Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-23 (23)

Clipboard (0)
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  A long-term survivor of Bland-White-Garland syndrome with systemic collateral supply: A case report and review of the literature 
BMC Surgery  2005;5:23.
land-White-Garland syndrome (anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery) is a rare disease which may result in myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure and sometimes death during the early infantile period. Case presentation: A succesfully treated case of a 45-year-old mother of 2 children with Bland-White-Garland syndrome and concomitant severe mitral regurgitation is presented. Subsequent therapy consisted of ligation of the anomalous origin of the left coronary artery, anastomosis of the left internal mammary artery to the left anterior descending branch and mitral valve replacement. Continuous blood flow from the left coronary artery ostium during extracorporeal circulation and aorta clamping suggested systemic collateral supply. Conclusions: Recognition and diagnosis of Bland-White-Garland syndrome is important due to its potentially life-threatening complications.
PMCID: PMC1325261  PMID: 16356181
2.  Missing effects of zinc in a porcine model of recurrent endotoxemia 
BMC Surgery  2005;5:22.
Chronic human sepsis often is characterised by the compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS). During CARS, anti-inflammatory cytokines depress the inflammatory response leading to secondary and opportunistic infections. Proved in vitro as well as in vivo, zinc's pro-inflammatory effect might overcome this depression.
We used the model of porcine LPS-induced endotoxemia established by Klosterhalfen et al. 10 pigs were divided into two groups (n = 5). Endotoxemia was induced by recurrent intravenous LPS-application (1.0 μg/kg E. coli WO 111:B4) at hours 0, 5, and 12. At hour 10, each group received an intravenous treatment (group I = saline, group II = 5.0 mg/kg elementary zinc). Monitoring included hemodynamics, blood gas analysis, and the thermal dilution technique for the measurement of extravascular lung water and intrapulmonary shunt. Plasma concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-alpha were measured by ELISA. Morphology included weight of the lungs, width of the alveolar septae, and rate of paracentral liver necrosis.
Zinc's application only trended to partly improve the pulmonary function. Compared to saline, significant differences were very rare. IL-6 and TNF-alpha were predominately measured higher in the zinc group. Again, significance was only reached sporadically. Hemodynamics and morphology revealed no significant differences at all.
The application of zinc in this model of recurrent endotoxemia is feasible and without harmful effects. However, a protection or restoration of clinical relevance is not evident in our setting. The pulmonary function just trends to improve, cytokine liberation is only partly activated, hemodynamics and morphology were not influenced. Further pre-clinical studies have to define zinc's role as a therapeutic tool during CARS.
PMCID: PMC1277829  PMID: 16242024
3.  Is there a relationship between weather conditions and aortic dissection? 
BMC Surgery  2005;5:21.
Bleeding and rupture of blood vessels has been correlated with weather conditions in the past. This is the first study in the world literature with the aim of investigating the relationship between atmospheric pressure and temperature with the presentation of aortic dissection.
The dates of all emergency aortic dissection repairs from 1996–2002 in a regional cardiothoracic unit at Blackpool Victoria Hospital were obtained. Hourly temperature and pressure data from a regional weather station for this time period was supplied by the Meteorological Office. The mean and standard deviation of hourly temperature and pressure data for that month were compared to the mean and standard deviation of the data 24 and 48 hours prior to the aortic dissection.
26 patients were found to have been operated on during the time period studied. There was no statistically significant correlation between temperature or atmospheric pressure readings, and the incidence of aortic dissection, using a Bonferonni-corrected significance p-value of 0.005
This study is the first to examine the relationship between atmospheric pressure, temperature and dissecting thoracic aorta. No statistically significant relationship was demonstrable.
PMCID: PMC1266384  PMID: 16225700
4.  Laparoscopic repair of high rectovaginal fistula: Is it technically feasible? 
BMC Surgery  2005;5:20.
Rectovaginal fistula (RVF) is an epithelium-lined communication between the rectum and vagina. Most RVFs are acquired, the most common cause being obstetric trauma. Most of the high RVFs are repaired by conventional open surgery. Laparoscopic repair of RVF is rare and so far only one report is available in the literature.
We present a case of high RVF repaired by laparoscopy. 56-year-old female who had a high RVF following laparoscopic assisted vaginal hysterectomy was successfully operated laparoscopically. Here we describe the operative technique and briefly review the literature.
