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1.  Feasibly of axitinib as first-line therapy for advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a single-institution experience in Japan 
BMC Urology  2015;15:32.
Background
Clinical benefit of axitinib as a first line agent to treat patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), or locally advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have not been clearly demonstrated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of axitinib as first-line therapy in Japanese patients with locally advanced RCC or mRCC.
Methods
In this retrospective study, we focused on eighteen patients who underwent first-line therapy with axitinib between May 2012 and May 2014 at Hirosaki University. Axitinib was orally administered at a dose of 10 mg daily. Progression-free survival (PFS) was the primary endpoint, while secondary endpoints included overall response rate (ORR) and adverse events (AEs).
Results
All patients had histologically proven clear cell RCC. The median duration of the administration of axitinib was 10.8 months. According to the response evaluation criteria for solid tumors, five patients (27.8%) achieved a partial response and nine (50%) had stable disease. The 1-year PFS rate was 84.4%, and the median PFS was 20.4 months (95% confidence interval, 17.5 – 21.7). No serious AEs were reported during the study, and there were no toxicity-related deaths.
Conclusions
In the current study, axitinib showed acceptable oncological outcomes and favorable safety profile as first-line therapy for locally advanced RCC or mRCC in treatment-naïve Japanese patients. Thus, first-line therapy with axitinib may provide a feasible option for treatment of advanced RCC or mRCC patients.
doi:10.1186/s12894-015-0027-4
PMCID: PMC4417199  PMID: 25887125
Axitinib renal cell carcinoma; First-line; Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor; Advanced renal cell carcinoma; Metastatic renal cell carcinoma
2.  Tramadol for premature ejaculation: a systematic review and meta-analysis 
BMC Urology  2015;15:6.
Background
Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic prescribed off-label for the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE). However, tramadol may cause addiction and difficulty in breathing and the beneficial effect of tramadol in PE is yet not supported by a high level of evidence. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) for tramadol in the management of PE.
Methods
We searched bibliographic databases including MEDLINE to August 2014 for RCTs. The primary outcome was intra-vaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). Methodological quality of RCTs was assessed. Between-group differences in IELT and other outcomes were pooled across RCTs in a meta-analysis. Statistical and clinical between-trial heterogeneity was assessed.
Results
A total of eight RCTs that evaluated tramadol against a comparator were included. The majority of RCTs were of unclear methodological quality due to limited reporting. Pooled evidence (four RCTs, 721 participants), suggests that tramadol is significantly more effective than placebo at increasing IELT over eight to 12 weeks (p = 0.0007). However, a high level of statistical heterogeneity is evident (I-squared = 74%). Single RCT evidence indicates that tramadol is significantly more effective than paroxetine taken on-demand, sildenafil, lidocaine gel, or behavioural therapy on IELT in men with PE. Tramadol is associated with significantly more adverse events including: erectile dysfunction, constipation, nausea, headache, somnolence, dry mouth, dizziness, pruritus, and vomiting, than placebo or behavioural therapy over eight to 12 weeks of treatment. However, addiction problems or breathing difficulties reported by patients for PE is not assessed in the current evidence base.
Conclusions
Tramadol appears effective in the treatment of PE. However, these findings should be interpreted with caution given the observed levels of between-trial heterogeneity and the reporting quality of the available evidence. The variability across placebo-controlled trials in terms of the tramadol dose evaluated and the treatment duration does not permit any assessment of a safe and effective minimum daily dose. The long-term effects and side effects, including addiction potential, for men with PE have not been evaluated in the current evidence base.
Trial registration
The review is registered on PROSPERO 2013:CRD42013005289.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2490-15-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-15-6
PMCID: PMC4417346  PMID: 25636495
Premature ejaculation; Tramadol; Systematic review; Meta-analysis; Efficacy; Safety
3.  Performance of 5-aminolevulinic-acid-based photodynamic diagnosis for radical prostatectomy 
BMC Urology  2015;15:78.
Background
The aim of this study was to investigate whether we could detect positive surgical margins during open and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy by 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) and mapping of red fluorescence in human prostate cancer cells.
Methods
All 52 patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer by biopsy. They had a positive core in the apex or highly suspicious positive margins. Open and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy was performed in 18 and 34 cases, respectively. One gram of ALA solution was given intraoperatively, orally through a stomach tube. An endoscopic PDD system, including a D-Light C, CCU Tricam SLII/3CCD CH Tricam-P PDD, and HOPKINS II Straight Forward Telescope 0°, was used. The D-Light C light source was equipped with a band-pass filter. The CCU Tricam SLII/3CCD CHTricam-P PDD video camera system was equipped with a long-pass filter. The laparoscopy optic component was equipped with a yellow long-pass filter.
Results
One of the 52 patients had a red-fluorescent-positive margin of the excised whole prostate and the positive surgical margin was histologically confirmed. In the section of excised prostate, we obtained 141 biopsied samples. The sensitivity and specificity were 75.0 % and 87.3 %, respectively.
Conclusions
Intraoperative ALA-PDD is feasible. However, heat degeneration and length of positive surgical margin have crucial influences on red fluorescence. In future, a randomized clinical trial should be carried out.
doi:10.1186/s12894-015-0073-y
PMCID: PMC4521460  PMID: 26232024
4.  Oncologic outcomes in men with metastasis to the prostatic anterior fat pad lymph nodes: a multi-institution international study 
BMC Urology  2015;15:79.
