Bladder neck transection is one of the most difficult procedures for robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP), particularly in patients who have undergone previous transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P), and in those with large median lobes or prostate cancer protruding into the bladder neck. To ensure negative surgical margins and safely preserve the ureteral orifices during bladder neck transection, we propose the use of the transurethral resectoscope for making the incision in the bladder neck before initiating RALP. Thus, we developed a technique for bladder neck transection to facilitate this operation in such patients.
Two Japanese men, aged 61 and 63 years, who were diagnosed with prostate cancer, received a transurethral marking incision of the bladder neck before starting RALP; prostate cancer developed in one patient after TUR-P and the other patient had cancer protruding into the bladder neck. A transurethral resectoscope was used to closely observe the ureteral orifices and bladder necks; the bladder necks were marked to indicate the depth from the mucosa to the muscular layer. During the RALP, the bladder necks were dissected to indicate the depth of the marking incision. The surgical margins were negative and perioperative complications did not occur. The Foley catheters were removed on postoperative day 6, according to the usual protocol. No urinary leakage from the anastomosis sites was observed.
This technique, involving the use of an ordinary transurethral resectoscope, may be an easy procedure to ensure negative surgical margins, safely preserve the ureteral orifices, avoid increasing the bladder neck diameter, and achieve a good quality vesicourethral anastomosis that prevents the risk of suture-related tissue tears.
Bladder neck; Prostate cancer; Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy; Transurethral incision; Transurethral resection of the prostate
The morbidity of whole gland treatment for prostate cancer is significant. Given the low risk of prostate cancer specific mortality for most men diagnosed with prostate cancer, alternative therapies such as sub-total or hemi-ablation of the prostate and focal ablation of prostate tumors are being investigated. The developing role of imaging for prostate tumors will dramatically change and likely improve the treatment morbidity for low risk prostate tumors. Commentary on: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2490/13/2.
Prostate cancer; Therapy; Focal; Cryoablation; Image guided surgery
Patients with non-acute spinal cord injury that carry indwelling urinary catheters have an increased risk of urinary tract infection (UTIs). Antiseptic Silver Alloy-Coated Silicone Urinary Catheters seems to be a promising intervention to reduce UTIs; however, actual evidence cannot be extrapolated to spinal cord injured patients. The aim of this trial is to make a comparison between the use of antiseptic silver alloy-coated silicone urinary catheters and the use of standard urinary catheters in spinal cord injured patients to prevent UTIs.
The study will consist in an open, randomized, multicentre, and parallel clinical trial with blinded assessment. The study will include 742 spinal cord injured patients who require at least seven days of urethral catheterization as a method of bladder voiding. Participants will be online centrally randomized and allocated to one of the two study arms (silver alloy-coated or standard catheters). Catheters will be used for a maximum period of 30 days or removed earlier if the clinician considers it necessary. The main outcome will be the incidence of UTIs by the time of catheter removal or at day 30 after catheterization, the event that occurs first. Intention-to-treat analysis will be performed, as well as a primary analysis of all patients.
The aim of this study is to assess whether silver alloy-coated silicone urinary catheters improve ITUs in spinal cord injured patients. ESCALE is intended to be the first study to evaluate the efficacy of the silver alloy-coated catheters in spinal cord injured patients.
Spinal cord injuries; Urinary tract infection; Urinary catheters; Protocol; Randomized clinical trial
Imprinting is an important epigenetic regulator of gene expression that is often disrupted in cancer. While loss of imprinting (LOI) has been reported for two genes in prostate cancer (IGF2 and TFPI2), disease-related changes in methylation across all imprinted gene regions has not been investigated.
Using an Illumina Infinium Methylation Assay, we analyzed methylation of 396 CpG sites in the promoter regions of 56 genes in a pooled sample of 12 pairs of prostate tumor and adjacent normal tissue. Selected LOI identified from the array was validated using the Sequenom EpiTYPER assay for individual samples and further confirmed by expression data from publicly available datasets.