The postoperative period of the patient was uneventful and after a follow up of 6 months no recurrence was found.
Laparoscopic repair of high RVF is feasible in selected patients but would require proper identification of tissue planes and good laparoscopic suturing technique.
PMCID: PMC1266383  PMID: 16221302
5.  Burn wounds infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa triggers weight loss in rats 
BMC Surgery  2005;5:19.
Despite dramatic improvements in the management of burns, infection still remains a serious risk for the burn patient. The aim of this study was to shed light on the impact of acute burn injury with or without infection on cytokine profiles.
Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 21) were randomized into three groups: 1) burn only 2) burn and infection or 3) sham burn. Weight was monitored and blood was collected for cytokine ELISA, LPS quantification, and peripheral blood analysis. Animals were sacrificed either after 6 or 12 days.
Infected animals showed substantial weight loss until day 6 post-burn as compared to burn alone. Endotoxin and TNF-α levels were elevated early in the infected burn group within 48 hours post-burn. In contrast, significant up-regulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 occurred later in the clinical course and was associated with the recovery from weight loss.
Our results suggest that in the presence of infection, you get a SIRS response possibly due to transient endotoxemia that is only seen in the infection group. In contrast, both burn and infection get a late IL-10 (CARS) response, which is then associated with a return to normal weight in the infection group.
PMCID: PMC1242239  PMID: 16168063
6.  HEGPOL: Randomized, placebo controlled, multicenter, double-blind clinical trial to investigate hepatoprotective effects of glycine in the postoperative phase of liver transplantation [ISRCTN69350312] 
BMC Surgery  2005;5:18.
Kupffer cell-dependent ischemia / reperfusion (I/R) injury after liver transplantation is still of high clinical relevance, as it is strongly associated with primary dysfunction and primary nonfunction of the graft. Glycine, a non-toxic, non-essential amino acid has been conclusively shown in various experiments to prevent both activation of Kupffer cells and reperfusion injury. Based on both experimental and preliminary clinical data this study protocol was designed to further evaluate the early effect of glycine after liver transplantation.
Methods / design
A prospective double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled multicenter study with two parallel groups in a total of 130 liver transplant recipients was designed to assess the effect of multiple intravenous doses of glycine after transplantation. Primary endpoints in hierarchical order are: peak levels of both aspartat-amino-transaminase (AST) and alanine-amino-transaminase (ALT) as surrogates for the progression of liver related injury, as well as both graft and patient survival up to 2 years after transplantation. Furthermore, the effect of glycine on cyclosporine A-induced nephrotoxicity is evaluated.
The ongoing clinical trial represents an advanced element of the research chain, along which a scientific hypothesis has to go by, in order to reach the highest level of evidence; a randomized, prospective, controlled double-blinded clinical trial. If the data of this ongoing research project confirm prior findings, glycine would improve the general outcome after liver transplantation.
PMCID: PMC1208918  PMID: 16105183
7.  Complications after cryosurgery with new miniature cryoprobes in long hollow bones: An animal trial 
BMC Surgery  2005;5:17.
In vitro studies show that new miniature cryoprobes are suitable for cryoablation of bone tissue. The aim of this animal trial on 24 sheep was to examine the perioperative complications, particularly the danger of embolism, of cryoablation when using miniature cryoprobes.
Cryoablations with 2 freeze-thaw cycles each were carried out in the epiphysis of the right tibia and the metaphysis of the left femur. Pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and central venous pressure (CVP) were measured. Throughout the intra- and perioperative phase, heart rate and oxygen saturation by pulse oxymetry, blood gas and electrolytes were monitored regularly. Postoperative complications were examined up to 24 weeks postoperativ.
As result, no significant increase of PAP, CVP or heart rate were observed. Blood gases were unremarkable, with pO2 and pCO2 remaining constant throughout the operation. Regarding pH, standard bicarbonate and base excess, only a non-significant shift towards a slight acidosis was seen. There was a mean hemoglobin decrease of 0.5 g/dl. One animal showed postoperative wound infection and wound edge necrosis. No major peri- and postoperative complications associated with cryosurgery of bone were observed, especially regarding clinically relevant pulmonary embolism.