Background
The presence of lymph nodes (LN) within the prostatic anterior fat pad (PAFP) has been reported in several recent reports. These PAFP LNs rarely harbor metastatic disease, and the characteristics of patients with PAFP LN metastasis are not well-described in the literature. Our previous study suggested that metastatic disease to the PAFP LN was associated with less severe oncologic outcomes than those that involve the pelvic lymph node (PLN). Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess the oncologic outcome of prostate cancer (PCa) patients with PAFP LN metastasis in a larger patient population.
Methods
Data were analyzed on 8800 patients from eleven international centers in three countries. Eighty-eight patients were found to have metastatic disease to the PAFP LNs (PAFP+) and 206 men had isolated metastasis to the pelvic LNs (PLN+). Clinicopathologic features were compared using ANOVA and Chi square tests. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the time to biochemical recurrence (BCR).
Results
Of the eighty-eight patients with PAFP LN metastasis, sixty-three (71.6 %) were up-staged based on the pathologic analysis of PAFP and eight (9.1 %) had a low-risk disease. Patients with LNs present in the PAFP had a higher incidence of biopsy Gleason score (GS) 8–10, pathologic N1 disease, and positive surgical margin in prostatectomy specimens than those with no LNs detected in the PAFP. Men who were PAFP+ with or without PLN involvement had more aggressive pathologic features than those with PLN disease only. However, there was no significant difference in BCR-free survival regardless of adjuvant therapy. In 300 patients who underwent PAFP LN mapping, 65 LNs were detected. It was also found that 44 out of 65 (67.7 %) nodes were located in the middle portion of the PAFP.
Conclusions
There was no significant difference in the rate of BCR between the PAFP LN+ and PLN+ groups. The PAFP likely represents a landing zone that is different from the PLNs for PCa metastasis. Therefore, the removal and pathologic analysis of PAFP should be adopted as a standard procedure in all patients undergoing radical prostatectomy.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12894-015-0070-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12894-015-0070-1
PMCID: PMC4521494  PMID: 26231860
Lymph node metastases; Prostate anterior fat pad; Prostate cancer
5.  Comparison of continence outcomes of early catheter removal on postoperative day 2 and 4 after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: a randomized controlled trial 
BMC Urology  2015;15:77.
Background
The optimal timing of catheter removal following laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) has not yet been determined. This prospective study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of catheter removal on postoperative day (POD) 2 versus POD 4 after LRP and its impact on urinary continence outcomes.
Methods
One hundred and thirteen patients underwent LRP and were prospectively randomized into two groups: group 1 (n = 57) had the urinary catheter removed on POD 2 while group 2 (n = 56) had the catheter removed on POD 4. The urine loss ratio (ULR) was defined as the weight of urine loss in the pad divided by the daily micturition volume. Continence was defined as a pad-free status.
Results
No significant differences were observed in clinical features between groups 1 and 2. Acute urinary retention (AUR) after catheter removal occurred in 21 patients (18.6 %) (13 (22.8 %) in group 1 and 8 (14.3 %) in group 2 (p = 0.244). The first-day mean ULR values were 1.16 ± 4.95 in group 1 and 1.02 ± 3.27 in group 2 (p = 0.870). The last-day mean ULR values were 0.57 ± 1.60 in group 1 and 2.78 ± 15.49 in group 2 (p = 0.353). Continence rates at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months were 21.8, 41.1, 58.0, and 71.4 % in group 1 and 34.5, 66.0, 79.2, and 83.7 % in group 2 (p = 0.138, 0.009, 0.024, and 0.146, respectively). In AUR cases, continence rates at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months were 0, 23.1, 38.5, and 54.5 % in group 1 and 37.5, 75.0, 87.5, and 87.5 % in group 2 (p = 0.017, 0.020, 0.027, and 0.127, respectively). A multivariate analysis identified AUR after catheter removal on POD 2 as the only predictive factor for incontinence 6 and 9 months after LRP (p = 0.030 and 0.018, respectively).
Conclusions
Our results demonstrated that early catheter removal on POD 2 after LRP may increase the risk of incontinence.
Trial registration
The study was registered as Clinical trial: (UMIN000014944); registration date: 12 March 2012.
doi:10.1186/s12894-015-0065-y
PMCID: PMC4520008
Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy; Early catheter removal; Urinary incontinence; Prostate cancer
6.  Computer-aided transrectal ultrasound: does prostate HistoScanning™ improve detection performance of prostate cancer in repeat biopsies? 
BMC Urology  2015;15:76.
Background
An imaging tool providing reliable prostate cancer (PCa) detection and localization is necessary to improve common diagnostic pathway with ultrasound targeted biopsies. To determine the performance of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) augmented by prostate HistoScanningTM analysis (PHS) we investigated the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) foci in repeat prostate biopsies (Bx).
Methods
97 men with a mean age of 66.2 (44 – 82) years underwent PHS augmented TRUS analysis prior to a repeat Bx. Three PHS positive foci were defined in accordance with 6 bilateral prostatic sectors. Targeted Bx (tBx) limited to PHS positive foci and a systematic 14-core backup Bx (sBx) were taken. Results were correlated to biopsy outcome. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive accuracy, negative predictive value (NPV) and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated.
Results
PCa was found in 31 of 97 (32 %) patients. Detection rate in tBx was significantly higher (p < .001). Detection rate in tBx and sBx did not differ on patient level(p ≥ 0.7). PHS sensitivity, specificity, predictive accuracy, PPV and NPV were 45 %, 83 %, 80 %, 19 % and 95 %, respectively.