Methylation significantly increased in 52 sites and significantly decreased in 17 sites across 28 unique genes (P < 0.05), and the strongest evidence for loss of imprinting was demonstrated in tumor suppressor genes DLK1, PLAGL1, SLC22A18, TP73, and WT1. Differential expression of these five genes in prostate tumor versus normal tissue using array data from a publicly available database were consistent with the observed LOI patterns, and WT1 hypermethylation was confirmed using quantitative DNA methylation analysis.
Together, these findings suggest a more widespread dysregulation of genetic imprinting in prostate cancer than previously reported and warrant further investigation.
Imprinting; Prostate cancer; Differential methylation; DLK1; PLAGL1; SLC22A18; TP73; WT1
Villous adenoma arising in the urinary tract is rare tumor. Most cases have been identified as benign neoplasm in the colon. Villous adenoma of the gastrointestinal tract is thought arise from premalignant polyps. Here, we report a case of concurrence of villous adenoma and non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.
An 85-year-old woman presented at our office because of gross hematuria. Cystoscopic examination detected two papillary tumors in the bladder. Each tumor was resected and diagnosed, respectively. Histopathology confirmed that the resected one tumor was a villous adenoma, and the other was urothelial carcinoma (T1, high grade). Immunostaining for cytokeratin (CK) 7, CK20 and Ki-67 confirmed that CK7: (−), CK20: (+) and Ki-67: (<=30%) in villous adenoma while CK7: (+), CK20: (+), and Ki-67: (70%) in urothelial carcinoma. Three months later from TUR, urothelial carcinoma recurred in the trigone. She received adjuvant intravesical immunotherapy with BCG post TUR for the recurrence site.
There were no specific findings on ultrasonography, CT, MRI or cystoscopic examination morphologically. Therefore, pre-pathological villous adenoma of the bladder is extremely difficult to diagnose. There are some case reports of solitary villous adenoma in the bladder or with coexisting adeno carcinoma. However, to the best of our knowledge, this is only the second report of villous adenoma in the bladder of coexisting urothelial carcinoma that has been published in the literature. Premalignant villous adenoma of the bladder is extremely rare and difficult to diagnose without histologic examination. Any suspicious lesion of the bladder should be biopsied and/or resected to confirm histology.
Urinary bladder neoplasms; Villous adenoma; Urothelial carcinoma
Using the isovolumetric bladder rhythmic contraction (BRC) model in anesthetized rats, we have quantified the responsiveness to unilateral and bilateral stimulation of the L6 spinal nerve (SN) and characterized the relationship between stimulus intensity and inhibition of the bladder micturition reflex.
A wire electrode was placed under either one or both of the L6 SN roots. A cannula was placed into the bladder via the urethra and the urethra was ligated. Saline infusion induced BRC.
At motor threshold (Tmot) intensity, SN stimulation of both roots (10 Hz) for 10 min reduced bladder contraction frequency from 0.63 ± 0.04 to 0.17 ± 0.09 contractions per min (26 ± 14% of baseline control; n = 10, p < 0.05). However, the same intensity of unilateral stimulation (n = 15) or sequential stimulation of both SNs (e.g. 5 min per side alternatively for a total of 10 min or 20 min) was less efficacious. The greater sensitivity to bilateral stimulation is not dependent upon precise bilateral timing of the stimulation pulses. Bilateral stimulation also produced both acute and prolonged- inhibition on bladder contractions in a stimulation intensity dependent fashion.
Using the bladder rhythmic contraction model, bilateral stimulation was more effective than unilateral stimulation of the SN. Clinical testing should be conducted to further compare efficacies of unilateral and bilateral stimulation. Bilateral stimulation may allow the use of lower stimulation intensities to achieve higher efficacy for neurostimulation therapies on urinary tract control.
Electrical stimulation; Bilateral; Bladder; Micturition; Spinal nerve
To eradicate hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using a stepwise infection control strategy that includes an avoidance of antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP) based on surgical wound classification and an improvement in operative procedures in gasless single-port urologic surgery.
The study was conducted at an 801-bed university hospital. Since 2001, in the urology ward, we have introduced the stepwise infection control strategy. In 2007, surveillance cultures for MRSA in all urological patients were commenced. The annual incidence of MRSA was calculated as a total number of newly identified MRSA cases per 1,000 patient days. Trend analysis was performed using a Poisson regression.