Surgery with new types of miniature cryoprobes appears to be a safe alternative to or a complement to conventional resection of abnormal bone tissue.
PMCID: PMC1192809  PMID: 16083509
8.  Benign gastro-bronchial fistula – an uncommon complication of esophagectomy: case report 
BMC Surgery  2005;5:16.
Gastro-bronchial fistula (GBF) is a rare and devastating complication following esophagectomy. Making the correct diagnosis is difficult and there is no agreement on the treatment for this rare condition.
Case presentation
We report the case of a 56-year-old man who presented with features of repeated aspiration and chest infections six years following an esophagectomy for Barrett's esophagus. Despite extensive investigations the cause of symptoms was difficult to determine. The correct diagnosis of fistula from stomach to right main stem bronchus was made at bronchoscopy under general anesthesia. After ruling out local recurrence of cancer, a successful primary repair was carried out by resection of fistula and direct repair of gastric conduit and bronchus. He is well after 6 months of treatment.
Late development of gastro-bronchial fistula is a rare complication of esophageal resection that may be difficult to diagnose.
Surgical resection and direct closure is the treatment of choice, although the method of treatment should be tailored according to the anatomy of the fistula and the patient's condition.
PMCID: PMC1183227  PMID: 15989688
9.  The management of large perforations of duodenal ulcers 
BMC Surgery  2005;5:15.
Duodenal ulcer perforations are a common surgical emergency, but literature is silent on the exact definition, incidence, management and complications of large perforations of duodenal ulcers.
The case files of 162 patients who underwent emergency laparotomy for duodenal ulcer perforations over a period of three years (2001 – 2003) were retrospectively reviewed and sorted into groups based on the size of the perforations – one group was defined as 'small 'perforations (less than 1 cm in diameter), another 'large' (when the perforation was more than 1 cm but less than 3 cms), and the third, 'giant'(when the perforation exceeded 3 cm). These groups of patients were then compared with each other in regard to the patient particulars, duration of symptoms, surgery performed and the outcome.
A total of 40 patients were identified to have duodenal ulcer perforations more than 1 cm in size, thus accounting for nearly 25 % of all duodenal ulcer perforations operated during this period. These patients had a significantly higher incidence of leak, morbidity and mortality when compared to those with smaller perforations.
There are three distinct types of perforations of duodenal ulcers that are encountered in clinical practice. The first, are the 'small' perforations that are easy to manage and have low morbidity and mortality. The second are the 'large' perforations, that are also not uncommon, and omental patch closure gives the best results even in this subset of patients. The word 'giant' should be reserved for perforations that exceed 3 cms in diameter, and these are extremely uncommon.
PMCID: PMC1173121  PMID: 15978134
10.  Can bile duct injuries be prevented? "A new technique in laparoscopic cholecystectomy" 
BMC Surgery  2005;5:14.
Over the last decade, laparoscopic cholecystectomy has gained worldwide acceptance and considered to be as "gold standard" in the surgical management of symptomatic cholecystolithiasis. However, the incidence of bile duct injury in laparoscopic cholecystectomy is still two times greater compared to classic open surgery. The development of bile duct injury may result in biliary cirrhosis and increase in mortality rates. The mostly blamed causitive factor is the misidentification of the anatomy, especially by a surgeon who is at the beginning of his learning curve. Biliary tree injuries may be decreased by direct coloration of the cystic duct, ductus choledochus and even the gall bladder.
gall bladder fundus was punctured by Veress needle and all the bile was aspirated. The same amount of fifty percent methylene blue diluted by saline solution was injected into the gall bladder for coloration of biliary tree. The dissection of Calot triangle was much more safely performed after obtention of coloration of the gall bladder, cystic duct and choledocus.
Between October 2003 and December 2004, overall 46 patients (of which 9 males) with a mean age of 47 (between 24 and 74) underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy with methylene blue injection technique. The diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis (the thickness of the gall bladder wall was normal) confirmed by pre-operative abdominal ultrasonography in all patients. The diameters of the stones were greater than 1 centimeter in 32 patients and calcula of various sizes being smaller than 1 cm. were documented in 13 cases. One patient was operated for gall bladder polyp (our first case). Successful coloration of the gall bladder, cystic duct and ductus choledochus was possible in 43 patients, whereas only the gall bladder and proximal cystic duct were visualised in 3 cases. In these cases, ductus choledochus visibility was not possible. None of the patients developed bile duct injury.