Conclusions
PHS augmented TRUS identifies abnormal prostatic tissue. Although sensitivity and PPV for PCa are low, PHS information facilitates Bx targeting to vulnerable foci and results in a higher cancer detection rate. PHS targeted Bx should be considered in patients at persistent risk of PCa.
doi:10.1186/s12894-015-0072-z
PMCID: PMC4518605  PMID: 26223353
Prostate; Prostate cancer; Transrectal ultrasonography; HistoScanning; Prostate biopsy
7.  Autoimmune hemolytic anemia associated with renal urothelial cancer: A case report and literature review 
BMC Urology  2015;15:75.
Background
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is hemolytic anemia characterized by autoantibodies directed against red blood cells. AIHA can be induced by hematological neoplasms such as malignant lymphoma, but is rarely observed in the urological field. We report a case of renal urothelial cancer inducing Coombs-positive warm AIHA and severe thrombocytopenia that was responsive to nephroureterectomy.
Case presentation
A 52-year-old man presented with a 1-month history of general weakness and dizziness. Hemoglobin level was 4.2 g/dL, and direct and indirect Coombs tests both yielded positive results. Abdominal computed tomography revealed huge left hydronephrosis due to a renal pelvic tumor measuring 4.0 x 4.0 x 3.0 cm, and renal regional lymph-node involvement was also observed and suspected as metastasis. Corticosteroid therapy was administered, and nephroureterectomy was performed. After surgical resection, the hemoglobin level gradually normalized, and direct and indirect Coombs tests yielded negative results. We thus diagnosed warm AIHA associated with renal urothelial cancer.
Conclusion
To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first report of AIHA associated with renal urothelial cancer and severe thrombocytopenia responsive to nephroureterectomy. Renal urothelial cancer needs to be included in the differential diagnoses for warm AIHA, and nephroureterectomy represents a treatment option for AIHA.
doi:10.1186/s12894-015-0071-0
PMCID: PMC4515913  PMID: 26215157
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia; Paraneoplastic syndromes; Renal urothelial cancer; Nephroureterectomy
8.  The role of diagnostic ureteroscopy in the era of computed tomography urography 
BMC Urology  2015;15:74.
Background
To examine the contemporary role of ureteroscopy in the diagnosis of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma.
Methods
We retrospectively evaluated 116 diagnostic ureteroscopies, performed in our institution to rule out primary UTUC. Demographics, cytological findings and interpretation of preoperative imaging were obtained. Ureteroscopic diagnosis and histological results were recorded and the predictive values of diagnostic studies were determined. Follow-up data was reviewed to evaluate the oncological outcomes in patients treated endoscopically.
Results
The pre-ureteroscopic evaluation included CTU in 91 (78 %) patients. Positive and Negative predictive values of CTU were 76 and 80 %, respectively. Typical filling defect on CTU was demonstrated in 38 of 89 patients. UTUC has been ruled out in 9 patients (24 %) with suspicious filling defect on CTU. Endoscopic approach was implemented in 7 patients (18 %). During a median follow up period of 17 months (IQR, 9–25) none of the followed patients experienced disease progression.
Conclusions
Nephroureterectomy was spared from 42 % of patients who underwent diagnostic ureteroscopy for suspected UTUC, demonstrated on CTU. In about half of those patients tumor has been ruled out and the others were managed endoscopically. Therefore, diagnostic ureteroscopy is advised as a crucial step in confirming UTUC and treatment planning.
doi:10.1186/s12894-015-0068-8
PMCID: PMC4515021  PMID: 26209444
Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma; Ureteroscopy; Computed tomography urography
9.  Extravascular stent management for migration of left renal vein endovascular stent in nutcracker syndrome 
BMC Urology  2015;15:73.
Background
Nutcracker syndrome is an entity resulting from left renal vein compression by the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery, which leads to symptoms of hematuria or left flank pain. The alternative option of endovascular or extravascular stenting is very appealing because of the minimal invasive procedures. Stents in the renal vein can cause fibromuscular hyperplasia, proximal migration or embolization.
Case presentation
A 30-year-old female was diagnosed with nutcracker syndrome for severe left flank pain. After failed conservative approach, she underwent endovascular stenting and subsequently developed recurrent symptom for stent migration one month postoperatively. She underwent successful extravascular stenting with complete symptom resolution.
Conclusion
The extravascular stenting is an alternative option after migration of left renal vein endovascular stenting. The computed tomographic imaging was closely correlated to therapeutic interventions and stent migration.
doi:10.1186/s12894-015-0063-0
PMCID: PMC4512087  PMID: 26205510
Nutcracker syndrome; Stent migration; Management
10.  Primary renal squamous cell carcinoma mimicking the renal cyst: a case report and review of the recent literature 
BMC Urology  2015;15:69.
Background
Renal squamous cell carcinoma is a rare neoplasm with poor prognosis. Chronic irritation from nephrolithiasis and/or pyelonephritis is the leading cause.
Case presentation
We described a 51-year-old male patient who was admitted because of left flank pain. Ultrasonography showed a renal cyst containing calculus. However, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and CT scan revealed an irregular-shaped mass derived from a calculi-containing cyst. Ultrasound guided biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of renal squamous cell carcinoma. The patient refused any further therapeutic management and died six months later.
Conclusions
Our present case emphasizes that the careful diagnostic work-up and use of multiple imaging modalities in cases of unusual renal calculi is quite necessary, since they may carry the risk of co-existing hidden malignancy.
doi:10.1186/s12894-015-0064-z
PMCID: PMC4511242  PMID: 26201315
Kidney; Squamous cell carcinoma
11.  How do stone attenuation and skin-to-stone distance in computed tomography influence the performance of shock wave lithotripsy in ureteral stone disease? 
