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1.  Pathologic fracture and metastatic spinal cord compression in patients with prostate cancer and bone metastases 
BMC Urology  2010;10:23.
Background
The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors for and incidence as well as prognostic impact of pathologic fracture (PF) and metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) in patients with bone metastases (BM) from prostate cancer.
Methods
Retrospective cohort study including 61 consecutive patients seen at Nordland hospital's department of oncology between 2007 and 2009. The initial diagnosis of BM might have been made earlier. Twenty-nine patients (48%) received taxotere and 72% zoledronic acid after diagnosis of BM.
Results
Median actuarial survival after diagnosis of BM was 23 months. Six patients (10%) were alive at 5 years. Bone pain at baseline was present in 49% of patients. Eighty-nine percent required external beam radiotherapy and/or radioisotopes after diagnosis of BM. Seventeen patients (28%) developed at least one major skeletal complication, i.e. MSCC or PF (4 of them developed more than one). The actuarial risk was 44% at 4 and 5 years. Most events developed before treatment with zoledronic acid and/or taxotere. Median survival from diagnosis of either MSCC or PF was 11 months (5 months from MSCC). We did not identify statistically significant risk factors for development of major skeletal complications. Serum alkaline phosphatase above median value and age less than or equal to 70 years were the only risk factors approaching significance.
Conclusions
We found high rates of major skeletal complications in this unselected contemporary group of patients. Identification of risk factors might guide the development of early interventions aiming at prevention of MSCC and PF.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-23
PMCID: PMC3022602  PMID: 21176198
2.  A rare case of metastatic renal carcinoid 
BMC Urology  2010;10:22.
Background
Carcinoid is an endocrine cell tumor with low-grade atypia, which is generally a low-grade malignant cancer with a good prognosis. Metastatic renal carcinoid is even rarer than primary carcinoids.
Case presentation
We present our experience of a patient with metastatic renal carcinoid from the gastrointestinal tract.
Conclusions
The carcinoid tumor of the kidney in our patient, who had a history of liver metastasis from rectal carcinoid, was considered metastatic based on the pathological findings.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-22
PMCID: PMC3016340  PMID: 21144059
3.  A multicenter prospective trial evaluating fetal bovine dermal graft (Xenform® Matrix) for pelvic reconstructive surgery 
BMC Urology  2010;10:21.
Background
A prospective multicenter clinical study was performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a bovine dermal graft (Xenform® Matrix, Boston Scientific, Natick, MA, USA) during vaginal reconstructive surgery.
Methods
Forty-five women with ICS stage 2 or higher pelvic organ prolapse (POP) were enrolled at 4 centers. POP-Q, pelvic floor function (PFDI-20), sexual function (PISQ-12), and patient satisfaction tools were used to assess subjects at baseline, and at 2 and 6 weeks, and 3, 6 and 12 months post surgery. The significance of symptom score changes at 6 months and 1 year were determined by the t-test for paired data. Forty-three of the 45 patients completed the 12 month study.
Results
The majority of the subjects had cystocele (98%) and/or rectocele (84%) defects at study entry. At 12 months, 74% of the defects had improved to a stage 0 or 1. Mean PFDI-20 scores improved by 72% (p < 0.001) at 12 months, and PISQ-12 scores were maintained during the follow-up period indicating no decline in sexual function. Three subjects experienced one serious adverse event each; one of the adverse events (constipation) was deemed by the study physician to be unrelated to Xenform®. One subject had severe pyelonephritis resulting in dialysis. This subject had a previous history of pyelonephritis, sepsis and acute renal failure. The third subject had a reported recurrent cystocele of moderate severity, possibly related to the device. No graft related erosions or pain lasting more than 30 days were reported. No subjects withdrew due to an adverse event.
Conclusion
This study is the first to investigate the use of Xenform® Matrix in vaginal reconstructive surgery among patients with POP. Significant improvement was maintained at 12 months utilizing both objective and subjective assessment tools, confirming the safety and efficacy of this material in vaginal surgery.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01244165
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-21
PMCID: PMC3017018  PMID: 21144043
4.  Type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) and its impact on angiogenesis, progression and patient survival after radical nephrectomy 
BMC Urology  2010;10:20.
Background
To examine the expression of type 1 plasminogen inhibitor (PAI-1) in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC), and its possible association with microvessel density (MVD), the expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), nuclear grade, tumour stage, continuously coded tumour size (CCTS) and to assess the value of PAI as a prognostic marker in 162 patients with CCRCC treated with radical nephrectomy.