The number of bile duct injuries related to anatomic misidentification can be decreased and even vanished by using intraoperative methylene blue injection technique into the gall bladder fundus intraoperatively.
PMCID: PMC1182383  PMID: 15963227
11.  A large left ventricular pseudoaneurysm in Behçet's disease: a case report 
BMC Surgery  2005;5:13.
Behçet's disease is a collagen-vascular disease most commonly seen in Asia and Mediterranean area. Different organs and systems including cardiovascular system could be involved. Pseudoaneurysm is the most common form of arterial involvement in Behçet's disease; however, cardiac pseudoaneurysm is rare.
Case Presentation
A rare case of 13 years old boy with a 4-year history of Behçet's disease with development of a huge left ventricular pseudoaneurysm is reported who had been admitted because of cough, chills, fever, and chest pain. Findings obtained on echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, chest computed tomography and coronary angiography confirmed a left ventricular pseudoaneurysm. There was no complication for next 24 months follow up period after surgical treatment.
Considering its fatality and nonspecific manifestations, one should consider cardiac pseudoaneurysms as a potential risk in any patient with Behçet's disease.
PMCID: PMC1181820  PMID: 15955242
Behçet's disease; cardiac; left ventricular; pseudoaneurysm
12.  Postoperative Delirium after elective and emergency surgery: analysis and checking of risk factors. A study protocol 
BMC Surgery  2005;5:12.
Delirum is common in hospitalized elderly patients and may be associated with increased morbidity, length of stay and patient care costs. Delirium (acute confusional state) is defined as an acute disorder of attention and cognition. In elderly patients, delirium is often an early indicator of patho-physiological disturbances. Despite landmark studies dating back to the 1940s, the pathogenesis of Delirium remains poorly understood. Early investigators noted that Delirium was characterized by global cortical dysfunction that was associated predominantly with specific electroencephalographic changes. It's important to understand the risk factors and incidence of Delirium. Some of the risk factors are already identified in literature and can be summarized in the word "VINDICATE" which stands for: Vascular, Infections, Nutrition, Drugs, Injury, Cardiac, Autoimmune, Tumors, Endocrine. Aims of this study are: to re-evaluate the above mentioned clinical risk factors, adding some others selected from literature, and to test, as risk factors, a pattern of some genes associated to cognitive dysfunction and inflammation possibly related to postoperative Delirium.
All patients admitted to our Emergency Unit who are meet our inclusion/exclusion criteria will be recruited. The arising of postoperative Delirium will select incidentally two groups (Delirium/non Delirium) and the forward analysis of correlate risk factors will be performed. As in a typical observational case/control study we will consider all the exposure factors to which our population are submitted towards the outcome (presence of Delirium). Our exposures are the following: ASA, Pain (SVS; VAS), Blood gas analysis (pH; Hb; pO2; pCO2), Residence pharmacological therapy (BDZ; hypnotics; narcotic drugs; alcohol; nitrous derivates), Body temperature, Arterial pressure, Heart frequency, Breath frequency, Na, K, Creatinin, Glicemia, Albumin, Hct, White blood cells, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Cognitive state (SPMSQ), Functional state (ADL and IADL), Psychological Distress (HADS), Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS), Hypotension (classified in: light; moderate and severe and duration), Blood loss (classified in: < 2 lt and > 2 lt), Blood transfusions (< 2 lt and > 2 lt), Quantity of red cells and plasma transfusions, Visual VAS / SVS (timing: I-II-III post-operative day), Red cells and Plasma transfusions, Blood count evaluation and Saturation (O2%), Postoperative analgesia (Emilia-Romagna protocol), Presence of malignant tumoral disease, APACHE Score II. Moreover the presence of some relevant genetic polymorphisms will be studied in different genes such as IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 cluster.
PMCID: PMC1156916  PMID: 15921527
13.  Is the routine drainage after surgery for thyroid necessary? - A prospective randomized clinical study [ISRCTN63623153] 
BMC Surgery  2005;5:11.
Drains are usually left after thyroid surgery to prevent formation of hematoma and seroma in the thyroid bed. This is done to reduce complications and hospital stay. Objective evaluation of the amount collected in the thyroid bed by ultrasonography (USG) can help in assessing the role of drains.
