobial peptides of the Cecropin-family show potent antitumor activity against bladder cancer cells 
BMC Urology  2008;8:5.
Background
This study evaluated the cytotoxic and antiproliferative efficacy of two well-characterized members of the Cecropin-family of antimicrobial peptides against bladder tumor cells and benign fibroblasts.
Methods
The antiproliferative and cytotoxic potential of the Cecropins A and B was quantified by colorimetric WST-1-, BrdU- and LDH-assays in four bladder cancer cell lines as well as in murine and human fibroblast cell lines. IC50 values were assessed by logarithmic extrapolation, representing the concentration at which cell viability was reduced by 50%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to visualize the morphological changes induced by Cecropin A and B in bladder tumor cells and fibroblasts.
Results
Cecropin A and B inhibit bladder cancer cell proliferation and viability in a dose-dependent fashion. The average IC50 values of Cecropin A and B against all bladder cancer cell lines ranged between 73.29 μg/ml and 220.05 μg/ml. In contrast, benign fibroblasts were significantly less or not at all susceptible to Cecropin A and B. Both Cecropins induced an increase in LDH release from bladder tumor cells whereas benign fibroblasts were not affected. SEM demonstrated lethal membrane disruption in bladder cancer cells as opposed to fibroblasts.
Conclusion
Cecropin A and B exert selective cytotoxic and antiproliferative efficacy in bladder cancer cells while sparing targets of benign murine or human fibroblast origin. Both peptides may offer novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of bladder cancer with limited cytotoxic effects on benign cells.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-8-5
PMCID: PMC2276511  PMID: 18315881
18.  Study of the response of the penile corporal tissue and cavernosus muscles to micturition 
BMC Urology  2008;8:4.
Background
The reaction of the corpora cavernosa (CC), the corpus spongiosum (CS), the bulbocavernosus (BCM) and ischiocavernosus (ICM) muscles to passage of urine through the urethra during micturition is not known. We investigated the hypothesis that the passage of urine through the urethra stimulates the corporal tissue and cavernosus muscles.
Methods
In 30 healthy men (mean age 42.8 ± 11.7 years), the electromyographic activity (EMG) of the CC, CS, BCM, and ICM were recorded before and during micturition, and on interruption of and straining during micturition. These tests were repeated after individual anesthetization of urethra, corporal tissue, and cavernosus muscles.
Results
During micturition, the slow wave variables (frequency, amplitude, conduction velocity) of the CC and CS decreased while the motor unit action potentials of the BCM and ICM increased; these EMG changes were mild and returned to the basal values on interruption or termination of micturition. Micturition after individual anesthetization of urethra, corporal tissue and cavernosal muscles did not effect significant EMG changes in these structures, while saline administration produced changes similar to those occurring before saline administration.
Conclusion
The decrease of sinusoidal and increase of cavernosus muscles' EMG activity during micturition apparently denotes sinusoidal relaxation and cavernosus muscles contraction. Sinusoidal muscle relaxation and cavernosus muscles contraction upon micturition are suggested to be mediated through a 'urethro-corporocavernosal reflex'. These sinusoidal and cavernosus muscle changes appear to produce a mild degree of penile tumescence and stretch which might assist in urinary flow during micturition.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-8-4
PMCID: PMC2270861  PMID: 18312692
19.  CT scanning for diagnosing blunt ureteral and ureteropelvic junction injuries 
BMC Urology  2008;8:3.
Background
Blunt ureteral and ureteropelvic (UPJ) injuries are extremely rare and very difficult to diagnose. Many of these injuries are missed by the initial trauma evaluation.
Methods
Trauma registry data was used to identify all blunt trauma patients with ureteral or UPJ injuries, from 1 April 2001 to 30 November 2006. Demographics, injury information and outcomes were determined. Chart review was then performed to record initial clinical and all CT findings.
Results
Eight patients had ureteral or UPJ injuries. Subtle findings such as perinephric stranding and hematomas, and low density retroperitoneal fluid were evident on all initial scans, and prompted delayed excretory scans in 7/8 cases. As a result, ureteral and UPJ injuries were diagnosed immediately for these seven patients. These findings were initially missed in the eighth patient because significant associated visceral findings mandated emergency laparotomy. All ureteral and UPJ injuries have completely healed except for the case with the delay in diagnosis.
Conclusion
Most blunt ureteral and UPJ injuries can be identified if delayed excretory CT scans are performed based on initial CT findings of perinephric stranding and hematomas, or the finding of low density retroperitoneal fluid.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-8-3
PMCID: PMC2258295  PMID: 18257927
20.  Duloxetine versus placebo for the treatment of women with stress predominant urinary incontinence in Taiwan: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial 
BMC Urology  2008;8:2.
Background
This manuscript compares the efficacy and safety of duloxetine with placebo in Taiwanese women with SUI.
Methods
Taiwanese women with SUI were were randomly assigned to placebo (n = 61) or duloxetine 80 mg/day (n = 60) in this double-blind, 8-week, placebo-controlled study. Outcome variables included: incontinence episode frequency (IEF), Incontinence Quality of Life questionnaire (I-QOL) scores, and Patient Global Impression of Improvement rating (PGI-I).
Results
Decrease in IEF was significantly greater in duloxetine-treated than placebo-treated women (69.98% vs 42.56%, P < .001). No treatment differences in I-QOL scores were significant. There were significant differences in PGI-I rating. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were experienced by more duloxetine-treated than placebo-treated women (80.0% vs 44.3%; P < .001). Discontinuations due to adverse events were significantly greater for duloxetine-treated than placebo-treated women (26.7% vs 6.6%; P = .003).
Conclusion
Data provide evidence for the safety and efficacy of duloxetine for the treatment for Taiwanese women with SUI.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00475358
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-8-2
PMCID: PMC2266773  PMID: 18221532
21.  Factorial validity and internal consistency of the PRAFAB questionnaire in women with stress urinary incontinence 
BMC Urology  2008;8:1.
Background
To investigate the factor structure, dimensionality and construct validity of the (5-item) PRAFAB questionnaire score in women with stress urinary incontinence (stress UI).
Methods
A cross validation study design was used in a cohort of 279 patients who were randomly divided into Sample A or B. Sample A was used for preliminary exploratory factor analyses with promax rotation. Sample B provided an independent sample for confirming the premeditated and proposed factor structure and item retention. Internal consistency, item-total and subscale correlations were determined to assess the dimensionality. Construct validity was assessed by comparing factor-based scale means by clinical characteristics based on known relationships.
Results
Factor analyses resulted in a two-factor structure or subscales: items related to 'leakage severity' (protection, amount and frequency) and items related to its 'perceived symptom impact' or consequences of stress UI on the patient's life (adjustment and body (or self) image). The patterns of the factor loadings were fairly identical for both study samples. The two constructed subscales demonstrated adequate internal consistency with Cronbach's alphas in a range of 0.78 and 0.84 respectively. Scale scores differed by clinical characteristics according to the expectations and supported the construct validity of the scales.
Conclusion
The findings suggest a two-factorial structure of the PRAFAB questionnaire. Furthermore the results confirmed the internal consistency and construct validity as demonstrated in our previous study. The best description of the factorial structure of the PRAFAB questionnaire was given by a two-factor solution, measuring the stress UI leakage severity items and the perceived symptom impact items. Future research will be necessary to replicate these findings in different settings, type of UI and non-white women and men.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-8-1
PMCID: PMC2266930  PMID: 18218110

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