BMC Urology  2015;15:72.
Background
Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is a noninvasive, safe, and efficient treatment option for ureteral stones. Depending on stone location and size, the overall stone-free rate (SFR) varies significantly. Failure of stone disintegration results in unnecessary exposure to shock waves and radiation and requires alternative treatment procedures, which increases medical costs. It is therefore important to identify predictors of treatment success or failure in patients who are potential candidates for SWL before treatment. Nowadays, noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) provides reliable information on stone location, size, number, and total stone burden. The impact of additional information provided by NCCT, such as skin-to-stone distance (SSD) and mean attenuation value (MAV), on stone fragmentation in ureteral stone disease has hardly been investigated separately so far. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the influence of stone attenuation, SSD and body mass index (BMI) on the outcome of SWL in ureteral stones.
Methods
We reviewed the medical records of 104 patients (80 men, 24 women) with ureteral stone disease treated consecutively at our institution with SWL between 2010 and 2013. MAV in Hounsfield Units (HU) and SSD were determined by analyzing noncontrast computed tomography images. Outcome of SWL was defined as successful (visible stone fragmentation on kidney, ureter, and bladder film (KUB)) or failed (absent fragmentation on KUB).
Results
Overall success of SWL was 50 % (52 patients). Median stone attenuation was 956.9 HU (range 495–1210.8) in the group with successful disintegration and 944.6 (range 237–1302) in the patients who had absent or insufficient fragmentation. Median SSD was 125 mm (range 81–165 mm) in the group treated successfully and 141 mm (range 108–172 mm) in the patients with treatment failure. Unlike MAV (p = 0.37), SSD (p < 0.001) and BMI (p = 0.008) significantly correlated with treatment outcome.
Conclusion
The choice of treatment for ureteral stones should be based on stone location and size as considered in the AUA and EAU guidelines on urinary stone disease. In ambiguous cases, SSD and BMI can be used to assist in the decision. In this study, MAV showed no correlation with fragmentation rate of SWL.
doi:10.1186/s12894-015-0069-7
PMCID: PMC4511972  PMID: 26201514
Ureteral stones; Treatment outcome; Shock wave lithotripsy; Hounsfield Units; Skin-to-stone distance
12.  Review by urological pathologists improves the accuracy of Gleason grading by general pathologists 
BMC Urology  2015;15:70.
Backgrounds
Urologists use biopsy Gleason scores for patient counseling, prognosis prediction, and decision making. The accuracy of Gleason grading is very important. However, the variability of Gleason grading between general pathologists cannot be overlooked. Here we evaluate the discrepancy in the Gleason grading between 2 urologic pathologists and general pathologists as well as improvement in the accuracy of Gleason grading by general pathologists as a result of review by urologic pathologists.
Methods
The subjects enrolled in the study were 755 patients who underwent prostate needle biopsy at affiliate hospitals of Nara Medical University over a period of 2 years. The biopsy samples were diagnosed by general pathologists. All biopsy samples were sent to Nara Medical University where they were diagnosed by 2 urologic pathologists. The results were then returned to the general pathologists. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of the general pathologists with that of the urologic pathologists for the parameters of no malignancy, atypical small acinar proliferation, high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and Gleason score (6, 3 + 4, 4 + 3 and 8–10). We then evaluated the concordance rate between the general and urologic pathologists for each of four consecutive 6-month periods.
Results
The overall concordance rate of urologic pathologists and general pathologists in the first, second, third and last 6-month periods was 71.8 % (140/198), 79.8 % (168/225), 89.7 % (166/185) and 89.9 % (133/148), respectively. The concordance rate of the Gleason score between urologic pathologists and general pathologists in the first, second, third and last 6-month periods was 47.5 %(38/80), 62.6 %(57/91),76.9 %(50/65) and 78.7 %(48/61), respectively, and the kappa value was 0.55, 0.68, 0.81 and 0.84, respectively. The concordance rate improved significantly over the course of each period (P = 0.04).
Conclusion
The concordance rate of the Gleason grading between the general pathologists and the urologic pathologists was 47.5 %. However, improvement of the concordance rate as a result of review by the urological pathologist could be seen.
doi:10.1186/s12894-015-0066-x
PMCID: PMC4511985  PMID: 26201393
Gleason score; Prostate biopsy; General pathologist; Urological pathologist
13.  Flexible ureteroscopy training for surgeons using isolated porcine kidneys in vitro 
BMC Urology  2015;15:71.
Background
To evaluate the feasibility of flexible ureteroscopy training by using isolated porcine kidneys and ureters in vitro.
Methods
Twenty young urologists were randomly divided into four groups. Overall performance was assessed based on a global rating scale, pass/fail rating, total time to complete task, learning curve, incidence of trauma, and perforations. The effect of training was determined by comparing their performance in baseline with that in the post-test.
Results
After the training, average operation time significantly decreased from 18 ± 3.4 min to 11 ± 1.2 min (P < 0.05). The urologists exhibited a relatively stable performance level after the sixth operation. Significant differences were observed between pre-test and post-test with respect to the global rating scale and the pass/fail rating (P < 0.05). However, the incidence of mucosal trauma and perforations did not change significantly (P = 0.26 and 0.35, respectively).
Conclusions
The isolated porcine kidneys are convenient and intuitive models for young urologists to practice flexible ureteroscopy on.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12894-015-0067-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12894-015-0067-9
PMCID: PMC4512109  PMID: 26201465
Ureteroscopes; Training; Porcine kidney; Teaching
14.  Primary melanoma of the prostate: case report and review of the literature 
BMC Urology  2015;15:68.