A randomized prospective control study was conducted on 94 patients undergoing 102 thyroid surgeries, over a period of fifteen months. Patients included in the study were randomly allocated to drain and non-drain group on the basis of computer generated random number table. The surgeon was informed of the group just before the closure of the wound Postoperatively USG neck was done on first and seventh postoperative day by the same ultrasonologist each time. Any swelling, change in voice, tetany and tingling sensation were also recorded. The data was analyzed using two-sample t-test for calculating unequal variance.
Both groups were evenly balanced according to age, sex, and size of tumor, type of procedure performed and histopathological diagnosis. There was no significant difference in collection of thyroid bed assessed by USG on D1 & D7 in the two groups (p = 0.313) but the hospital stay was significantly reduced in the non-drain group (p = 0.007). One patient in the drain group required needle aspiration for collection in thyroid bed. No patient in either group required re-operation for bleeding or haematoma.
Routine drainage of thyroid bed following thyroid surgery may not be necessary. Not draining the wound results in lesser morbidity and decreased hospital stay.
PMCID: PMC1156915  PMID: 15946379
14.  Early efficacy of CABG care delivery in a low procedure-volume community hospital: operative and midterm results 
BMC Surgery  2005;5:10.
The Leapfrog Group recommended that coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery should be done at high volume hospitals (>450 per year) without corresponding surgeon-volume criteria. The latter confounds procedure-volume effects substantially, and it is suggested that high surgeon-volume (>125 per year) rather than hospital-volume may be a more appropriate indicator of CABG quality.
We assessed 3-year isolated CABG morbidity and mortality outcomes at a low-volume hospital (LVH: 504 cases) and compared them to the corresponding Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) national data over the same period (2001–2003). All CABGs were performed by 5 high-volume surgeons (161–285 per year). "Best practice" care at LVH – including effective practice guidelines, protocols, data acquisition capabilities, case review process, dedicated facilities and support personnel – were closely modeled after a high-volume hospital served by the same surgeon-team.
Operative mortality was similar for LVH and STS (OM: 2.38% vs. 2.53%), and the corresponding LVH observed-to-expected mortality (O/E = 0.81) indicated good quality relative to the STS risk model (O/E<1). Also, these results were consistent irrespective of risk category: O/E was 0, 0.9 and 1.03 for very-low risk (<1%), low risk (1–3%) and moderate-to-high risk category (>3%), respectively. Postoperative leg wound infections, ventilator hours, renal dysfunction (no dialysis), and atrial fibrillation were higher for LVH, but hospital stay was not. The unadjusted Kaplan-Meier survival for the LVH cohort was 96%, 94%, and 92% at one, two, and three years, respectively.
Our results demonstrated that high quality CABG care can be achieved at LVH programs if 1) served by high volume surgeons and 2) patient care procedures similar to those of large programs are implemented. This approach may prove a useful paradigm to ensure high quality CABG care and early efficacy at low volume institutions that wish to comply with the Leapfrog standards.
PMCID: PMC1131908  PMID: 15865623
15.  The minimally invasive open video-assisted approach in surgical thyroid diseases 
BMC Surgery  2005;5:9.
The targets of minimally invasive surgery (MIVA) could be summarised by: achievement of the same results as those obtained with traditional surgery, less trauma, better post-operative course, early discharge from hospital and improved cosmetic results. The minimally invasive techniques in thyroid surgery can be described as either endoscopic "pure" approach (completely closed approach with or without CO2 insufflation), or "open approach" with central neck mini-incision or "open video-assisted approach". Traditionally, open thyroidectomy requires a 6 to 8 cm, or bigger, transverse wound on the lower neck. The minimally invasive approach wound is much shorter (1.5 cm for small nodules, up to 2–3 cm for the largest ones, in respect of the exclusion criteria) upon the suprasternal notch.
Patients also experience much less pain after MIVA surgery than after conventional thyroidectomy. This is due to less dissection and destruction of tissues.
Pathologies treated are mainly nodular goiter; the only kind of thyroid cancer which may be approached with endoscopic surgery is a small differentiated carcinoma without lymph node involvement.