Methods
A total of 172 consecutive patients with CCRCC treated with radical nephrectomy were enrolled in the study. The expression of PAI-1, TSP-1 and factor VIII were analysed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues without knowledge of the clinical outcome. Ten cases, where PAI-1 immunohistochemistry was not possible due to technical problems and lack of material, were excluded. Sixty-nine patients (43%) died of RCC, while 47 patients (29%) died of other diseases. Median follow-up was 13.8 years for the surviving 46 patients (28%).
Results
Nine percent of the tumours showed PAI-1 positivity. High expression of PAI-1 was significantly inversely correlated with TSP-1 (p = 0.046) and directly with advanced stage (p = 0.008), high NG (3+4) (p = 0.002), tumour size (p = 0.011), microvessel density (p = 0.049) and disease progression (p = 0.002). In univariate analysis PAI-1 was a significant prognosticator of cancer-specific survival (CSS) (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that TNM stage (p < 0.001), PAI-1 (p = 0.020), TSP-1 (p < 0.001) and MVD (p = 0.007) were independent predictors of CSS.
Conclusions
PAI-1 was found to be an independently significant prognosticator of CSS and a promoter of tumour angiogenesis, aggressiveness and progression in CCRCC.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-20
PMCID: PMC3002359  PMID: 21129210
5.  Initial experience of transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery of partial adrenalectomy in patient with aldosterone-producing adenoma 
BMC Urology  2010;10:19.
Background
Laparoscopic single-site surgery has recently emerged in the field of urology and this minimally-invasive surgery has resulted in a further reduction in morbidity compared with traditional laparoscopy. We present our initial experience with laparoendoscopic single-site surgery of partial adrenalectomy (LESS-PA) to treat aldosterone-producing adenomas.
Case presentation
A 60-year-old woman was diagnosed with aldosterone-producing macroadenomas in the left adrenal and aldosterone-producing microadenomas in the right adrenal. A two-step operation was planned. The first step involved transumbilical LESS-PA for the left adrenal tumors. A multichannel port was inserted through the center of the umbilicus and the left adrenal gland was approached using bent instruments according to standard traditional laparoscopic procedures. The tumors were resected using an ultrasonic scalpel, and the resected site was coagulated using a vessel sealing instrument and then sealed with fibrin glue. Operative time was 123 minutes and blood loss was minimal. The patient was discharged from hospital within 72 hours. Her right adrenal microadenomas will be treated in the next several months.
Conclusions
Although our experience is limited, LESS-PA appears to be safe and feasible for treating aldosterone-producing adenomas. More cases and comparisons with the multiport technique are needed before drawing any definite conclusions concerning the technique.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-19
PMCID: PMC3000378  PMID: 21092240
6.  Lack of awareness of erectile dysfunction in many men with risk factors for erectile dysfunction 
BMC Urology  2010;10:18.
Background
Men with erectile dysfunction often have concurrent medical conditions. Conversely, men with these conditions may also have underlying erectile dysfunction. The prevalence of unrecognized erectile dysfunction in men with comorbidities commonly associated with erectile dysfunction was determined in men invited to participate in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of sildenafil citrate.
Methods
Men ≥30 years old presenting with ≥1 erectile dysfunction risk factor (controlled hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, metabolic syndrome, stable coronary artery disease, diabetes, depression, lower urinary tract symptoms, obesity [body mass index ≥30 kg/m2] or waist circumference ≥40 inches), and not previously diagnosed with erectile dysfunction were evaluated. The screening question, "Do you have erectile dysfunction?," with responses of "no," "yes," and "unsure," and the Erectile Function domain of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-EF) were administered.
Results
Of 1084 men screened, 1053 answered the screening question and also had IIEF-EF scores. IIEF-EF scores indicating erectile dysfunction occurred in 71% (744/1053), of whom 54% (399/744) had moderate or severe erectile dysfunction. Of 139 answering "yes," 526 answering "unsure," and 388 answering "no," 96%, 90%, and 36%, respectively, had some degree of erectile dysfunction. The mean±SD (range) number of risk factors was 2.9 ± 1.7 (3-8) in the "yes" group, 3.2 ± 1.7 (3-9) in the "unsure" group, and 2.6 ± 1.5 (2-8) in the "no" group.
Conclusion
Although awareness of having erectile dysfunction was low, most men with risk factors had IIEF-EF scores indicating erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction should be suspected and assessed in men with risk factors, regardless of their apparent level of awareness of erectile dysfunction.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00343200.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-18
PMCID: PMC2991280  PMID: 21054874
7.  Expression and biological-clinical significance of hTR, hTERT and CKS2 in washing fluids of patients with bladder cancer 
BMC Urology  2010;10:17.