Background
Primary melanoma of the prostate has an extremely rare incidence. Only five cases have been reported in the literature and prognosis is poor. The most likely origin of prostatic melanoma is the transitional epithelium of the prostatic urethra. Surgical care for primary melanoma of mucosal sites is less well established than for primary cutaneous melanoma, but excision of the primary is recommended if the patient has no systemic disease.
Case presentation
Here, we describe a case of primary malignant melanoma of the prostate. A 37-year-old male patient with history of both chemo- and radiation therapy for Hodgkin’s disease was admitted to the University Hospital Heidelberg on suspicion of pleomorphic sarcoma of the bladder. In-house diagnostic work-up revealed a malignant melanoma of the prostate. We then performed radical prostatectomy with extended lymphadenectomy. Despite presumably curative surgery, the patient suffered from early relapse of disease with pulmonary metastasis. Systemic chemotherapy and subsequent immuno-oncologic treatment was thereafter initiated.
Conclusion
Since prostatic melanoma is a rare disease and a melanoma metastasis of unknown primary is the differential diagnosis, a multidisciplinary approach including early imaging to rule out possible metastases and to search for another potentially existing primary is advisable. To prevent complications related to local tumor progression and to receive tissue for mutational analysis, we recommend complete surgical resection to reduce the tumor mass. Novel immune and targeted oncologic therapies can lead to an improved survival in some cases and support of clinical trials is needed.
doi:10.1186/s12894-015-0052-3
PMCID: PMC4501120  PMID: 26169921
Prostate; Prostatic neoplasm; Prostatectomy; Ipilimumab; Nivolumab
15.  Utility of copeptin and standard inflammatory markers in the diagnostics of upper and lower urinary tract infections 
BMC Urology  2015;15:67.
Background
A new serum marker of inflammation copeptin (CPP) a stable C-terminal pro-vasopressin was assessed along with conventional markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and IL-6 to discriminate between lower and upper bacterial urinary tract infections (UTI).
Methods
Study population comprised 45 patients including 13 with lower UTI (L-UTI) and 32 with upper UTI (U-UTI) and 24 healthy controls. Serum markers, blood cultures and urine cultures were assessed before commencing antibiotic treatment and repeated 24, 48 h and 7 days thereafter. Receiver operating curves (ROC) were plotted to assess a diagnostic utility of different inflammatory markers.
Results
Before antibiotic therapy all inflammatory markers including serum CPP (2821.1 ± 1072.4 pg/ml vs. 223.8 ± 109.3 pg/ml; p < 0.05) were higher in UTI than in controls. CPP was not different between L- and U-UTI (2253 ± 1323 pg/ml vs 3051 ± 1178 pg/ml; p = 0.70) despite significant differences in hsCRP (2.09 ± 1.7 mg/dl vs 127.3 ± 62.4 mg/dl; p < 0.001), PCT (0.05 ± 0 vs 5.02 ± 0.03 ng/ml p < 0.001) and IL-6 (22.5 ± 1.6 vs 84.8 ± 67 pg/ml p < 0.001). For U-UTI the areas under the ROC curves were 1.0 for both hsCRP and CPP, 0.94 for PCT and 0.7 for IL-6 and for L-UTI 0.571, 1, 0.505 and 0.73, respectively. After 7 days of treatment all markers decreased in parallel to clinical response.
Conclusion
Although elevated serum copeptin may become a marker of UTI it seems to be inferior compared to traditional serum inflammation markers for differentiation of bacterial infections involving upper and lower urinary tract.
doi:10.1186/s12894-015-0061-2
PMCID: PMC4494795  PMID: 26152182
Copeptin; Urinary tract infection; Biomarker
16.  Meta-analysis of female stress urinary incontinence treatments with adjustable single-incision mini-slings and transobturator tension-free vaginal tape surgeries 
BMC Urology  2015;15:64.
Background
The study on SIMS and SMUS as a whole by Alyaa Mostafa et al showed that after excluding the TVT-S sling, there is no significant difference in patient-reported cure rate and objective cure rate between these two methods. In this paper, we systematically evaluate the relevant data on SIMS-Ajust and TVT-O/TOT and further confirm their safety and effectiveness, providing reliable clinical evidence.
Methods
By searching the Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science databases and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews combined with manual searches, all reports on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of single-incision mini-sling (SIMS-Ajust) and transobturator tension-free vaginal tape (TVT-O/TOT) surgeries were collected. Using RevMan 5.2 statistical software, the patient-reported cure rate, objective cure rate, operative time, postoperative pain, lower urinary tract injuries, groin pain, postoperative voiding difficulties, de novo urgency and/or worsening of preexisting surgery, vaginal tape erosion, repeated continence surgery, and other related data on both surgical methods were evaluated.
Results
A total of 154 relevant research reports were retrieved, and five randomized controlled trials were included in this study, involving a total of 678 patients. The meta-analysis results show no significant difference in the patient-reported cure rate and objective cure rate between SIMS-Ajust and TVT-O/TOT [RR = 0.95, 95 % CI (0.87 to 1.04), P > 0.05; RR = 0.97, 95 % CI (0.90–1.05), P > 0.05]. With respect to operation time and groin pain, SIMS-Ajust outperforms TVT-O/TOT [MD = −1.61, 95 % CI (−2.48 to 0.74), P < 0.05; RR = 0.30, 95 % CI (0.11 to 0.85), P < 0.05]. In terms of postoperative pain, lower urinary tract injuries, postoperative voiding difficulties, de novo urgency and/or worsening of preexisting surgery, vaginal tape erosion, and repetition of continence surgery, there is no significant difference between SIMS-Ajust and TVT-O/TOT [RR = 0.50, 95 % CI(0.18–1.43), P > 0.05; RR = 2.82, 95 % CI(0.14–57.76), P > 0.05; RR = 0.64, 95 % CI(0.28–1.45), P > 0.05; RR = 1.06, 95 % CI(0.66–1.71), P > 0.05; RR = 1.04, 95 % CI(0.24–4.45), P > 0.05; RR = 1.64, 95 % CI(0.41–6.61), P > 0.05].
