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1.  Is age an independent determinant of mortality in cardiac surgery as suggested by the EuroSCORE? 
BMC Surgery  2002;2:8.
Background
The proportion of older patients in cardiac surgery is continuously increasing. 37% of patients undergoing heart surgery in Germany in the year 2000 were 70 years of age and older. We have studied the role of age as a determinant of mortality in cardiac surgery in our institutional patient population.
Methods
We have calculated the EuroSCORE and the corresponding age-adjusted EuroSCORE in 8769 patients who underwent heart surgery between January 1996 and January 2002 and collected the information on the occurrence of postoperative complications and 30-days mortality.
Results
The multimorbidity increased with ascending age. Both the EuroSCORE and the age-adjusted EuroSCORE values increased significantly with age in the whole group of patients as well as in the group of patients who were alive 30 days after heart surgery. The incidence of postoperative complications and 30-days mortality increased significantly with age. In patients who died within 30 days after surgery, the EuroSCORE increased significantly with age, whereas the age-adjusted EuroSCORE did not. The occurrence of diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension and atrial fibrillation, i.e., the risk factors not considered by the EuroSCORE, exhibited a significant age dependence in our patients. The univariate analysis identified the significant dependence of 30-days mortality on diabetes and atrial fibrillation. The stepwise logistic regression analysis showed the dependence of mortality on diabetes.
Conclusions
On the background of the well-known age-dependent structural and functional changes of different body organs, our data show that age is a significant risk indicator in cardiac surgery, strongly correlating with morbidity and mortality. Consequently, special preventive and therapeutic measures are required in clinical environment in the case of elderly patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-2-8
PMCID: PMC130048  PMID: 12370083
Age; cardiac surgery; EuroSCORE; mortality; morbidity
2.  Survey of the knowledge, attitude and practice of Nigerian surgery trainees to HIV-infected persons and AIDS patients 
BMC Surgery  2002;2:7.
Background
The incidence of HIV infection and AIDS is rising in Nigeria. Surgeons are at risk of occupationally acquired infection as a result of intimate contact with the blood and body fluids of patients. This study set out to determine the knowledge, attitude and risk perception of Nigerian surgery residents to HIV infection and AIDS.
Methods
A self-administered postal questionnaire was sent to all surgery trainees in Nigeria in 1997.
Results
Parenteral exposure to patients' blood was reported as occurring 92.5% times, and most respondents assessed their risk of becoming infected with HIV as being moderate at 1–5%. The majority of the respondents were not aware of the CDC guidelines on universal precautions against blood-borne pathogens. Most support a policy of routinely testing all surgical patients for HIV infection but 76.8% work in centers where there is no policy on parenteral exposure to patients' blood and body fluids. Most (85.6%) do not routinely use all the protective measures advocated for the reduction of transmission of blood borne pathogens during surgery, with the majority ascribing this to non-availability. Most want surgeons to be the primary formulators of policy on HIV and surgery while not completely excluding other stakeholders.
Conclusions
The study demonstrates the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of Nigerian surgery trainees in 1997 and the need for policy guidelines to manage all aspects of the healthcare worker (HCW), patients, and HIV/AIDS interaction.
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-2-7
PMCID: PMC126215  PMID: 12201903
AIDS; HIV; Surgery; Residents; Nigeria
3.  Microscopy of bacterial translocation during small bowel obstruction and ischemia in vivo – a new animal model 
BMC Surgery  2002;2:6.
Background
Existing animal models provide only indirect information about the pathogenesis of infections caused by indigenous gastrointestinal microflora and the kinetics of bacterial translocation. The aim of this study was to develop a novel animal model to assess bacterial translocation and intestinal barrier function in vivo.
Methods
In anaesthetized male Wistar rats, 0.5 ml of a suspension of green fluorescent protein-transfected E. coli was administered by intraluminal injection in a model of small bowel obstruction. Animals were randomly subjected to non-ischemic or ischemic bowel obstruction. Ischemia was induced by selective clamping of the terminal mesenteric vessels feeding the obstructed bowel loop. Time intervals necessary for translocation of E. coli into the submucosal stroma and the muscularis propria was assessed using intravital microscopy.
Results
Bacterial translocation into the submucosa and muscularis propria took a mean of 36 ± 8 min and 80 ± 10 min, respectively, in small bowel obstruction. Intestinal ischemia significantly accelerated bacterial translocation into the submucosa (11 ± 5 min, p < 0.0001) and muscularis (66 ± 7 min; p = 0.004). Green fluorescent protein-transfected E. coli were visible in frozen sections of small bowel, mesentery, liver and spleen taken two hours after E. coli administration.
