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1.  Study of the response of the penile corporal tissue and cavernosus muscles to micturition 
BMC Urology  2008;8:4.
Background
The reaction of the corpora cavernosa (CC), the corpus spongiosum (CS), the bulbocavernosus (BCM) and ischiocavernosus (ICM) muscles to passage of urine through the urethra during micturition is not known. We investigated the hypothesis that the passage of urine through the urethra stimulates the corporal tissue and cavernosus muscles.
Methods
In 30 healthy men (mean age 42.8 ± 11.7 years), the electromyographic activity (EMG) of the CC, CS, BCM, and ICM were recorded before and during micturition, and on interruption of and straining during micturition. These tests were repeated after individual anesthetization of urethra, corporal tissue, and cavernosus muscles.
Results
During micturition, the slow wave variables (frequency, amplitude, conduction velocity) of the CC and CS decreased while the motor unit action potentials of the BCM and ICM increased; these EMG changes were mild and returned to the basal values on interruption or termination of micturition. Micturition after individual anesthetization of urethra, corporal tissue and cavernosal muscles did not effect significant EMG changes in these structures, while saline administration produced changes similar to those occurring before saline administration.
Conclusion
The decrease of sinusoidal and increase of cavernosus muscles' EMG activity during micturition apparently denotes sinusoidal relaxation and cavernosus muscles contraction. Sinusoidal muscle relaxation and cavernosus muscles contraction upon micturition are suggested to be mediated through a 'urethro-corporocavernosal reflex'. These sinusoidal and cavernosus muscle changes appear to produce a mild degree of penile tumescence and stretch which might assist in urinary flow during micturition.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-8-4
PMCID: PMC2270861  PMID: 18312692
2.  On the pathogenesis of penile venous leakage: role of the tunica albuginea 
BMC Urology  2007;7:14.
Background
Etiology of venogenic erectile dysfunction is not exactly known. Various pathologic processes were accused but none proved entirely satisfactory. These include presence of large venous channels draining corpora cavernosa, Peyronie's disease, diabetes and structural alterations in fibroblastic components of trabeculae and cavernous smooth muscles. We investigated hypothesis that tunica albuginea atrophy with a resulting subluxation and redundancy effects venous leakage during erection.
Methods
18 patients (mean age 33.6 ± 2.8 SD years) with venogenic erectile dysfunction and 17 volunteers for control (mean age 31.7 ± 2.2 SD years) were studied. Intracorporal pressure was recorded in all subjects; tunica albuginea biopsies were taken from 18 patients and 9 controls and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome stains.
Results
In flaccid phase intracorporal pressure recorded a mean of 11.8 ± 0.8 cm H2O for control subjects and for patients of 5.2 ± 0.6 cm, while during induced erection recorded 98.4 ± 6.2 and 5.9 ± 0.7 cmH2O, respectively. Microscopically, tunica albuginea of controls consisted of circularly-oriented collagen impregnated with elastic fibers. Tunica albuginea of patients showed degenerative and atrophic changes of collagen fibers; elastic fibers were scarce or absent.
Conclusion
Study has shown that during erection intracorporal pressure of patients with venogenic erectile dysfunction was significantly lower than that of controls. Tunica albuginea collagen fibers exhibited degenerative and atrophic changes which presumably lead to tunica albuginea subluxation and floppiness. These tunica albuginea changes seem to explain cause of lowered intracorporal pressure which apparently results from loss of tunica albuginea veno-occlusive mechanism. Causes of tunica albuginea atrophic changes and subluxation need to be studied.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-7-14
PMCID: PMC1995196  PMID: 17803807
3.  The hypoactive corpora cavernosa with degenerative erectile dysfunction: a new syndrome 
BMC Urology  2006;6:13.
Background
In a group of 22 patients with erectile dysfunction, vasculogenic, neurogenic, endocrinologic or psychogenic investigations failed to find a cause for their erectile dysfunction. The electro-cavernosograms of these patients recorded a diminished activity. We investigated the hypothesis that diminished corpus cavernosum electromyography activity was the cause of erectile dysfunction in these patients.
Methods
The study comprised the above mentioned 22 patients (study group, 43.8 ± 5.9 SD years) and 15 healthy volunteers (control group, 41.8 ± 5.1 SD years). The electro-cavernosograms were recorded in the flaccid, erectile and detumescent phases by 2 electrodes inserted into the corpus cavernosum.
Results
The electro-cavernosogram of the healthy volunteers registered in the flaccid phase regular slow waves and random action potentials. The wave variables declined significantly in the erectile phase (p < 0.01). In the study group, the slow wave variables in the flaccid phase exhibited a significant decrease (p < 0.05) compared to the healthy volunteers, and the rhythm was irregular. Erection did not occur with sildenafil administration or intracavernosal papaverine injection, and penile implant was performed. Biopsy examination showed degenerated muscle fibers, and fragmented collagen and elastic fibers with areas of fibrosis.
Conclusion
A novel concept of the cause of erectile dysfunction was presented. Corpora cavernosa showed degenerative changes on histopathologic examination and exhibited diminished electromyography activity. They did not respond to sildenafil administration or intracavernosal papaverine injection. Penile implants were the only treatment. The condition is given the name 'hypoactive corpus cavernosum'. The cause of corpus cavernosum degenerative changes needs further study.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-6-13
PMCID: PMC1523357  PMID: 16723018

Results 1-3 (3)