Background
at present, pathogenesis of bladder cancer (BC) has not been fully elucidated. Aim of this study is to investigate the role of human telomerase RNA (hTR), human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 2 (CKS2) in bladder carcinogenesis and their possible clinical significance;
Methods
the transcript levels of hTR, hTERT and CKS2 were quantified by Real time reverse transcriptase chain reaction in exfoliated cells from bladder washings of 36 patients with BC and 58 controls. The statistical significance of differences between BC bearing patients and control groups, in the general as well as in the stratified analysis (superficial or invasive BC), was assessed by Student's t test. Non parametric Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis (ROC) was performed to ascertain the accuracy of study variables to discriminate between BC and controls. The clinical value of concomitant examination of hTR, hTERT and CKS2 was evaluated by logistic regression analysis;
Results
a significant decrease in hTR and a significant increase in hTERT or CKS2 gene expression were found between BC bearing patients and controls, as well as in the subgroups analysis. The area under the curve (AUC) indicated an average discrimination power for the three genes, both in the general and subgroups analysis, when singularly considered. The ability to significantly discriminate between superficial and invasive BC was observed only for hTR transcript levels. A combined model including hTR and CKS2 was the best one in BC diagnosis;
Conclusions
our results, obtained from a sample set particularly rich of exfoliated cells, provide further molecular evidence on the involvement of hTR, hTERT and CKS2 gene expression in BC carcinogenesis. In particular, while hTERT and CKS2 gene expression seems to have a major involvement in the early stages of the disease, hTR gene expression, seems to be more involved in progression. In addition, our findings suggest that the studied genes have a clinical role in discriminating between BC and controls in the general as well as in the stratified analysis, when singularly considered. A combined model improved over the single marker BC diagnosis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-17
PMCID: PMC2959011  PMID: 20920335
8.  Prognostic value of radical cystoprostatectomy in men with bladder cancer infiltrating prostate versus co-existing prostate cancer: a research study 
BMC Urology  2010;10:16.
Background
The aim of the following study is to evaluate the advancement of incidentally diagnosed prostate cancer in specimen after cystoprostatectomies caused by muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Secondly we assessed the survival in patients after radical cystoprostatectomy whose postoperative specimen was characterized by the presence of co-existing prostate cancer or prostate infiltration by urothelial bladder cancer.
Methods
Between 1993 and 2009 a total of 320 patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer underwent cystoprostatectomy. The first analyzed group consisted of 52 patients with bladder cancer infiltrating prostate, while the second group consisted of 21 patients with co-existing prostate cancer. In all patients cancer specific survival and progression were analyzed. Average follow up was 75.2 months (range: 0 - 181).
Results
Cancer-specific survival was significantly shorter in group I (p = 0.03). Neoplastic progression in patients from group I was observed in 42.2% of patients, while in patients from group II in 23.6% of patients (p = 0.04). No statistical difference was observed in the percentage of positive lymph nodes between the groups (p = 0.22). The median Gleason score in patients with co-existing prostate cancer was equal to 5. The stage of prostate cancer pT2/pT3 was equal to 20 (96%)/1 (4%) patients. 12 (57%) prostate cancers were clinically insignificant. Biochemical recurrence occurred in 2 (9%) patients.
Conclusions
1. Incidentally diagnosed prostate cancer in specimen after cystoprostatectomies is frequently clinically insignificant and characterized by low progression.
2. Patients with bladder cancer infiltrating prostate are characterized by higher percentage of progression and death in comparison with patients with co-existing prostate cancer.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-16
PMCID: PMC2954913  PMID: 20860834
9.  Dose escalation improves therapeutic outcome: post hoc analysis of data from a 12-week, multicentre, double-blind, parallel-group trial of trospium chloride in patients with urinary urge incontinence 
BMC Urology  2010;10:15.
Background
Flexible dosing of anticholinergics used for overactive bladder (OAB) treatment is a useful strategy in clinical practice for achieving a maximum effective and maximum tolerated level of therapeutic benefit. In this post hoc analysis we evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of trospium chloride treatment for urinary urge incontinence (UUI) with focus on flexible dosing.
Methods
The data came from a 12-week, randomised, double-blind, phase IIIb study in which 1658 patients with urinary frequency plus urge incontinence received trospium chloride 15 mg TID (n = 828) or 2.5 mg oxybutynin hydrochloride TID (n = 830). After four weeks, daily doses were doubled and not readjusted in 29.2% (242/828) of patients in the trospium group, and in 23.3% (193/830) in the oxybuytnin group, until the end of treatment. We assessed the absolute reduction in weekly UUI episodes and the change in intensity of dry mouth, recorded in patients' micturition diaries. Adverse events were also evaluated. Statistics were descriptive.