Over the study period, 139,866 patients, including 10,201 urology patients, were admitted to our hospital. Of these patients, 3,719 patients, including 134 ones in the urology ward, were diagnosed with MRSA throughout the entire hospital. Although the incidence of MRSA increased throughout the entire hospital (p = 0.002), it decreased significantly in the urology ward (p < 0.0001). Of the 134 cases, 45 (33.6%) were classified as “imported,” and 89 (66.4%) as “acquired.” In the urology ward, the incidence of acquired MRSA decreased significantly over time (p < 0.0001), whereas the incidence of imported MRSA did not change over time (p = 0.66). A significant decrease (p < 0.0001) in the incidence of clinically significant MRSA infection over time was found.
Stepwise infection control strategy that includes a reduction or avoidance of antimicrobial prophylaxis in minimally invasive surgery can contribute to a reduction in hospital-acquired MRSA.
Current study has approved by the institutional ethical review board (No.1141).
Antibiotic prophylaxis; Hospital infections; Infection control; Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Minimally invasive surgery
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci are a leading cause of hospital-acquired urinary tract infection and a growing concern for the clinician. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of daptomycin in the treatment of patients with vancomycin-resistant enterococcal urinary tract infection treated in our 200-bed community-based institution.
Patients with confirmed symptomatic vancomycin-resistant enterococcal urinary tract infection identified by infectious disease consultation between January 1, 2007, and December 8, 2009, vancomycin-resistant enterococci–positive urine culture, and urinary symptoms and/or pyuria on urinalysis, and treated with daptomycin, were included in this case series. Daptomycin was generally administered at a planned dosage regimen of ≥5 mg/kg every 24 hours in patients with normal to moderately impaired kidney function or every 48 hours in patients with severe kidney disease. Microbiologic cure was defined as eradication of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in urine cultures taken after the completion of daptomycin treatment. Clinical cure was defined by symptom resolution, as assessed by the infectious disease clinician caring for the patient.
Included in this case series are 10 patients who received daptomycin for confirmed vancomycin-resistant enterococcal urinary tract infection. Patients had a history of extensive hospital stays. Chart review revealed that all levels of kidney function (3, 2, 3, and 2 patients with kidney disease classified as normal, mild, moderate, and severe/kidney failure, respectively) were represented in the sample and that patients with (n = 5) or without (n = 5) previous urinary tract infection and with (n = 3) or without (n = 7) Foley catheters were included. Treatment with daptomycin achieved clinical cure and vancomycin-resistant enterococcal eradication in all cases in this series.
Treatment with daptomycin was well tolerated and effective in all patients in this series, regardless of renal function, history of urinary tract infection, or Foley catheter use. This study adds to emerging clinical evidence that daptomycin is a valuable treatment for vancomycin-resistant enterococcal urinary tract infection.
Daptomycin; Enterococcus faecalis; Enterococcus faecium; Urinary tract infection; Vancomycin-resistant enterococci
Several studies in the oncology literature have demonstrated the prognostic value of baseline quality of life (QoL). We investigated whether changes in QoL could predict survival in prostate cancer patients.
We evaluated 250 prostate cancer patients treated at our institution between Jan 2001 and Dec 2009 who were available for a minimum follow-up of 3 months. QoL was evaluated at baseline and after 3 months of treatment initiation using EORTC-QLQ-C30. Cox regression evaluated the prognostic significance of baseline and changes in QoL scores after adjusting for relevant clinical and demographic variables.
Median overall survival was 89.1 months (95% CI: 56.5-121.7). Baseline QoL scale predictive of survival upon multivariate analysis was fatigue (p = 0.001). Associations between changes in QoL and survival, upon multivariate analysis, were observed for dyspnea and cognitive functioning. Every 10-point increase (worsening) in dyspnea was associated with a 16% increased risk of death (HR = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.30, p = 0.02), and every 10-point increase (improvement) in cognitive functioning was associated with a 24% decreased risk of death (HR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.98, p = 0.04).
This study provides preliminary evidence to indicate that prostate cancer patients with better baseline fatigue and patients whose dyspnea and cognitive functioning improves within 3 months of treatment are at a significantly decreased risk of mortality.