The patients were considered eligible for MIVA hemithyroidectomy and thyroidectomy on the basis of some criteria, such as gland volume and the kind of disease. In our experience we have chosen the minimally invasive open video-assisted approach of Miccoli et al. (2002). The aim of this work was to verify the suitability of the technique and the applicability in clinical practice.
A completely gasless procedure was carried out through a 15–30 mm central incision about 20 mm above the sternal notch. Dissection was mainly performed under endoscopic vision using conventional endoscopic instruments. The video aided group included 11 patients. All patients were women with a average age of 54.
We performed thyroidectomy in 8 cases and hemithyroidectomy in 3 cases. The operative average time has been 170 minutes.
Nowadays this minimally invasive surgery, in selected patients, clearly demonstrates excellent results regarding patient cure rate and comfort, with shorter hospital stay, reduced postoperative pain and most attractive cosmetic results.
PMCID: PMC1131909  PMID: 15857503
minimally invasive thyroidectomy; MIVA; video-assisted surgery
16.  Evaluation of POSSUM scoring system in patients with gastric cancer undergoing D2-gastrectomy 
BMC Surgery  2005;5:8.
Risk adjustment and stratification play an important role in quality assurance and in clinical research. The Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and morbidity (POSSUM) is a patient risk prediction model based on 12 patient characteristics and 6 characteristics of the surgery performed. However, because the POSSUM was developed for quality assessment in general surgical units, its performance within specific subgroups still requires evaluation.
The aim of the present study was to assess the accuracy of POSSUM in predicting mortality and morbidity in patients with gastric cancer undergoing D2-gastrectomy.
137 patients with gastric cancer undergoing gastrectomy were included in this study. Detailed, standardized risk assessments and thorough documentation of the post-operative courses were performed prospectively, and the POSSUM scores were then calculated.
The 30- and 90- day mortality rates were 3.6% (n = 5) and 5.8% (n = 8), respectively. 65.7% (n = 90) of patients had normal postoperative courses without major complications, 14.6% (n = 20) had moderate and 13.9% (n = 19) had severe complications. The number of mortalities predicted by the POSSUM-Mortality Risk Score (R1) was double the actual number of mortalities occurring in the median and high-risk groups, and was more than eight times the actual number of mortalities occurring in the low-risk group (R1 < 20%). However, the calculated R1 predicted rather well in terms of severe morbidity or post-operative death in each risk group: in predicted low risk patients the actual occurrence rate (AR) of severe morbidity or post-operative death was 14%, for predicted medium risk patients the AR was 23%, and for predicted high risk patients the AR was 50% (p < 0.05). The POSSUM-Morbidity Risk Score (R2) overestimated the risk of morbidity.
The POSSUM Score may be beneficial and can be used for assessment of the peri- and post-operative courses of patients with gastric carcinoma undergoing D2-gastrectomy. However, none of the scores examined here are useful for preoperative prediction of postoperative course.
PMCID: PMC1112603  PMID: 15831104
17.  Adequate symptom relief justifies hepatic resection for benign disease 
BMC Surgery  2005;5:7.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term results of partial liver resection for benign liver lesions.
All patients operated on for benign liver lesions from 1991 to 2002 were included. Information was retrieved from medical records, the hospital registration system and by a telephonic questionnaire.
Twenty-eight patients with a median age of 41 years (17–71) were operated on (M/F ratio 5/23). The diagnosis was haemangioma in 8 patients, FNH in 6, HCA in 13 and angiomyolipoma in 1. Eight patients were known to have relevant co-morbidity. Median operating time was 207 minutes (45–360). The morbidity rate was 25% and no postoperative mortality was observed. Twenty-two patients (79%) had symptoms (mainly abdominal pain) prior to surgery. Twenty-five patients were reached for a questionnaire. The median follow up was 55 months (4–150). In 89% of patients preoperative symptoms had decreased or disappeared after surgery. Four patients developed late complications.
Long-term follow up after liver surgery for benign liver lesions shows considerable symptom relief and patient satisfaction. In addition to a correct indication these results justify major surgery with associated morbidity and mortality.
PMCID: PMC1087495  PMID: 15804352
18.  Internal fixation of femoral shaft fractures in children by intramedullary Kirschner wires (a prospective study): its significance for developing countries 
BMC Surgery  2005;5:6.
