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1.  Langerhans cell histiocytosis on the penis: a case report 
BMC Urology  2006;6:28.
Background
Langerhans cell histiocytosis affects mainly young children and features an accumulation of CD1a+ dendritic Langerhans cells in the bone, skin, and other organs. A few cases of Langerhans cell histiocytosis on the penis have been reported in the literature. We present a case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis on the penis and review the similar cases in the literature.
Case presentation
The patient was a 13-year-old boy who had a history of lymph node, femur bone, and pituitary-thalmic axis lesions from Langerhans cell histiocytosis who noticed a painful nodule on the prepuce of his penis. The histological and immunohistochemical examination fulfilled the criteria of Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
Conclusion
We herein describe the case reported of Langerhans cell histiocytosis on the penis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-6-28
PMCID: PMC1634755  PMID: 17034629
2.  Ectopic thyroid in an adrenal mass: a case report 
BMC Urology  2006;6:18.
Background
It is difficult to explain ectopic thyroid beneath the diaphragm because during the development the thyroid descends from the tongue to the anterior of the trachea. A few cases of ectopic lesions have been reported in the literature for abdominal organs including the adrenal glands, but the mechanism by which the thyroid components migrate into the abdomen has been poorly understood.
Case presentation
A 54-year-old woman was diagnosed as having an adrenal mass. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was carried out. Microscopically, the mass was composed of normal adrenal and ectopic thyroid tissues.
Conclusion
We herein describe the fourth case reported of ectopic thyroid in the adrenal gland.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-6-18
PMCID: PMC1555601  PMID: 16899136
3.  Testicular seminoma after the complete remission of extragonadal yolk sac tumor : a case report 
BMC Urology  2004;4:13.
Background
Between 2% and 5% of malignant germ-cell tumors in men arise at extragonadal sites. Of extragonadal germ cell tumors, testicular carcinoma in situ (CIS) are present in 31–42% of cases, and CIS are reported to have low sensitivity to chemotherapy in spite of the various morphology and to have a high likelihood of developing into testicular tumors. A testicular biopsy may thus be highly advisable when evaluating an extragonadal germ cell tumor.
Case presentation
A 36-year-old man was diagnosed as having an extragonadal non-seminomatous germ cell tumor, that was treated by cisplatin-based chemotherapy, leading to a complete remission. In the meantime, testicular tumors were not detected by means of ultrasonography. About 4 years later, a right testicular tumor was found, and orchiectomy was carried out. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of seminoma.
Conclusions
We herein report a case of metachronous occurrence of an extragonadal and gonadal germ cell tumor. In the evaluation of an extragonadal germ cell tumor, a histological examination should be included since ultrasonography is not sufficient to detect CIS or minute lesions of the testis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-4-13
PMCID: PMC535804  PMID: 15546481

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