Conclusions
SIMS-Ajust is safe and effective in the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence. Compared with TVT-O/TOT surgery, SIMS-Ajust surgery has the same high objective cure rate and patient-reported cure rate and low incidence of perioperative complications, in addition to its short operative time and low incidence of groin pain. Its long-term efficacy needs further observation.
doi:10.1186/s12894-015-0060-3
PMCID: PMC4492097  PMID: 26148987
Single-incision mini-sling; Transobturator tension-free vaginal tape; Female stress urinary incontinence
17.  Sodium hyaluronate and chondroitin sulfate replenishment therapy can improve nocturia in men with post-radiation cystitis: results of a prospective pilot study 
BMC Urology  2015;15:65.
Background
Radiotherapy is one of the treatment options for prostate cancer (PCa) but up to 25 % of men report about severe nocturia (nocturnal voiding). The combination of hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) resembles glycosaminoglycan (GAG) replenishment therapy. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of HA and CS on nocturia, in men with nocturia after PCa radiotherapy.
Methods
Twenty-three consecutive patients with symptomatic cystitis after external radiotherapy for PCa were enrolled. Patients underwent bladder instillation therapy with HA and CS weekly for the first month and, afterwards, on week 6, 8 and 12. Nocturnal voiding frequency was assessed by item 3 (Q3) of the Interstitial Cystitis Symptoms Index (ICSI) and item 2 (Q2) of the Interstitial Cystitis Problem Index (ICPI). Data were analyzed with paired-samples T-test and adjusted for age.
Results
Eighteen patients (78 %) reported about nocturia. Pre- and post-treatment ICSI-Q3 was 2.13 ± 0.28 and 1.61 ± 0.21 (−24.4 %, p = 0.001). With logistic regression analysis, both age and baseline ICSI-Q3 had a significant impact on nocturnal voiding frequency (r = 0.293, p = 0.011 and r = 0.970, p < 0.001). Pre- and post-treatment ICPI-Q2 was 1.87 ± 0.26 and 1.30 ± 0.25 (−30.5 %, p = 0.016); logistic regression analysis was without significant findings.
Conclusion
Bladder instillation treatment with a combination of HA and CS was effective in reducing nocturnal voiding frequency in men with post-radiation bladder pain for PCa. Randomized, controlled trials with sham treatment are needed to confirm our result.
doi:10.1186/s12894-015-0046-1
PMCID: PMC4493946  PMID: 26148853
Prostate cancer; Acute radiation syndrome; Cystitis; Nocturia; Hyaluronic acid; Chondroitin sulfate
18.  Prevalence, risk factors and severity of symptoms of pelvic organ prolapse among Emirati women 
BMC Urology  2015;15:66.
Background
Similar to other Gulf countries, the society in United Arab Emirates is pro-natal with high parity and high prevalence of macrosomic babies. Therefore, it is possible to have a high prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of POP symptoms in one of the UAE cities.
Methods
A cross-sectional study of all women who attended the three family development centres was conducted in Al-Ain from January 2010 to January 2011. Non-Emirati, pregnant and nulliparous women younger than 30 years were excluded.
Results
Out of 482 women who met the inclusion criteria, 429 (89.0 %) agreed to fully participate in the study. 127 women (29.6 %) reported symptoms of POP (mean age: 38.2 years, range: 18–71).
Out of the 127 affected women, a dragging lump was felt occasionally in 68 %, sometimes in 19 %, most of times in 9 % and all the times in 4 %. 73 % of affected women experienced soreness in the vagina. Around one third had to insert their fingers in the vagina to either start or complete emptying of the bladder or to empty the bowel.
Using multivariate analysis, the independent risk factors were history of constipation, level of education, chronic chest disease, nature of occupation, birth weight and body mass index (Odds ratio; 95 % Confidence interval): (4.1; 2.3-7.3), (1.7; 1.2-2.3), (2.9; 1.6-5.5), (0.5; 0.4-0.8), (1.7; 1.1-2.5), (1.1; 1.0-1.1), respectively (P < 0.05 for all).
Conclusion
Symptoms of POP are prevalent among Emirati women. Independent risk factors included history of chronic constipation and chest disease, level of education, job type, birth weight and body mass index. Additional healthcare campaigns are required to educate the public regarding these risk factors.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12894-015-0062-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12894-015-0062-1
PMCID: PMC4494174  PMID: 26149171
Genital organ prolapse; Prevalence; Risk factors; Emirati women
19.  Virtual reality suturing task as an objective test for robotic experience assessment 
BMC Urology  2015;15:63.
Background
We performed a pilot study using a single virtual-simulation suturing module as an objective measurement to determine functional use of the robotic system. This study will assist in designing a study for an objective, adjunctive test for use by a surgical proctor.
Methods
After IRB approval, subjects were recruited at a robotic renal surgery course to perform two attempts of the “Tubes” module without warm-up using the Da Vinci® Surgical Skills Simulator™. The overall MScore (%) from the simulator was compared among various skill levels to provide construct validity. Correlation with MScore and number of robotic cases was performed and pre-determined skill groups were tested. Nine metrics that make up the overall score were also tested via paired t test and subsequent logistic regression to determine which skills differed among experienced and novice robotic surgeons.