To date, elective nephron-sparing surgery is an established method for the exstirpation of renal tumors. While open partial nephrectomy remains the reference standard of the management of renal masses, laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) continues to evolve. Conventional techniques include clamping the renal vessels risking ischaemic damage of the clamped organ. Thus, new techniques are needed that combine a sufficient tissue incision for exstirpation of the tumor with an efficient coagulation to assure haemostasis and abandon renal vessel clamping in LPN. Laser-excision of renal tumors during laparoscopic surgery seems to be a logical solution.
We performed nephron-sparing surgery without clamping of the renal vessels in 11 patients with a renal tumor in exophytic position (mean size 32 mm, ranging 8–45 mm) by laser-supported LPN.
Regular ultrasound monitoring and insertion of a temporary drainage showed no evidence of postoperative hemorrhage. All tumors were removed with a histopathologically confirmed surrounding margin of normal renal tissue (R0 resection). Serum creatinine, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were nearly unaltered before and after surgery.
The experience won in these patients have confirmed that laser-assisted LPN without clamping of the renal vessels could be a safe and gentle alternative to classic partial nephrectomy in patients with exophytic position of renal tumors.
Laser partial nephrectomy; Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy; Renal resection without ischaemia; Ischaemia; Laser
Nocturia is defined as waking one or more times during the night due to the urge to void. Recently, the effectiveness of several sedatives and analgesics for nocturia has been reported. We herein investigated the effects of ramelteon, an antioxidant and sleep inducer, on nocturia unresponsive to α1-blocker monotherapy in males with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) as a pilot study.
Subjects were 19 patients who had LUTS suggestive of benign prostate hyperplasia, received α1-blockers (tamsulosin, silodosin, or naftopidil), and continued to have two or more episodes of nocturia per night before starting ramelteon. Ramelteon at 8 mg once daily for one month was added to the α1-blocker. A self-administered questionnaire including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL) index, Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS), and Nocturia Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (N-QOL) were assessed before and one month after starting ramelteon.
The mean score on IPSS question 7 (nocturia) decreased significantly from 2.88 before starting ramelteon to 2.41 one month after starting the medication (P = 0.03). The mean total OABSS decreased significantly from 6.31 to 5.38 (P = 0.03), and the mean for OABSS question 2 (nighttime frequency of nocturia) also significantly decreased from 2.63 to 2.13 (P = 0.01). The mean total N-QOL score did not change significantly. Two patients had dizziness; the remaining patients had no adverse drug-related events.
Ramelteon in combination with an α1-blocker could be a treatment option for reducing nocturia in men with BPH.
Ramelteon; Melatonin; Nocturia; Benign prostate hyperplasia; α1-blocker
Transcatheter renal artery embolization is an effective and minimally invasive treatment option for acute renal bleeding. Early post-interventional complications include groin hematoma, incomplete embolization, coil misplacement and coil migration. Late complications are rare and mostly related to coil migration.
A 22-year-old woman with a history of recurrent stone disease and a lumbal meningomyelocele underwent bilateral open pyelolithotomy for bilateral staghorn calculi. Post-operatively, acute hemorrhage of the left kidney occurred and selective arterial coil embolization of a lower pole interlobular renal artery was performed twice.
Four years after this intervention the patient presented with a new 15.4 mm stone in the lower calyx of the left kidney. After two extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatments disintegration of the stone was not detectable. Therefore, flexible ureterorenoscopy was performed and revealed that the stone was adherent to a partially intraluminal metal coil in the lower renal calyx. The intracalyceal part of the coil and the adherent stone were successfully removed using the holmium laser.
Therapy-resistant nephrolithiasis was caused by a migrated metal coil, which was placed four years earlier for the treatment of acute post-operative renal bleeding. Renal coils in close vicinity to the renal pelvis can migrate into the collecting system and trigger renal stone formation. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy seems to be inefficient for these composite stones. Identification of these rare stones is possible during retrograde intrarenal surgery. It also enables immediate stone disintegration and removal of the stone fragments and the intraluminal coil material.