Conclusions
Intravital microscopy of fluorescent bacteria is a novel approach to study bacterial translocation in vivo. We have applied this technique to define minimal bacterial transit time as a functional parameter of intestinal barrier function.
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-2-6
PMCID: PMC126214  PMID: 12174194
bacterial translocation; green fluorescent protein; gut; obstruction; ischemia; E. coli; intravital microscopy; rat
4.  Gastric stimulation: influence of electrical parameters on gastric emptying in control and diabetic rats 
BMC Surgery  2002;2:5.
Background
The aim of this study was to test the effect of different pulse frequencies and amplitudes during gastric stimulation (GS) on gastric emptying in the rat.
Methods
GS was performed in 2 groups of laparotomized rats: healthy control animals, and rats with acute diabetes. The effects of four pulse frequencies (0.5, 1, 10, 20 Hz) and three pulse amplitudes (5, 20, 40 mA) were tested. The volumes emptied from the stomach after the oro-gastric instillation of a nutrient solution were compared to those obtained in animals without GS. Intragastric pH values were assessed under basal conditions and after GS.
Results
In both groups, GS increased emptied volumes compared to conditions without stimulation (p < 0.05) for pulse frequencies above 0.5 Hz. Increases in pulse frequencies accelerated gastric emptying (p < 0.01) with a plateau at around 10 Hz. The increase in pulse amplitudes resulted in larger emptied volumes only when the pulse frequency was 1 Hz (p < 0.04) while the opposite effect was observed at 20 Hz (p < 0.04). The most effective combinations to enhance gastric emptying compared to baseline conditions were 10 Hz with 5 or 20 mA. The overall effect of GS on gastric emptying compared to baseline conditions without stimulation, was greater in diabetic than in controls rats (p < 0.05). During stimulation, intragastric pH values were not different from basal conditions during fasting or after a meal in control and diabetic rats.
Conclusions
Although both pulse frequency and amplitude should be considered during GS, frequency appears to be the most critical point. The possibility of increasing gastric emptying by electrical stimulation in diabetic rats suggests potential clinical applications for this method.
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-2-5
PMCID: PMC126213  PMID: 12149130
5.  Outcome of major cardiac injuries at a Canadian trauma center 
BMC Surgery  2002;2:4.
Background
Canadian trauma units have relatively little experience with major cardiac trauma (disruption of a cardiac chamber) so injury outcome may not be comparable to that reported from other countries. We compared our outcomes to those of other centers.
Methods
Records of patients suffering major cardiac trauma over a nine-year period were reviewed. Factors predictive of outcome were analyzed.
Results
Twenty-seven patients (11 blunt and 16 penetrating) with major cardiac trauma were evaluated. Injury severity scores (ISS) were similar for blunt (49.6 ± 16.6) and penetrating (39.5 ± 21.6, p = 0.20) injuries. Five of 11 blunt trauma patients, and 9 of 16 penetrating trauma patients, had detectable vital signs on hospital arrival (p = 0.43). Ten patients underwent emergency department thoracotomy and 11 patients had cardiac repair in the operating theatre. Eleven patients survived and 16 died. Survivors had a lower ISS (33.7 ± 15.4) than non-survivors (50.4 ± 20.4; p = 0.03). Two of 11 blunt trauma patients and 9 of 16 penetrating trauma patients survived (p = 0.06). Eleven of 14 patients with detectable vital signs survived; all 13 without detectable vital signs died (p = 0.00003). Ten of eleven patients treated in the operating theatre survived, while only one of the other 16 patients survived (p = 0.00002).
Conclusions
Patients with major cardiac injuries and detectable vital signs on hospital arrival can be salvaged by prompt surgical intervention in the operating theatre. Major cardiac injuries are infrequently encountered at our center but patient survival is comparable to that reported from trauma units in other countries.
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-2-4
PMCID: PMC116590  PMID: 12055013
6.  Clinical and immunohistochemical study of eight cases with thymic carcinoma 
BMC Surgery  2002;2:3.
Background
Thymic carcinoma is a rare neoplasm with extremely poor prognosis. To evaluate the biological characteristics of thymic carcinoma, we reviewed 8 patients.
