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1.  Correlation of three immunohistochemically detected markers of neuroendocrine differentiation with clinical predictors of disease progression in prostate cancer 
BMC Urology  2008;8:21.
Background
The importance of immuno-histological detection of neuroendocrine differentiation in prostatic adenocarcinoma with respect to disease at presentation and Gleason grade is gaining acceptance. There is limited literature on the relative significance of three commonly used markers of NE differentiation i.e. Chromogranin A (CgA), Neuron specific enolase (NSE) and Synaptophysin (Syn). In the current work we have assessed the correlation of immuno-histological detection of neuroendocrine differentiation in prostatic adenocarcinoma with respect to disease at presentation and Gleason grade and to determine the relative value of various markers.
Materials and methods
Consecutive samples of malignant prostatic specimens (Transurethral resection of prostate or radical retropubic prostatectomy) from 84 patients between January 1991 and December 1998 were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining (PAP technique) using selected neuroendocrine tumor markers i.e. Chromogranin A (CgA), Neuron specific enolase (NSE), and Synaptophysin (Syn). According to the stage at diagnosis, patients were divided into three groups. Group (i) included patients who had organ confined disease, group (ii) included patients with locally invasive disease, and group (iii) with distant metastasis. NE expression was correlated with Gleason sum and clinical stage at presentation and analyzed using Chi-Square test and one way ANNOVA.
Results
The mean age of the patients was 70 ± 9.2 years. Group I had 14 patients, group II had 31 patients and group III had 39 patients. CgA was detected in 33 cases, Syn in 8 cases, and NSE in 44 cases. Expression of CgA was seen in 7% of group I, 37% in group II and 35% of group III patients (p 0.059). CgA (p 0.024) and NSE (p 0.006) had a significantly higher expression with worsening Gleason grade.
Conclusion
CgA has a better correlation with disease at presentation than other markers used. Both NSE and CgA had increasing expression with worsening histological grade this correlation has a potential for use as a prognostic indicator. Limitations in the current work included small number and retrospective nature of work. The findings of this work needs validation in a larger cohort.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-8-21
PMCID: PMC2628675  PMID: 19115997
2.  Expression of pS2 in prostate cancer correlates with grade and Chromogranin A expression but not with stage 
BMC Urology  2004;4:14.
Background
The biological potential of prostate cancer is extremely variable. Particular interest is focused on markers not expressed in normal prostatic tissues. pS2 protein expression has been demonstrated in a range of malignant tissues in an oestrogen-independent pathway. Recently, it has been demonstrated that pS2, in prostate cancer, is closely associated with neuro-endocrine differentiation. In the present study, we have analyzed, the potential of Neuro-endocrine and pS2 (TFF1) expression in human prostate cancer determined by immunohistochemistry, in primary adenocarcinoma of the prostate and attempted to correlate this with the clinico-pathologic features of the patient and neuroendocrine expression.
Methods
Ninety-five malignant prostatic specimens from primary adenocarcinoma, obtained from either transurethral resection of prostate or radical retropubic prostatectomy, from 84 patients between January 1991 and December 1998 were evaluated by immuno-histochemical staining using selected neuroendocrine tumor markers i.e. chromogranin A (CgA) and estrogen inducible pS2 protein. The relationship between the expressions of pS2 was studied with CgA expression, clinical stage (TNM) and tumour grade (Gleason system). Fischer exact test was used for statistical analysis.
Results
The mean age of the patients was 70 + /- 9.2 years. The pS2 expression was seen in 10% of primary prostate cancers. Worsening histological grade was associated with greater expression of pS2 (p < 0.001). The expression of CgA was noted in 31% of malignant prostatic tissue. In pS2, positive cases 2/3rd of patients were also CgA +ve. However, there was no significant correlation between pS2 expression and the stage of disease.
Conclusion
pS2 expression in prostate cancer significantly correlates with histological grade and the neuroendocrine differentiation, as demonstrated by Chromogranin A expression but not with the clinical stage of the disease. However, the overall expression was low consequently; no definitive conclusions can be drawn. We feel further work is required in a larger series, both in primary and metastatic cancer.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-4-14
PMCID: PMC539282  PMID: 15588310
3.  Incidental diagnosis of diseases on un-enhanced helical computed tomography performed for ureteric colic 
BMC Urology  2003;3:2.
Background
Patients presenting in the emergency room with flank pain suggestive of acute ureteric colic may have alternative underlying conditions mimicking ureteric stones. An early diagnosis and appropriate treatment for other causes of flank pain is important. The majority of centers around the world are increasingly using un-enhanced helical CT (UHCT) for evaluation of ureteric colic. This study was conducted to determine the incidence and spectrum of significant incidental diagnoses established or suggested on UHCT performed for suspected renal/ureteric colic.
Methods
Urologist and radiologist reviewed 233 consecutive UHCT, performed for suspected renal/ureteral colic along with assessment of the medical records. Radiological diagnoses of clinical entities not suspected otherwise were analyzed. All other relevant radiological, biochemical and serological investigations and per-operative findings were also noted.
Results
Ureteral calculi were identified in 148 examinations (64%), findings of recent passage of calculi in 10 (4%) and no calculus in 75 examinations (32%). Overall the incidental findings (additional or alternative diagnosis) were found in 28 (12%) CT scans. Twenty (71%) of these diagnoses were confirmed by per-operative findings, biopsy, and other radiological and biochemical investigations or on clinical follow up.
Conclusion
A wide spectrum of significant incidental diagnoses can be identified on UHCT performed for suspected renal/ureteral colic. In the present series of 233 consecutive CT examinations, the incidence of incidental diagnosis was 12%.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-3-2
PMCID: PMC153478  PMID: 12675951
Non-contrast enhanced Spiral Computed Tomography; flank pain; incidental diagnosis
4.  Stone clearance in lower pole nephrolithiasis after extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy – the controversy continues 
BMC Urology  2003;3:1.
Background
To determine factors influencing the clearance of fragments after extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for lower pole calyceal (LPC) stones.
Methods
In the period between July 1998 and Oct 2001, 100 patients with isolated lower polar calyceal calculi ≤ 20 mm, in patients aged ≥ 14 years, were included in the study. Intravenous urograms (IVU) were reviewed to define the LPC anatomy (width of the infundibulum and pelvicalyceal angle). Study end points i.e. stone free status; number of shock waves used and number of sessions were correlated with variables like LPC anatomy, body mass index and stone size.
Results
At three months follow up the clearance for stone size ≤ 10 mm, 11–15 mm and 16–20 mm were 95, 96 and 90% respectively. Patients with acute LPC (<90°) and obtuse angle (>90°) had stone clearance of 94 and 100% respectively. For the infundibular width of < 4 mm, the stone clearance was 93% were as for > 4 mm, it was 100%. For body mass index (BMI) less than and > 30 kg/m2, the stone clearance was 92 and 95% respectively.
Conclusions
There is a trend towards more ESWL sessions and shock wave requirement in patients with acute pelvi-calyceal angle and narrow infundibulum but it is not statistically significant. Size (≤ 20 mm) and BMI has no relation with stone clearance. With modern lithotripter, stones up to 20 mm could primarily be treated by ESWL, irrespective of an un-favorable lower polar calyceal anatomy and body habitus.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-3-1
PMCID: PMC150011  PMID: 12546707

Results 1-4 (4)