Selective renal embolization; Coil-migration; Nephrolithiasis; Renal bleeding
The present study was aimed at determining the prophylactic efficacy of American cranberry (AC) extract (Cysticlean®) in women with recurrent symptomatic postcoital urinary tract infections (PCUTI), non-consumer of AC extract in the past 3 months before inclusion, and to determine changes in their quality of life (QoL).
This was a single center, observational, prospective study in a total of 20 women (mean age 35.2 years; 50.0% were married). Patients were followed up for 3 and 6 months during treatment.
The number of PCUTIs in the previous 3 months prior to start the treatment with Cysticlean® was 2.8±1.3 and it was reduced to 0.2±0.5 at Month 6 (P<0.0001), which represent a 93% improvement. At baseline, the mean score on the VAS scale (range from 0 to 100) for assessing the QoL was 62.4±19.1, increasing to 78.2±12.4 at Month 6 (P=0.0002), which represents a 20% improvement. All patients had an infection with positive urine culture at baseline, after 6 months there were only 3 symptomatic infections (P<0.001). The most common bacterium was Escherichia coli.
Prophylaxis with American cranberry extract (Cysticlean®) could be an alternative to classical therapies with antibiotics. Further studies are needed to confirm results obtained in this pilot study.
Cranberry; Cysticlean®; Cystitis; Postcoital; QoL; Urinary tract infections
To determine incidence and remission of UI as well as changes in UI prevalence in the Norwegian EPINCONT surveys.
The EPINCONT surveys were conducted in the county of Nord-Trøndelag, Norway, as part of two large cross-sectional health surveys (HUNT2 and HUNT3) in 1995 – 1997 (EPINCONT1 (E1)), and 2006 – 2008 (EPINCONT2 (E2)). EPINCONT collected information about prevalence of UI, as well as information about type and severity of UI.
A 16% relative increase in UI prevalence was found in 11 years. The women who answered E2 were significantly older, had a higher BMI and higher prevalence of diseases such as asthma, diabetes and angina compared with the women who answered E1.
The incidence of UI was 18.7%. Increase in BMI (OR 1.03, 95% CI: 1.02 – 1.04), weight increase (OR 1.29 (95% CI: 1.14 – 1.45) for gaining 3 – 10 kilos and OR 1.71 (95% CI: 1.47 – 1.99) for gaining 10 kilos or more) and parity (OR 1.37 (95% CI: 1.04 – 1.79) for 1 childbirth, OR 1.28 (95% CI: 1.03 – 1.61) for 2 childbirths, and OR 1.56 (95% CI: 1.26 – 1.95) for 3 or more childbirths when participating in E2) were all found to be associated with increased odds of incident UI in adjusted regression analyses. Increasing age reduced the odds of incident UI. The 11 year remission of UI was 34.1%. Increasing age (OR 0.98, 95% CI: 0.98 – 0.99), increasing BMI (OR 0.96, 95% CI: 0.95 – 0.98) and large weight gains of 10 kilos or more (OR 0.69, 95% CI: 0.54 – 0.88) were all associated with reduced remission of UI.
Crude UI prevalence increased between the studies. Changes in known risk factors for UI such as age, BMI, weight and parity could explain some of the relative increase in prevalence, and were also found to be associated with either incidence of UI, remission of UI or both.
Prevalence; Incidence; Remission; Urinary incontinence; Diabetes; Women; Epidemiology; EPINCONT; HUNT
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a histopathologically and molecularly heterogeneous disease with the chromophobe subtype (chRCC) accounting for approximately 5% of all cases. The median overall survival of advanced RCC has improved significantly since the advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors. However, high-quality evidence for the use of new generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with advanced chRCC is lacking. Few published case reports have highlighted the use of temsirolimus in chRCC.
Here, we report the case of a 36-year-old Caucasian woman with metastatic chRCC with predominantly skeletal metastases who was refractory to sunitinib who demonstrated a durable clinical response to temsirolimus lasting 20 months. We review the available evidence pertaining to the use of new generation molecularly targeted agents, in particular mTOR inhibitors in chRCC and discuss their emerging role in the management of this disease which would aid the oncologists faced with the challenge of treating this rare type of RCC.