Results
We enrolled 38 subjects with experience ranging from 0- < 200 robotic cases. Median time to complete both tasks was less than 10 min. The MScore on the first attempt was correlated to the number of previous robotic cases (R2 = 0.465; p = 0.003). MScore was different between novice and more experienced robotic surgeons on the first (44.7 vs. 63.9; p = 0.005) and second attempt (56.0 vs. 69.9; p = 0.037).
Conclusion
A single virtual simulator exercise can provide objective information in determining proficient use of the robotic surgical system.
doi:10.1186/s12894-015-0051-4
PMCID: PMC4490698  PMID: 26137869
Education; Robotics; Simulation; Virtual reality
20.  High pressure balloon dilation for vesicourethral anastomotic strictures after radical prostatectomy 
BMC Urology  2015;15:62.
Background
Vesicourethral anastomotic stricture (VAS) is a rare but serious complication following radical prostatectomy (RP), and various types of managements for VAS have been proposed. We investigated the efficacy of transurethral balloon dilation in the management of VAS after RP.
Methods
A total of 128 consecutive patients underwent open RP at our hospital between 2008 and 2013; of these, 10 patients (7.8 %) developed VAS. Transurethral balloon dilation was performed in all 10 patients, using a high pressure balloon catheter under fluoroscopic and endoscopic guidance. Follow-up endoscopy was performed, and patients in whom the stricture had recurred underwent repeat dilation. We retrospectively evaluated the management of VAS and short-term efficacy of high pressure balloon dilation.
Results
The mean time from RP to diagnosis of VAS was 9 months (2–40 months); eight patients (80 %) were diagnosed within 6 months of RP. Balloon dilation of VAS was technically successful in all patients, and no perioperative complications were recorded. The median follow-up after balloon dilation was 24 months (7–67 months). There was no recurrence of VAS in eight patients (80 %) after the first balloon dilation, and all patients were controlled within the twice.
Conclusion
High pressure balloon dilation is a highly effective and minimally invasive procedure for treating VAS.
doi:10.1186/s12894-015-0059-9
PMCID: PMC4487584  PMID: 26134267
Balloon dilation; Vesicourethral anastomotic stricture; Prostatectomy
21.  Renal vein thrombosis mimicking urinary calculus: a dilemma of diagnosis 
BMC Urology  2015;15:61.
Background
Renal vein thrombosis (RVT) with flank pain, and hematuria, is often mistaken with renal colic originating from ureteric or renal calculus. Especially in young and otherwise healthy patients, clinicians are easily misled by clinical presentation and calcified RVT.
Case presentation
A 38-year-old woman presented with flank pain and hematuria suggestive of renal calculus on ultrasound. She underwent extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy that failed, leading to the recommendation that percutaneous lithotomy was necessary to remove the renal calculus. In preoperative view of the unusual shape of the calculus without hydronephrosis, noncontrast computed tomography was taken and demonstrated left ureteric calculus. However computed tomography angiography revealed, to our surprise, a calcified RVT that was initially thought to be a urinary calculus.
Conclusion
This case shows that a calcified RVT might mimic a urinary calculus on conventional ultrasonography and ureteric calculus on noncontrast computed tomography. Subsequent computed tomography angiography disclosed that a calcified RVT caused the imaging findings, thus creating a potentially dangerous clinical pitfall. Hence, it is suggested that the possibility of a RVT needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis whenever one detects an uncommon shape for a urinary calculus.
doi:10.1186/s12894-015-0054-1
PMCID: PMC4488058  PMID: 26133978
Renal calculus; Diagnosis; Renal vein thrombosis; Computed tomography
22.  Clinical intervals and diagnostic characteristics in a cohort of prostate cancer patients in Spain: a multicentre observational study 
BMC Urology  2015;15:60.
Background
Little is known about the healthcare process for patients with prostate cancer, mainly because hospital-based data are not routinely published. The main objective of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of prostate cancer patients, the, diagnostic process and the factors that might influence intervals from consultation to diagnosis and from diagnosis to treatment.
Methods
We conducted a multicentre, cohort study in seven hospitals in Spain. Patients’ characteristics and diagnostic and therapeutic variables were obtained from hospital records and patients’ structured interviews from October 2010 to September 2011. We used a multilevel logistic regression model to examine the association between patient care intervals and various variables influencing these intervals (age, BMI, educational level, ECOG, first specialist consultation, tumour stage, PSA, Gleason score, and presence of symptoms) and calculated the odds ratio (OR) and the interquartile range (IQR). To estimate the random inter-hospital variability, we used the median odds ratio (MOR).
Results
470 patients with prostate cancer were included. Mean age was 67.8 (SD: 7.6) years and 75.4 % were physically active. Tumour size was classified as T1 in 41.0 % and as T2 in 40 % of patients, their median Gleason score was 6.0 (IQR:1.0), and 36.1 % had low risk cancer according to the D’Amico classification. The median interval between first consultation and diagnosis was 89 days (IQR:123.5) with no statistically significant variability between centres. Presence of symptoms was associated with a significantly longer interval between first consultation and diagnosis than no symptoms (OR:1.93, 95%CI 1.29–2.89). The median time between diagnosis and first treatment (therapeutic interval) was 75.0 days (IQR:78.0) and significant variability between centres was found (MOR:2.16, 95%CI 1.45–4.87). This interval was shorter in patients with a high PSA value (p = 0.012) and a high Gleason score (p = 0.026).