Results
Dose escalation of either trospium or oxybutynin increased reduction in UUI episodes in the population studied. At study end, there were no relevant differences between the "dose adjustment" subgroups and the respective "no dose adjustment" subgroups (trospium: P = 0.249; oxybutynin: P = 0.349). After dose escalation, worsening of dry mouth was higher in both dose adjusted subgroups compared to the respective "no dose adjustment" subgroups (P < 0.001). Worsening of dry mouth was lower in the trospium groups than in the oxybutynin groups (P < 0.001). Adverse events were increased in the dose adjusted subgroups.
Conclusions
Flexible dosing of trospium was proven to be as effective, but better tolerated as the officially approved adjusted dose of oxybutynin.
Trial registration (parent study)
The study was registered with the German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM, Berlin, Germany), registration number 4022383, as required at the time point of planning this study.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-15
PMCID: PMC2945343  PMID: 20840754
10.  Modeling dose-response relationships of the effects of fesoterodine in patients with overactive bladder 
BMC Urology  2010;10:14.
Background
Fesoterodine is an antimuscarinic for the treatment of overactive bladder, a syndrome of urgency, with or without urgency urinary incontinence (UUI), usually with increased daytime frequency and nocturia. Our objective was to develop predictive models to describe the dose response of fesoterodine.
Methods
Data from subjects enrolled in double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II and III trials were used for developing longitudinal dose-response models.
Results
The models predicted that clinically significant and near-maximum treatment effects would be seen within 3 to 4 weeks after treatment initiation. For a typical patient with 11 micturitions per 24 hours at baseline, predicted change was -1.2, -1.7, and -2.2 micturitions for placebo and fesoterodine 4 mg and 8 mg, respectively. For a typical patient with 2 UUI episodes per 24 hours at baseline, predicted change was -1.05, -1.26, and -1.43 UUI episodes for placebo and fesoterodine 4 mg and 8 mg, respectively. Increase in mean voided volume was estimated at 9.7 mL for placebo, with an additional 14.2 mL and 28.4 mL for fesoterodine 4 mg and 8 mg, respectively.
Conclusions
A consistent dose response for fesoterodine was demonstrated for bladder diary endpoints in subjects with overactive bladder, a result that supports the greater efficacy seen with fesoterodine 8 mg in post hoc analyses of clinical trial data. The dose-response models can be used to predict outcomes for doses not studied or for patient subgroups underrepresented in clinical trials.
Trial Registration
The phase III trials used in this analysis have been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00220363 and NCT00138723).
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-14
PMCID: PMC2939595  PMID: 20723260
11.  Leiomyoma of the bladder presenting as acute urinary retention in a female patient: urodynamic analysis of lower urinary tract symptom; a case report 
BMC Urology  2010;10:13.
Background
Most bladder tumors are derived from the urothelium. Benign mesenchymal tumors are rare. Leiomyoma of the bladder is the most common benign neoplasm. We present a case of leiomyoma of the bladder presenting with acute urinary retention in a female patient and report on the post-operative change in urodynamic findings. To our knowledge, few cases of this kind have been reported.
Case Presentation
A 56-year-old woman presented with acute urinary retention. Evaluations including ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, cystoscopy, and urodynamics contributed to a diagnosis of leiomyoma of the bladder. Various medications were ineffective for solving her lower urinary tract symptoms; therefore, a transurethral resection was performed. The final pathological report was leiomyoma. After the operation, her symptoms resolved; this improvement was confirmed by an urodynamic analysis. The postoperative urodynamics demonstrated a lower frequency of detrusor overactivity during filling cystometry and an increase in the uroflow rate, with reduced detrusor pressure in a pressure flow study.
Conclusions
Leiomyoma of the bladder can cause female outlet obstruction. A review of the literature and disease management is discussed.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-13
PMCID: PMC2924335  PMID: 20684762
12.  Clinical impact of bladder biopsies with TUR-BT according to cytology results in patients with bladder cancer: a case control study 
BMC Urology  2010;10:12.
Background
There seems to be no consensus concerning taking bladder biopsies during transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT). We investigate the clinical significance of bladder biopsy with TUR-BT and the relationship between urinary cytology and the biopsy results.
Methods
We reviewed a total of 424 patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer treated with TUR-BT between 1998 and 2005. Of the total, 293 patients also underwent a bladder biopsy. Biopsies from suspicious-appearing urothelium (N = 59) and those from normal-appearing urothelium (N = 234) were evaluated separately.