Conducting randomised clinical trials in this rarer sub-group of patients would be challenging and our case report and the evidence reviewed would guide the physicians to make informed decision regarding the management of these patients.
Temsirolimus; Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma; Renal cell cancer
Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key molecules for tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. Over-expression of different MMPs in tumor tissues can disturb the homeostasis and increase the level of various body fluids. Many MMPs including high molecular weights (HMWs) were detected in the urine of prostate and bladder cancer patients. Our aim here is to assess the usefulness of HMW MMPs as non invasive biomarkers in bilharzial bladder cancer in Egyptian patients.
The activity of different MMPs including HMW species was determined using zymographic analysis technique in the urine samples procured from sixty six bladder cancer patients (bilharzial and non-bilharzial) as well as hundred healthy control subjects. Also, the correlation between these HMW MMPs activities and different clinico-pathological parameters was investigated.
High frequency of urine MMPs (uMMPs) activity was determined in 63.6% of examined tumor cases, however, none of the control cases showed any uMMPs activity. MMP-9 had the highest activity (62%) followed by MMP9/NGAL (60%), MMP-2 (54.5%), MMP-9 dimer (53%), ADAMTS (25.6%), and the lowest one was MMP-9/TIMP-1 (12%) only. There was no correlation between uMMPs and any of clinico-pathological parameters including age, gender, tumor size and type, bilharziasis, grade, lymph node involvement, and invasion to the prostate. A significant correlation was established only between MMP-9/TIMP-1 activities with the tumor size.
This study revealed that the detection of urinary MMPs including HMWs activity might be sensitive biomarkers for prediction of bladder cancer. It is also demonstrate that the detection of these urinary HMW gelatinases could not differentiate between bilharzial and non bilharzial bladder cancer subtypes.
Bladder cancer; High molecular weight matrix metalloproteinases; Early detection; Biomarkers
Prior studies have compared the effect of spinal cord injury elicited using distinct approaches on motor and visceral function. However, the impact of such discrete modes of injury specifically on bladder muscle contractility has not been explored in detail. The goal of this study is to compare the impact of complete spinal cord transection versus clip compression at thoracic vertebra eight (T8) on bladder muscle contractility.
Rats underwent no treatment (Control), laminectomy (Sham, SH); complete extradural transection (TX); or cord compression with an aneurysm clip (CX). Bladders and spinal cords were harvested at 6 wk for contractility studies or histological analysis.
Detrusor strips from TX and CX rats showed higher spontaneous activity than those from SH rats. Furthermore, the duration of the neurally-mediated contractile response was longer in TX and CX rats compared to controls and showed attenuated relaxation. No significant differences were observed between muscle strips from SH, TX or CX rats in response to KCl, ATP or phenylephrine. However, tissues from TX and CX rats showed a higher sensitivity to carbachol compared to that from SH animals.
Complete SCI in rats either by cord transection or compression elicits qualitatively similar changes in bladder muscle contractility. Whereas cord transection is arguably easier to perform experimentally, cord compression better models the situation observed clinically, such that each approach has clear advantages and limitations.
Bladder; Smooth muscle; Spinal cord injury; Muscle contractility
The management of patients with high-grade non muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) brings diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. In the current study, we sought to study the natural history of progression to "secondary" muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC)-cancer that developed during follow up of patients presenting with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).
Between 1998 and 2008, 760 patients were treated for bladder cancer. Primary MIBC (>=T2) tumors (present upon presentation) were diagnosed in 114 patients. All patients with high-grade NMIBC were treated with intravesical BCG. Mean follow-up was 44 months.
Forty patients (6.1%) developed secondary MIBC after a mean period of 21 months from initial diagnosis of bladder cancer. The 2- and 5-year disease-specific survival rates were better for patients with secondary MIBC (90% and 56% compared to 69% and 42% for patients with primary disease, p=0.03). The Kaplan-Meier curves of the two groups were parallel but displaced by approximately 2 years.
In the current series, MIBC progression occurred among initially presenting patients with NMIBC in 6.1%. In most patients, the initial diagnosis of NMIBC is correct and muscle invasion occurs after a mean period of about 2 years. This supports a non-radical approach in patients with high-grade T1, Ta or Tis. Meticulous follow-up with liberal biopsy of any suspicious lesion may provide early diagnosis of invasive disease.