To evaluate internal fixation by intramedullary Kirschner wires as a surgical technique in the treatment of femoral shaft fractures in children by a prospective study.
17 femoral shaft fractures at various levels in 16 children aged 2–15 years were treated by closed intramedullary Kirschner wiring under image intensifier control between May 2000 and October 2003. No external splint was used.
Fracture union was achieved in 6–14 weeks. Non-weight bearing crutch walking was started 2–3 days after surgery. Full weight bearing started 6–14 weeks. Average operative time was 40 min (range 20–72 min). Wires were removed after 8–22 weeks. There were no infections, no limb length disparity. One child had pin track ulceration. A big child of 14 years had angulation of the fracture.
Intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures in children by stainless steel Kirschner wires is an effective method, which compares well with other studies. It is a simple procedure, which can be easily reproduced. Blood loss is minimal, and the operative time short. There is no need pre-bend the wires in a C or S curve. Stainless steel Kirschner wires are cheap, universally available, and can be manufactured locally. The cost of Image intensifiers is affordable in most of the cities of the developing countries. The hospital does not have to maintain a costly inventory. Provides early mobility, return to home and, school. Gives a predictable clinical pathway and reduces occupancy of hospital beds.
The technique was successfully applied for internal fixation of other diaphyseal fractures in children and some selected diaphyseal fractures in adults. Based on my experience and a review of the literature, I recommend this technique as a modality for treatment of femoral shaft fractures in children aged 2 to 14 years.
PMCID: PMC1079891  PMID: 15796775
19.  Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in situs inversus totalis: a case report 
BMC Surgery  2005;5:5.
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is one of the commonest surgical procedures carried out in the world today. Occasionally patients present with undiagnosed situs inversus and acute cholecystitis. We discuss one such case and outline how the diagnosis was made and the pitfalls encountered during surgery and how they were overcome.
Case presentation
A 32 year old female presented to our department with epigastric pain radiating through to the back. A diagnosis of acute cholecystitis in a patient with situs inversus totalis was made following clinical examination and radiological investigation. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was subsequently performed and the patient made an uneventful recovery.
Situs inversus presenting with acute cholecystitis is very rare. The surgeon must appreciate that care should be taken to set up the operating theatre in the mirror image of the normal set-up for cholecystectomy, and that right handed surgeons must modify their technique to adapt to the mirror image anatomy.
PMCID: PMC555757  PMID: 15774004
20.  Necrotic gangrenous intrathoracic appendix in a marfanoid adult patient: a case report 
BMC Surgery  2005;5:4.
A diaphragmatic hernia is defined as a defect in part of the diaphragm through which abdominal contents can protrude into the thorax. It may be congenital or acquired. In this case report, we aim to demonstrate a congenital diaphragmatic hernia in an adult marfanoid patient which required emergency treatment
Case presentation
A 43 year old woman was admitted with classical appendicitis requiring surgery. She incidentally had Marfan's clinical features with a positive family history for the syndrome. At operation she had grossly abnormal abdominal anatomy. Radiological investigations demonstrated a large right congenital diaphragmatic hernia with an intrathoracic hernial sac containing a perforated gangrenous appendix. The hernial sac was opened surgically and the appendix excised. The patient made a full recovery.
Diaphragmatic hernias are usually congenital in nature often requiring early corrective surgery for future survival. We have demonstrated the presence of an unusually large diaphragmatic defect, almost a hemidiaphragmatic defect, of unknown direct etiology, but of some possible association with Marfan's syndrome in an adult patient presenting with an acute perforated gangrenous appendix requiring emergency life-saving surgery.
PMCID: PMC555568  PMID: 15762981
21.  Interrupted or continuous slowly absorbable sutures – Design of a multi-centre randomised trial to evaluate abdominal closure techniques INSECT-Trial [ISRCTN24023541] 
BMC Surgery  2005;5:3.
The closure of the abdomen after median laparotomy is still a matter of debate among surgeons. Further well designed and performed randomised controlled trials determining the optimal method of abdominal fascial closure are needed.
This is a three armed, multi-centre, intra-operatively randomised, controlled, patient blinded trial. Over 20 surgical departments will enrol 600 patients who are planned for an elective primary abdominal operation. The objective of this study is to compare the frequency of abdominal incisional hernias between two continuous suture techniques with different, slowly absorbable monofilament materials and an interrupted suture using an absorbable braided suture material at one year postoperatively.