Results
Bladder cancer was observed in 23 cases (39.0%) who underwent a biopsy of suspicious-appearing urothelium. Among these 23 cases, 9 cases with visible tumor resection had carcinoma in situ (CIS) only in the biopsies from suspicious-appearing urothelium. Urinary cytology was negative in 3 of the 9 cases. Bladder cancer was observed in 26 cases (11.1%) who underwent a biopsy of normal-appearing urothelium. Of them, 5 cases with visible tumors had CIS only in the multiple biopsies from normal-appearing urothelium. Urinary cytology was positive in all of the 5 cases. No upstaging or upgrading cases were found in these patients by the addition of these two types of biopsy. Furthermore, therapy was not altered in these patients. With or without bladder biopsy was not a significant factor for tumor recurrence in either the univariate or multivariate analysis.
Conclusions
Based on the results, it is concluded the multiple biopsies from normal-appearing urothelium are not necessary in patients with negative cytology results because of the low detection rate and lack of influence on therapeutic decisions. Meanwhile, biopsy of suspicious-appearing urothelium is needed in patients with negative cytology results in order to detect CIS due to staging properties. This result supports a recent EAU guideline.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-12
PMCID: PMC2912875  PMID: 20591189
13.  Finite element modeling and in vivo analysis of electrode configurations for selective stimulation of pudendal afferent fibers 
BMC Urology  2010;10:11.
Background
Intraurethral electrical stimulation (IES) of pudendal afferent nerve fibers can evoke both excitatory and inhibitory bladder reflexes in cats. These pudendovesical reflexes are a potential substrate for restoring bladder function in persons with spinal cord injury or other neurological disorders. However, the complex distribution of pudendal afferent fibers along the lower urinary tract presents a challenge when trying to determine the optimal geometry and position of IES electrodes for evoking these reflexes. This study aimed to determine the optimal intraurethral electrode configuration(s) and locations for selectively activating targeted pudendal afferents to aid future preclinical and clinical investigations.
Methods
A finite element model (FEM) of the male cat urethra and surrounding structures was generated to simulate IES with a variety of electrode configurations and locations. The activating functions (AFs) along pudendal afferent branches innervating the cat urethra were determined. Additionally, the thresholds for activation of pudendal afferent branches were measured in α-chloralose anesthetized cats.
Results
Maximum AFs evoked by intraurethral stimulation in the FEM and in vivo threshold intensities were dependent on stimulation location and electrode configuration.
Conclusions
A ring electrode configuration is ideal for IES. Stimulation near the urethral meatus or prostate can activate the pudendal afferent fibers at the lowest intensities, and allowed selective activation of the dorsal penile nerve or cranial sensory nerve, respectively. Electrode location was a more important factor than electrode configuration for determining stimulation threshold intensity and nerve selectivity.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-11
PMCID: PMC2887842  PMID: 20497584
14.  Removal of urothelium affects bladder contractility and release of ATP but not release of NO in rat urinary bladder 
BMC Urology  2010;10:10.
Background
The objective of our work was to investigate both the contractile function and the release of ATP and NO from strips of bladder tissue after removal of the urothelium.
Methods
The method of removal was a gentle swabbing motion rather than a sharp surgical cutting to separate the urothelium from the smooth muscle. The contractile response and ATP and NO release were measured in intact as well as on swabbed preparations. The removal of the urothelial layer was affirmed microscopically.
Results
After the swabbing, the smaller contractions were evoked by electrical as well as by chemical stimulation (50 μM carbachol or 50 μM α, β meATP). Electrical stimulation, carbachol and substance P (5 μM) evoked lower release of ATP in the swabbed strips than in intact strips. Although release of NO evoked by electrical stimulation or substance P was not changed, release of NO evoked by carbachol was significantly less in the swabbed preparations.
Conclusion
Since swabbing removes only the urothelium, the presence of the suburothelial layer may explain the difference between our findings and those of others who found an increase in contractility. Evoked release of ATP is reduced in swabbed strips, indicating that ATP derives solely from the urothelium. On the other hand, electrical stimulation and substance P evoke identical degrees of NO release in both intact and swabbed preparations, suggesting that NO can be released from the suburothelium. Conversely, carbachol-induced release of NO is lower in swabbed strips, implying that the cholinergic receptors (muscarinic or nicotinic) are located in the upper layer of the urothelium.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-10
PMCID: PMC2889947  PMID: 20497558
15.  A systematic review and meta-analysis of bone metabolism in prostate adenocarcinoma 
BMC Urology  2010;10:9.