Conclusions
Most incident prostate cancer patients in Spain are diagnosed at an early stage of an adenocarcinoma. The period to complete the diagnostic process is approximately three months whereas the therapeutic intervals vary among centres and are shorter for patients with a worse prognosis. The presence of prostatic symptoms, PSA level, and Gleason score influence all the clinical intervals differently.
doi:10.1186/s12894-015-0058-x
PMCID: PMC4488131  PMID: 26134117
Prostatic neoplasms; Male urogenital diseases; Multicentre study; Cohort study; Prospective study
23.  Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinomas in young adults 
BMC Urology  2015;15:57.
Background
Little is known about the biological behavior of Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) as few clinical studies have been performed using a large sample size.
Methods
This study included 103 consecutive young adult patients (age ≤ 45 years) with RCC who underwent partial or radical nephrectomy at our institution from 2008 to 2013. Five patients without complete clinical data were excluded. Of the 98 remaining patients, 16 and 82 patients were included in the Xp11.2 translocation and non-Xp11.2 translocation groups, respectively. Clinicopathologic data were collected, including age, gender, tumor size, laterality, symptoms at diagnosis, surgical procedure, pathologic stage, tumor grade, time of recurrence and death.
Results
Xp11.2 translocation RCCs were associated with higher tumor grade and pathologic stage (P < 0.05, Fisher’s exact test). During the median follow-up of 36 months (range: 3–71 months), the number of cancer-related deaths was 4 (4.9 %) and 3 (18.7 %) in the non-Xp11.2 translocation and Xp11.2 translocation groups, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier cancer specific survival curves revealed a significant difference between non-Xp11.2 translocation RCCs and Xp11.2 translocation RCCs in young adults (P = 0.042).
Conclusions
Compared with non-Xp11.2 translocation RCCs, the Xp11.2 translocation RCCs seemingly showed a higher tumor grade and pathologic stage and have similar recurrence-free survival rates but poorer cancer-specific survival rates in young adults.
doi:10.1186/s12894-015-0055-0
PMCID: PMC4487560  PMID: 26126525
Xp11.2 translocation; Renal cell carcinomas, TFE3; FISH
24.  Does visualisation during urethrocystoscopy provide pain relief? Results of an observational study 
BMC Urology  2015;15:56.
Background
To measure the effects of real-time visualisation during urethrocystoscopy on pain in patients who underwent ambulatory urethrocystoscopy.
Methods
An observational study was designed. From June 2012 to June 2013 patients who had ambulatory urethrocystoscopy participated in the study. In order to measure pain perception we used a numeric rating scale (NRS) 0 to 10. Additional data was collected including gender, reason for intervention, use of a rigid or a flexible instrument and whether the patient had had urethrocystoscopy before.
Results
185 patients were evaluated. 125 patients preferred to watch their urethrocystoscopy on a real-time video screen, 60 patients did not. There was no statistically relevant difference in pain perception between those patients who watched their urethrocystoscopy on a real-time video screen and those who did not (p = 0.063). However, men who were allowed to watch their flexible urethrocystoscopy experienced significantly less pain, than those who did not (p = 0.007). No such effects could be measured for rigid urethrocystoscopy (p = 0.317). Furthermore, women experienced significantly higher levels of pain during the urethrocystoscopy than men (p = 0.032).
Conclusions
Visualisation during urethrocystoscopy procedures in general does not significantly decrease pain in patients. Nevertheless, men who undergo flexible urethrocystoscopy should be offered to watch their procedure in real-time on a video screen. To make urethrocystoscopy less painful for both genders, especially for women, should be subject to further research.
doi:10.1186/s12894-015-0053-2
PMCID: PMC4487843  PMID: 26126393
Cystoscopy; Pain; Bladder; Real-time visualisation
25.  Comparison of patient-reported quality of life outcome questionnaire response rates between patients treated surgically for renal cell carcinoma and prostate carcinoma 
BMC Urology  2015;15:58.
Background
We sought to examine differences in response rates to quality of life (QoL) surveys in patients treated surgically for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and prostate cancer (PCa) and to analyze factors associated with non-response of the surveys.
Methods
Patients who underwent surgery for RCC or PCa between 2006 and 2012 were offered enrollment in respective prospective cancer registries that included baseline and annual QoL assessments. We identified 201 RCC patients and 616 PCa patients who completed a baseline QoL survey and were mailed annual QoL surveys [RCC: SF-36, FACT–G (73 questions), PCa: EPIC, IIEF, Max-PC (80 questions)]. We compared patient characteristics between responders and non-responders using a Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous variables and a Fisher’s Exact test for categorical variables.
Results
The overall response rates for the PCa and RCC groups were 63 and 48 % (p < 0.001), respectively. This difference in response rates remained when we limited analysis to only those with early stage disease (pT2 for PCa and pT1 RCC, 62 % vs. 52 %; p = 0.03). PCa characteristics associated with response included older age (64.1 vs 62.6 years, p = 0.032) and robotic versus open surgery (56 % vs 44 %; p = 0.009). There were no characteristics that were associated with response in RCC patients.
Conclusions
Surgically treated PCa patients have higher QoL mail-based survey response rates compared to patients treated surgically for RCC. This difference holds true for clinically localized cancers as well.
doi:10.1186/s12894-015-0057-y
PMCID: PMC4487850  PMID: 26126615
Quality of life; Prostate cancer; Renal cell cancer; Oncology outcomes; Partial nephrectomy; Prostatectomy

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