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1.  Type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) and its impact on angiogenesis, progression and patient survival after radical nephrectomy 
BMC Urology  2010;10:20.
Background
To examine the expression of type 1 plasminogen inhibitor (PAI-1) in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC), and its possible association with microvessel density (MVD), the expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), nuclear grade, tumour stage, continuously coded tumour size (CCTS) and to assess the value of PAI as a prognostic marker in 162 patients with CCRCC treated with radical nephrectomy.
Methods
A total of 172 consecutive patients with CCRCC treated with radical nephrectomy were enrolled in the study. The expression of PAI-1, TSP-1 and factor VIII were analysed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues without knowledge of the clinical outcome. Ten cases, where PAI-1 immunohistochemistry was not possible due to technical problems and lack of material, were excluded. Sixty-nine patients (43%) died of RCC, while 47 patients (29%) died of other diseases. Median follow-up was 13.8 years for the surviving 46 patients (28%).
Results
Nine percent of the tumours showed PAI-1 positivity. High expression of PAI-1 was significantly inversely correlated with TSP-1 (p = 0.046) and directly with advanced stage (p = 0.008), high NG (3+4) (p = 0.002), tumour size (p = 0.011), microvessel density (p = 0.049) and disease progression (p = 0.002). In univariate analysis PAI-1 was a significant prognosticator of cancer-specific survival (CSS) (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that TNM stage (p < 0.001), PAI-1 (p = 0.020), TSP-1 (p < 0.001) and MVD (p = 0.007) were independent predictors of CSS.
Conclusions
PAI-1 was found to be an independently significant prognosticator of CSS and a promoter of tumour angiogenesis, aggressiveness and progression in CCRCC.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-20
PMCID: PMC3002359  PMID: 21129210
2.  The prognostic relevance of interactions between venous invasion, lymph node involvement and distant metastases in renal cell carcinoma after radical nephrectomy 
BMC Urology  2008;8:19.
Background
To investigate a possible prognostic significance of interactions between lymph node invasion (LNI), synchronous distant metastases (SDM), and venous invasion (VI) adjusted for mode of detection, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and tumour size (TS) in 196 patients with renal cell carcinoma treated with radical nephrectomy.
Methods
Median follow-up was 5.5 years (mean 6.9 years; range 0.01–19.4). The mode of detection, ECOG PS, ESR and TS were obtained from the patients' records. Vena cava invasion and distant metastases were detected by preoperative imaging. The surgical specimens were examined for pathological stage, LNI and VI.
Results
The univariate analyses showed significant impact of VI, LNI, SDM, ESR and TS (p < 0.001), as well as mode of detection (p = 0.003) and ECOG PS (p = 0.002) on cancer specific survival. In multivariate analyses LNI was significantly associated with survival only in patients without SDM or VI (p < 0.001) with a hazard ratio of 9.0. LNI lost its prognostic significance when SDM or VI was present.
Conclusion
Our findings underline the prognostic importance of the status of the lymph nodes. LNI, SDM, ESR, and VI were independently associated with cancer specific survival after radical nephrectomy. LNI provided the strongest prognostic information for patients without SDM or VI whereas SDM and VI had strongest impact on survival when there was no nodal involvement.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-8-19
PMCID: PMC2635370  PMID: 19099564

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