Background
Osteoporosis could be associated with the hormone therapy for metastatic prostate carcinoma (PCa) and with PCa per se. The objective of this review is to determine the incidence of bone loss and osteoporosis in patients with PCa who are or are not treated with hormone therapy (ADT).
Methods
The Medline, Embase, Cancerlit, and American Society of Clinical Oncology Abstract databases were searched for published studies on prostate cancer and bone metabolism. The outcomes assessed were: fracture, osteoporosis and osteopenia.
Results
Thirty-two articles (116,911 participants) were included in the meta-analysis. PCa patients under ADT had a higher risk of osteoporosis (RR, 1.30; p < 0.00001) and a higher risk of fractures (RR, 1.17; p < 0.00001) as compared to patients not under ADT. The total bone mineral density was lower in patients under ADT when compared with patients not under ADT (p = 0.031) but it was similar to bone mineral density found in healthy controls (p = 0.895). The time of androgen deprivation therapy correlated negatively with lumbar spine and total hip bone mineral density (Spearman's rho = -0.490 and -0.773; p = 0.028 and 0.001, respectively) and with total hip t score (Spearman's rho = -0.900; p = 0.037).
Conclusion
We found consistent evidence that the use of androgen deprivation therapy in patients with PCa reduces bone mineral density, increasing the risk of fractures in these patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-9
PMCID: PMC2882358  PMID: 20482867
16.  Laparo-endoscopic single-site (LESS) radical nephrectomy with renal vein thrombectomy: initial report 
BMC Urology  2010;10:8.
Background
By combining trocar sites and extraction incision, Laparo-endoscopic Single-site Surgery (LESS) may provide less morbidity than traditional laparoscopy. Concerns continue about LESS for locally advanced tumors. We present our experience with LESS-radical nephrectomy with renal vein thrombectomy (LESS-RN-RVT)
Case Presentation
Between 5-6/2009, 2 patients underwent LESS-RN-RVT (1 right-/1 left-side). Standard steps of multi-site laparoscopic radical nephrectomy were performed, including stapled renal vein thrombectomy and intact specimen extraction. Both cases were successfully completed by LESS without complications. Mean tumor size was 7.8 cm, incision size 4.5 cm, operative time 152 min, EBL 100 ml, and hospital stay 2.5 days. Both patients had negative margins, and are alive at time of last follow-up. One did not require postoperative opiates.
Conclusions
LESS-RN-RVT is safe and feasible in selected patients with renal vein thrombi. Further accumulation of data and comparison to multiport laparoscopic technique are requisite.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-8
PMCID: PMC2873261  PMID: 20406459
17.  Single minimum incision endoscopic radical nephrectomy for renal tumors with preoperative virtual navigation using 3D-CT volume-rendering 
BMC Urology  2010;10:7.
Background
Single minimum incision endoscopic surgery (MIES) involves the use of a flexible high-definition laparoscope to facilitate open surgery. We reviewed our method of radical nephrectomy for renal tumors, which is single MIES combined with preoperative virtual surgery employing three-dimensional CT images reconstructed by the volume rendering method (3D-CT images) in order to safely and appropriately approach the renal hilar vessels. We also assessed the usefulness of 3D-CT images.
Methods
Radical nephrectomy was done by single MIES via the translumbar approach in 80 consecutive patients. We performed the initial 20 MIES nephrectomies without preoperative 3D-CT images and the subsequent 60 MIES nephrectomies with preoperative 3D-CT images for evaluation of the renal hilar vessels and the relation of each tumor to the surrounding structures. On the basis of the 3D information, preoperative virtual surgery was performed with a computer.
Results
Single MIES nephrectomy was successful in all patients. In the 60 patients who underwent 3D-CT, the number of renal arteries and veins corresponded exactly with the preoperative 3D-CT data (100% sensitivity and 100% specificity). These 60 nephrectomies were completed with a shorter operating time and smaller blood loss than the initial 20 nephrectomies.
Conclusions
Single MIES radical nephrectomy combined with 3D-CT and virtual surgery achieved a shorter operating time and less blood loss, possibly due to safer and easier handling of the renal hilar vessels.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-7
PMCID: PMC2862030  PMID: 20398251
18.  Association between gefitinib and hemorrhagic cystitis and severely contracted bladder: a case report 
BMC Urology  2010;10:6.
Background
Gefitinib remains an excellent treatment option for patients with a variety of cancers, including non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, clinicians must be aware of the potential of gefitinib to cause an inflammatory reaction in the skin, lungs and bladder.
Case Presentation
We present a case on hemorrhagic cystitis and severaly contracted bladder in a patient with NSCLC on gefitinib.