Bladder cancer; Muscle invasive; Progression; Survival; Outcomes; Accuracy; BCG; Intravesical therapy
Pheochromocytoma (paraganglioma) of the urinary bladder is a rare tumor. Herein we sought to review the contemporary literature on pheochromocytomas of the urinary bladder in order to further illustrate the presentation, treatment options and outcomes of patients diagnosed with these tumors.
A comprehensive review of the current literature was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines by accessing the NCBI PubMed database and using the search terms “paraganglioma, pheochromocytoma, bladder.” This search resulted in the identification of 186 articles published between January 1980 and April 2012 of which 80 articles were ultimately included in our analysis.
Pheochromocytomas usually occurred in young adult Caucasians (mean age, 43.3 years; range,11–84 years). According to the literature, the most common symptoms and signs of pheochromocytomas of the urinary bladder were hypertension, headache, and hematuria. Of the 77 cases that commented on catecholamine production, 65 patients had biochemically functional tumors. Approximately 20% of patients were treated by transurethral resection alone, 70% by partial cystectomy and 10% by radical cystectomy. The 75 patients with follow-up information had a mean follow-up of 35 months. At the time of last follow-up, 15 (14.2%) had disease recurrence, 10 (9.4%) had metastasis, and 65 (61.3%) were alive.
Pheochromocytomas of the urinary bladder tend to be functional and occur mostly in young adult Caucasians. Patients with localized tumors have an extremely favorable prognosis and may be managed by less aggressive modalities, whereas patients with metastatic disease have a significant reduction in survival rates despite aggressive treatment.
Paraganglioma; Pheochromocytoma; Bladder; Treatment; Diagnosis; Prognosis
The editors of BMC Urology would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 12 (2012).
Sequential compression devices (SCDs) are commonly used for thromboprophylaxis in postoperative patients but compliance is often poor. We investigated causes for noncompliance, examining both hospital and patient related factors.
100 patients undergoing inpatient urologic surgery were enrolled. All patient had SCD sleeves placed preoperatively. Postoperative observations determined SCD compliance and reasons for non-compliance. Patient demographics, length of stay, inpatient unit type, and surgery type were recorded. At discharge, a patient survey gauged knowledge and attitudes regarding SCDs and bother with SCDs. Statistical analysis was performed to correlate SCD compliance with patient demographics; patient knowledge and attitudes regarding SCDs; and patient self-reported bother with SCDs.
Observed overall compliance was 78.6%. The most commonly observed reasons for non-compliance were SCD machines not being initially available on the ward (71% of non-compliant observations on post-operative day 1) and SCD use not being restarted promptly after return to bed (50% of non-compliant observations for entire hospital stay). Mean self-reported bother scores related to SCDs were low, ranging from 1–3 out of 10 for all 12 categories of bother assessed. Patient demographics, knowledge, attitudes and bother with SCD devices were not significantly associated with non-compliance.
Patient self-reported bother with SCD devices was low. Hospital factors, including SCD machine availability and timely restarting of devices by nursing staff when a patient returns to bed, played a greater role in SCD non-compliance than patient factors. Identifying and addressing hospital related causes for poor SCD compliance may improve postoperative urologic patient safety.
Venous thromboembolism; Intermittent pneumatic compression devices; Postoperative complications; Compliance
Low nuclear expression of the RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) has previously been found to be associated with poor prognosis in several cancer forms e.g. breast, ovarian, colorectal, prostate cancer and malignant melanoma. The aim of this study was to examine the prognostic impact of RBM3 expression in urinary bladder cancer.
Immunohistochemical RBM3 expression was examined in tumours from 343 patients with urothelial bladder cancer. Chi-square and Spearman’s correlation tests were applied to explore associations between RBM3 expression and clinicopathological characteristics. The impact of RBM3 expression on disease-specific survival (DSS), 5-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling.