Methods
There were 2 men and 6 women: ages ranged from 19 to 67 years old (mean 54.8 years). None of these patients had concomitant myasthenia gravis and pure red cell aplasia. No patient had stage I disease, 1 stage II, 5 stage III, and 2 stage IV. The pathologic subtypes of thymic carcinoma included 5 squamous cell carcinomas, 1 adenosquamous cell carcinomas, 1 clear cell carcinoma, and 1 small cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical study was performed using antibodies against p53, bcl-2, Ki-67, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), nm23-H1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and factor VIII.
Results
Curative resection could be done in 4 patients (50%). Our data indicates a trend toward an association between complete resection and patient survival. Expression of p53, bcl-2, CEA, EMA, nm23-H1, VEGF and FGF-2 was detected in 5/8, 3/8, 4/8, 5/8, 6/8, 5/8 and 3/8, respectively. Mean Ki-67 labeling index and microvessel density was 7.01 and 34.36 (per 200× field), respectively. When compared with our previous studies, immunohistochemical staining of these proteins in thymomas, the expression rates of these proteins in thymic carcinomas were higher than those in thymomas.
Conclusions
In this small series, it is suggested that a complete resection suggests a favorable result. Immunohistochemical results reveal that the expression of these proteins might indicate the aggressiveness of thymic carcinoma.
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-2-3
PMCID: PMC115847  PMID: 12049674
7.  Systematic quantitative overviews of the literature to determine the value of diagnostic tests for predicting acute appendicitis: study protocol 
BMC Surgery  2002;2:2.
Background
Suspected acute appendicitis is the most frequent cause for emergency operations in visceral surgery worldwide. In approximately twenty percent of all cases however, the diagnosis is incorrect and patients undergo surgery without having acute appendicitis. Operations of bland appendices put patients at risk and entail a serious waste of resources. Several highly accurate tests have been introduced to diagnose acute appendicitis. The false positive rate however, has not changed over the last twenty years. Given the variation that exists in both practice and research, the uncertainty regarding the quality of the underlying evidence, there is a clear need for comprehensive, systematic and quantitative overviews of the diagnostic value of the various tests purported to be predictive of acute appendicitis.
Methods
Literature will be identified searching general bibliographic databases (MEDLINE and EMBASE), specialist computer databases (DARE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, conference proceedings, MEDION, SCISEARCH, BIOSIS) without language restrictions. We will contact experts and the manufacturers of tests. Hand-searching will complete our searches. Identified articles will be selected according to populations, tests, outcomes and study design. Papers meeting the selection criteria will be appraised to rate their methodological quality. Analysis will include exploration of heterogeneity in results. We will conduct meta-analyses to generate summary estimates of test accuracy measures and summary ROC curves where appropriate. If meta-analysis is considered to be inappropriate, we will describe the identified evidence in the context of appraised quality.
Discussion
These reviews should lead to formulation of recommendations for current practice and future research.
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-2-2
PMCID: PMC103660  PMID: 11945180
8.  Is endosonography an effective method for detection and local staging of the ampullary carcinoma? A prospective study 
BMC Surgery  2002;2:1.
Background
The relatively rare carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater is a neoplasia with a good prognosis compared to pancreatic cancer. Preoperative staging is important in planning the most suitable surgical intervention.
Aim
To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Endoscopic Ultrasonography (EUS) in comparison with conventional US and CT scan, in staging of patients with ampullary carcinoma.
Patients and Methods
20 patients (7 women and 13 men) with histologically proven carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater were assessed by EUS, CT scan and US. Results were compared to surgical findings.
Results
Endoscopic biopsies were diagnostic in 76% of the patients. Detection of ampullary cancer with US and CT scan was 15% and 20% respectively. Only indirect signs of the disease were identified in the majority of cases using these methods. Overall accuracy of EUS in detection of ampullary tumours was 100%. The EUS was significantly (p < 0.001) superior than US and CT scan in ampullary carcinoma detection. Tumour size, tumour extension and the existence of metastatic lymph nodes were also identified and EUS proved to be very useful for the preoperative classification both for the T and the N components of the TNM staging of this neoplasia. The diagnostic accuracy for tumour extension (T) was 82% and for detection of metastatic lymph nodes (N) was 71%.
Conclusion
EUS is more accurate in detecting ampullary cancer than US and CT scan. Tumor extension and locally metastatic lymph nodes are more accurately assessed by means of EUS than with other imaging methods.
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-2-1
PMCID: PMC101389  PMID: 11914153

Results 1-8 (8)