Conclusions
Further studies are needed to substantiate the association of gefitinib therapy with hemorrhagic cystitis and contracted bladder.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-6
PMCID: PMC2839984  PMID: 20187929
19.  In-depth investigation of the molecular pathogenesis of bladder cancer in a unique 26-year old patient with extensive multifocal disease: a case report 
BMC Urology  2010;10:5.
Background
The molecular characteristics and the clinical disease course of bladder cancer (BC) in young patients remain largely unresolved. All patients are monitored according to an intensive surveillance protocol and we aim to gain more insight into the molecular pathways of bladder tumors in young patients that could ultimately contribute to patient stratification, improve patient quality of life and reduce associated costs. We also determined whether a biomarker-based surveillance could be feasible.
Case Presentation
We report a unique case of a 26-year-old Caucasian male with recurrent non-muscle invasive bladder tumors occurring at a high frequency and analyzed multiple tumors (maximal pTaG2) and urine samples of this patient. Analysis included FGFR3 mutation detection, FGFR3 and TP53 immunohistochemistry, mircosatellite analysis of markers on chromosomes 8, 9, 10, 11 and 17 and a genome wide single nucleotide polymorphism-array (SNP). All analyzed tumors contained a mutation in FGFR3 and were associated with FGFR3 overexpression. None of the tumors showed overexpression of TP53. We found a deletion on chromosome 9 in the primary tumor and this was confirmed by the SNP-array that showed regions of loss on chromosome 9. Detection of all recurrences was possible by urinary FGFR3 mutation analysis.
Conclusions
Our findings would suggest that the BC disease course is determined by not only a patient's age, but also by the molecular characteristics of a tumor. This young patient contained typical genetic changes found in tumors of older patients and implies a clinical disease course comparable to older patients. We demonstrate that FGFR3 mutation analysis on voided urine is a simple non-invasive method and could serve as a feasible follow-up approach for this young patient presenting with an FGFR3 mutant tumor.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-5
PMCID: PMC2843683  PMID: 20187926
20.  GOLPH2 expression may serve as diagnostic marker in seminomas 
BMC Urology  2010;10:4.
Background
GOLPH2 (Golgi phosphoprotein 2) is a novel Golgi membrane protein. Despite its unknown physiologic function, however, it has been proposed as a biomarker for hepatocellular and prostate carcinoma due to its upregulation in those cancer entities. Whether the overexpression of GOLPH2 is tumour specific or a generic parameter of malignancy and whether this finding is true for additional carcinomas has not been determined. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the expression pattern of GOLPH2 in testicular seminomas, the most common histologic subtype of testicular neoplasm.
Methods
GOLPH2 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 69 testicular seminomas and compared to the expression rates in matching normal testicular tissue and intratubular germ cell neoplasia of unclassified type (IGCNU). In addition, a subset of Leydig cell tumours was analyzed accordingly.
Results
GOLPH2 was consistently overexpressed (89.9%) in seminomas. Matching non-neoplastic tissue showed weak or negative staining. The observed differences between non-neoplastic and neoplastic tissue were statistically highly significant (p < 0.001). There were no significant associations with tumour status. Interestingly, GOLPH2 was also highly expressed in the intertubular Leydig cells as well as in Leydig cell tumours.
Conclusions
GOLPH2 protein is highly expressed in seminomas and in Leydig cell tumours. This study fosters the association of GOLPH2 with malignant neoplastic processes. The staining pattern is easily assessable and consistent which is a favourable property especially in clinical settings. GOLPH2 could be a novel immunohistochemical marker for the assessment of testicular neoplasms, especially against the background that in analogy to hepatocellular carcinomas complementary GOLPH2 serum levels might be helpful in detecting metastases or recurrent tumour. Therefore serum studies and analyses of GOLPH2 expression in non-seminomatous germ cell tumours are strongly warranted.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-4
PMCID: PMC2843682  PMID: 20184749
21.  The morbidity of urethral stricture disease among male Medicare beneficiaries 
BMC Urology  2010;10:3.
Background
To date, the morbidity of urethral stricture disease among American men has not been analyzed using national datasets. We sought to analyze the morbidity of urethral stricture disease by measuring the rates of urinary tract infections and urinary incontinence among men with a diagnosis of urethral stricture.
Methods
We analyzed Medicare claims data for 1992, 1995, 1998, and 2001 to estimate the rate of dual diagnoses of urethral stricture with urinary tract infection and with urinary incontinence occurring in the same year among a 5% sample of beneficiaries. Male Medicare beneficiaries receiving co-incident ICD-9 codes indicating diagnoses of urethral stricture and either urinary tract infection or urinary incontinence within the same year were counted.