This trial will answer the question whether the continuous abdominal wall closure with a slowly absorbable material with longitudinal elasticity is superior to the continuous suture with a material lacking elasticity and to interrupted sutures with braided thread.
PMCID: PMC554977  PMID: 15755324
22.  Abdominal surgical site infections: incidence and risk factors at an Iranian teaching hospital 
BMC Surgery  2005;5:2.
Abdominal surgical site infections are among the most common complications of inpatient admissions and have serious consequences for outcomes and costs. Different risk factors may be involved, including age, sex, nutrition and immunity, prophylactic antibiotics, operation type and duration, type of shaving, and secondary infections. This study aimed to determine the risk factors affecting abdominal surgical site infections and their incidence at Imam Khomeini, a major referral teaching hospital in Iran.
Patients (n = 802) who had undergone abdominal surgery were studied and the relationships among variables were analyzed by Student's t and Chi-square tests. The subjects were followed for 30 days and by a 20-item questionnaire. Data were collected through pre- and post-operative examinations and telephone follow-ups.
Of the 802 patients, 139 suffered from SSI (17.4%). In 40.8% of the cases, the wound was dirty infected. The average age for the patients was 46.7 years. The operations were elective in 75.7% of the cases and 24.7% were urgent. The average duration of the operation was 2.24 hours, the average duration of pre-operative hospital stay 4.31 days and the average length of (pre- and post-operation) hospital stay 11.2 days. Three quarters of the cases were shaved 12 hours before the operation. The increased operation time, increased bed stay, electivity of the operation, septicity of the wound, type of incision, the administration of prophylactic antibiotic, type of operation, background disease, and the increased time lapse between shaving and operation all significantly associated with SSI with a p-value less than 0.001.
In view of the high rate of SSI reported here (17.4% compared with the 14% quoted in literature), this study suggests that by reducing the average operation time to less than 2 hours, the average preoperative stay to 4 days and the overall stay to less than 11 days, and approximating the timing of shaving to the operation and substituting cefazolin for cefaluthin when prophylactic antibiotic is to be administered, the SSI may be reduced to a more acceptable level.
PMCID: PMC555554  PMID: 15733323
23.  Resorbable screws versus pins for optimal transplant fixation (SPOT) in anterior cruciate ligament replacement with autologous hamstring grafts: rationale and design of a randomized, controlled, patient and investigator blinded trial [ISRCTN17384369] 
BMC Surgery  2005;5:1.
Ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are common injuries to the knee joint. Arthroscopic ACL replacement by autologous tendon grafts has established itself as a standard of care.
Data from both experimental and observational studies suggest that surgical reconstruction does not fully restore knee stability. Persisting anterior laxity may lead to recurrent episodes of giving-way and cartilage damage. This might at least in part depend on the method of graft fixation in the bony tunnels. Whereas resorbable screws are easy to handle, pins may better preserve graft tension. The objective of this study is to determine whether pinning of ACL grafts reduces residual anterior laxity six months after surgery as compared to screw fixation.
Design/ Methods
SPOT is a randomised, controlled, patient and investigator blinded trial conducted at a single academic institution. Eligible patients are scheduled to arthroscopic ACL repair with triple-stranded hamstring grafts, conducted by a single, experienced surgeon. Intraoperatively, subjects willing to engage in this study will be randomised to transplant tethering with either resorbable screws or resorbable pins. No other changes apply to locally established treatment protocols. Patients and clinical investigators will remain blinded to the assigned fixation method until the six-month follow-up examination.
The primary outcome is the side-to-side (repaired to healthy knee) difference in anterior translation as measured by the KT-1000 arthrometer at a defined load (89 N) six months after surgery. A sample size of 54 patients will yield a power of 80% to detect a difference of 1.0 mm ± standard deviation 1.2 mm at a two-sided alpha of 5% with a t-test for independent samples.
Secondary outcomes (generic and disease-specific measures of quality of life, magnetic resonance imaging morphology of transplants and devices) will be handled in an exploratory fashion.
SPOT aims at showing a reduction in anterior knee laxity after fixing ACL grafts by pins compared to screws.
PMCID: PMC552311  PMID: 15723704

Results 1-23 (23)