Reduced nuclear RBM3 expression was significantly associated with more advanced tumour (T) stage (p <0.001) and high grade tumours (p=0.004). Negative RBM3 expression was associated with a significantly shorter DSS (HR=2.55; 95% CI 1.68-3.86)) and 5-year OS (HR=2.10; 95% CI 1.56-2.82), also in multivariable analysis (HR=1.65; 95% CI 1.07-2.53 for DSS and HR=1.54; 95% CI 1.13-2.10 for 5-year OS). In patients with Ta and T1 tumours expressing reduced RBM3 levels, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significantly shorter PFS (p=0.048) and 5-year OS (p=0.006).
Loss of RBM3 expression is associated with clinically more aggressive tumours and an independent factor of poor prognosis in patients with urothelial bladder cancer and a potentially useful biomarker for treatment stratification and surveillance of disease progression.
RBM3; Urothelial bladder cancer; Prognosis
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH) is said to affect at least a third of men over 60. However, the literature contains fewer than 200 reports of prostates over 200g in mass - Giant Prostatic Hypertrophy (GPH). Nephrogenic adenomas are benign lesions of the urinary tract that are believed to represent the local proliferation of shed renal tubular cells implanting at sites of urothelial injury.
We present the first case in the literature of these two rare pathologies co-existing in the same patient and the successful management and 36-month follow-up of the patient’s symptoms with minimally invasive therapy, including the still-uncommon selective prostatic artery embolisation. We also briefly discuss the role of PAX2 in injured renal tissues and nephrogenic adenomas.
Symptomatic Giant Prostatic Hypertrophy (GPH) can be successfully managed with a combination of serial TURPs, 5 α-reductase inhibition and selective prostatic artery embolisation (SPAE).
During the last few decades, marital tensions and stresses have influenced various dimensions of life. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of combined psycho-physiological therapy (stretching therapy combined with breathing exercise) on sexual satisfaction among heterosexual men.
For this research, we used “convenience sampling” to select 80 males, who were then split equally into two groups, the intervention group and the control group, both groups containing men who had voiced a desire to be in the experimental group. For collection of data, we used an identical quasi-experimental design called the “nonequivalent control group.” Therapy sessions, each lasting 90 to 120 min, were carried out on the same 3 days of the week (Sunday, Tuesday, and Thursday) for a total of 20 sessions. The volunteers were selected from heterosexual men with stable relationships, who had been married a minimum of 6 months and were ages 20 to 55 years of age. Pre-tests, post-tests, and follow-up tests were conducted in a clinic at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM  ). For assessment, we used the sexual satisfaction subscale of the ENRICH  questionnaire.
The intervention group had better post-test scores than the control group. Also, follow-up test scores for the intervention group were marginally better than those for the control group, but the difference did not reach statistical significance.
Combined psycho-physiological therapy including stretching and breathing exercise leads to improved sexual satisfaction.
Psycho-physiological therapy; Stretching therapy; Breathing exercise; Sexual satisfaction
The objective of this study is to determine in a case series (four patients) how calcified deposits in renal papillae are associated with the development of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) papillary calculi.
From the recently collected papillary calculi, we evaluated retrospectively patients, subjected to retrograde ureteroscopy, with COM papillary lithiasis.
The COM papillary calculi were found to result from subepithelial injury. Many of these lesions underwent calcification by hydroxyapatite (HAP), with calculus morphology and the amount of HAP in the concave zone dependent on the location of the calcified injury. Most of these HAP deposits grew, eroding the epithelium covering the renal papillae, coming into contact with urine and starting the development of COM calculi. Subepithelial HAP plaques may alter the epithelium covering the papillae, resulting in the deposit of COM crystals directly onto the epithelium. Tissue calcification depends on a pre-existing injury, the continuation of this process is due to modulators and/or crystallization inhibitors deficiency.
Since calculus morphology and the amount of detected HAP are dependent on the location and widespread of calcified injury, all types of papillary COM calculi can be found in the same patient. All patients had subepithelial calcifications, with fewer papillary calculi, demonstrating that some subepithelial calcifications did not further evolve and were reabsorbed. A high number of subepithelial calcifications increases the likelihood that some will be transformed into COM papillary calculi.
Renal calculi; Pathologic calcification; Hydroxyapatite; Kidney papilla; Calcium oxalate monohydrate