Results
The percentage of male patients with a diagnosis of urethral stricture who also were diagnosed with a urinary tract infection was 42% in 2001, an increase from 35% in 1992. Eleven percent of male Medicare beneficiaries with urethral stricture disease in 2001 were diagnosed with urinary incontinence in the same year. This represents an increase from 8% in 1992.
Conclusions
Among male Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with urethral stricture disease in 2001, 42% were also diagnosed with a urinary tract infection, and 11% with incontinence. Although the overall incidence of stricture disease decreased over this time period, these rates of dual diagnoses increased from 1992 to 2001. Our findings shed light into the health burden of stricture disease on American men. In order to decrease the morbidity of stricture disease, early definitive management of strictures is warranted.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-3
PMCID: PMC2837655  PMID: 20167087
22.  Complications of circumcision in male neonates, infants and children: a systematic review 
BMC Urology  2010;10:2.
Background
Approximately one in three men are circumcised globally, but there are relatively few data on the safety of the procedure. The aim of this paper is to summarize the literature on frequency of adverse events following pediatric circumcision, with a focus on developing countries.
Methods
PubMed and other databasess were searched with keywords and MeSH terms including infant/newborn/pediatric/child, circumcision, complications and adverse events. Searches included all available years and were conducted on November 6th 2007 and updated on February 14th 2009. Additional searches of the Arabic literature included searches of relevant databases and University libraries for research theses on male circumcision.
Studies were included if they contained data to estimate frequency of adverse events following neonatal, infant and child circumcision. There was no language restriction. A total of 1349 published papers were identified, of which 52 studies from 21 countries met the inclusion criteria. The Arabic literature searches identified 46 potentially relevant papers, of which six were included.
Results
Sixteen prospective studies evaluated complications following neonatal and infant circumcision. Most studies reported no severe adverse events (SAE), but two studies reported SAE frequency of 2%. The median frequency of any complication was 1.5% (range 0-16%). Child circumcision by medical providers tended to be associated with more complications (median frequency 6%; range 2-14%) than for neonates and infants. Traditional circumcision as a rite of passage is associated with substantially greater risks, more severe complications than medical circumcision or traditional circumcision among neonates.
Conclusions
Studies report few severe complications following circumcision. However, mild or moderate complications are seen, especially when circumcision is undertaken at older ages, by inexperienced providers or in non-sterile conditions. Pediatric circumcision will continue to be practiced for cultural, medical and as a long-term HIV/STI prevention strategy. Risk-reduction strategies including improved training of providers, and provision of appropriate sterile equipment, are urgently needed.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-2
PMCID: PMC2835667  PMID: 20158883
23.  Stereotactic body radiotherapy for organ-confined prostate cancer 
BMC Urology  2010;10:1.
Background
Improved understanding of prostate cancer radiobiology combined with advances in delivery of radiation to the moving prostate offer the potential to reduce treatment-related morbidity and maintain quality of life (QOL) following prostate cancer treatment. We present preliminary results following stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment for organ-confined prostate cancer.
Methods
SBRT was performed on 304 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer: 50 received 5 fractions of 7 Gy (total dose 35 Gy) and 254 received 5 fractions of 7.25 Gy (total dose 36.25 Gy). Acute and late toxicity was assessed using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale. The Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite questionnaire was used to assess QOL. Prostate-specific antigen response was monitored.
Results
At a median 30-month (26 - 37 month, range) follow-up there were no biochemical failures for the 35-Gy dose level. Acute Grade II urinary and rectal toxicities occurred in 4% of patients with no higher Grade acute toxicities. One Grade II late urinary toxicity occurred with no other Grade II or higher late toxicities. At a median 17-month (8 - 27 month, range) follow-up the 36.25 Gy dose level had 2 low- and 2 high-risk patients fail biochemically (biopsy showed 2 low- and 1 high-risk patients were disease-free in the gland). Acute Grade II urinary and rectal toxicities occurred in 4.7% (12/253) and 3.6% (9/253) of patients, respectively. For those patients with a minimum of 12 months follow-up, 5.8% (12/206) had late Grade II urinary toxicity and 2.9% (6/206) had late Grade II rectal toxicities. One late Grade III urinary toxicity occurred; no Grade IV toxicities occurred. For both dose levels at 17 months, bowel and urinary QOL returned to baseline values; sexual QOL decreased by 10%.
Conclusions
The low toxicity and maintained QOL are highly encouraging. Additional follow-up is needed to determine long-term biochemical control and maintenance of low toxicity and QOL.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-1
PMCID: PMC2831888  PMID: 20122161

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