Upside-down stomach (UDS) is characterized by herniation of the entire stomach or most gastric portions into the posterior mediastinum. Symptoms may vary heavily as they are related to reflux and mechanically impaired gastric emptying. UDS is associated with a risk of incarceration and volvulus development which both might be complicated by acute gastric outlet obstruction, advanced ischemia, gastric bleeding and perforation.
A 32-year-old male presented with acute intolerant epigastralgia and anterior chest pain associated with acute onset of nausea and vomiting. He reported on a previous surgical intervention due to a hiatal hernia. Chest radiography and computer tomography showed an incarcerated UDS. After immediate esophago-gastroscopy, urgent laparoscopic reduction, repair with a 360° floppy Nissen fundoplication and insertion of a gradually absorbable GORE® BIO-A®-mesh was performed.
Given the high risk of life-threatening complications of an incarcerated UDS as ischemia, gastric perforation or severe bleeding, emergent surgery is indicated. In stable patients with acute presentation of large paraesophageal hernia or UDS exhibiting acute mechanical gastric outlet obstruction, after esophago-gastroscopy laparoscopic reduction and hernia repair followed by an anti-reflux procedure is suggested. However, in cases of unstable patients open repair is the surgical method of choice. Here, we present an exceptionally challenging case of a young patient with a giant recurrent hiatal hernia becoming clinically manifest in an incarcerated UDS.
Upside-down stomach; Hiatal hernia; Paraesophageal hernia; Gastric incarceration; Gastric outlet obstruction; Gastric volvulus
Odontoid fractures account for approximately 20% of all fractures of the cervical spine. They represent the most common cervical spine injury for patients older than 70 years, the majority being type II fractures (65-74%), which are considered to be relatively unstable. The management of these fractures is controversial. Possible treatment options are either conservative or surgical. Surgical procedures include either anterior screw fixation of the odontoid or posterior C1/C2 fusion. The aim of this study was to compare the outcome of the three treatment modalities in elderly patients.
Between June 2004 and February 2010, all patients older than 65 years (n = 47) with type II fractures of the odontoid according to the Anderson and D’Alonso classification were retrospectively reviewed.
In the non-operatively managed cohort, 11 patients (79%) died postoperatively within a mean period of 23 months. In all other cases (n = 3), radiographs demonstrated non-union. The mean lateral displacement was 1.9 mm (range 0–5,8 mm) and a mean angulation of 29,1° (range 0-55°) was found.
Anterior screw fixation was carried out in 17 patients. The non-union rate in this cohort was 77%. In patients with a posterior C1-C2 fusion, a bony fusion of the posterior elements was found in 15 of 16 cases (93%). Survival rates were significantly higher among the group of patients who were treated with anterior screw fixation or posterior C1/C2 fusion compared to the conservatively treated group.
We found the best clinical results with low rates of non-union as well as low mortality rates following posterior C1/C2 fusion making this our treatment of choice especially in an elderly patient collective.
Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment to obtain weight loss in severely obese patients. The feasibility and safety of bariatric robotic surgery is the topic of this review.
A search was performed on PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, BioMed Central, and Web of Science.
Twenty-two studies were included. Anastomotic leak rate was 8.51% in biliopancreatic diversion. 30-day reoperation rate was 1.14% in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and 1.16% in sleeve gastrectomy. Major complication rate in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass resulted higher than in sleeve gastrectomy ( 4,26% vs. 1,2%). The mean hospital stay was longer in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (range 2.6-7.4 days).
The major limitation of our analysis is due to the small number and the low quality of the studies, the small sample size, heterogeneity of the enrolled patients and the lack of data from metabolic and bariatric outcomes. Despite the use of the robot, the majority of these cases are completed with stapled anastomosis. The assumption that robotic surgery is superior in complex cases is not supported by the available present evidence. The major strength of the robotic surgery is strongly facilitating some of the surgical steps (gastro-jejunostomy and jejunojejunostomy anastomosis in the robotic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or the vertical gastric resection in the robotic sleeve gastrectomy).
Morbid obesity; Bariatric surgery; Robotic; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass; Robot assisted; Gastric bypass; Sleeve gastrectomy; Gastric banding; Duodenal switch; Surgical outcomes; Complications; Anastomotic leak
The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a frequently underestimated cause of lower back (LBP). A simple clinical test of sufficient validity would be desirable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of a new PSIS distraction test for the clinical detection of SIJ arthropathy and to compare it to several commonly used clinical tests.
Consecutive patients, where a SIJ pathology had been confirmed by an SIJ infiltration were enrolled (case group, 61 SIJs in 46 patients). Before infiltration, patients were tested for pain with PSIS distraction by a punctual force on the PSIS in medial-to-lateral direction (PSIS distraction test), pain with pelvic compression, pelvic distraction, Gaenslen test, Thigh Thrust, and Faber (or Patrick’s) test. In addition, these clinical tests were applied to both SIJs of a population of individuals without history of LBP (control group, 64 SIJs in 32 patients).
Within the investigated cohort, the PSIS distraction test showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 89% for SIJ pathology. The accuracy of the test was 94%, the positive predictive value (PPV) was 90% and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 100%. Pelvic compression, pelvic distraction, Gaenslen test, Thigh Thrust, and Faber test were associated with a good specificity (> 90%) but a poor sensitivity (< 35%).
Within our population of patients with confirmed SIJ arthropathy the PSIS distraction test was found to be of high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. In contrast, common clinical tests showed a poor sensitivity. The PSIS distraction test seems to be an easy-to-perform and clinically valuable test for SIJ arthropathy.
Sacroiliac joint pain; Provocation test; Joint infiltration; Diagnostic value
Intussusception is a relatively common cause of intestinal obstruction in children but a rare clinical entity in adults, representing fewer than 1% of intestinal obstructions in this patient population. Colonic lipomas are uncommon nonepithelial neoplasms that are typically sessile, asymptomatic and incidentally found during endoscopy, surgery, or autopsy.
A 55-year old man visited our emergency department with severe abdominal pain, multiple episodes of vomiting, abdominal distension. Abdominal ultrasound sonography and computed tomography showed a sausage-shaped mass presenting as a target sign, suggestive of intussusception. Surgery revealed a hard elongated mass in the right colon wihch telescoped in the transverse colon and caused colo-colonic intussusception. Rhigt hémicolectomy was performed and pathology documented a mature submucosal lipoma of the colon. We describe the difficulties in diagnosis and management of this rare cause of bowel obstruction and review the literature on adult intussusceptions.
A large submucosal lipoma is a very rare cause of colon intussusception that presents as intestinal obstruction in patients without malignancy. CT and magnetic resonance imaging remain the methods of choice for studying abdominal lipomas, particularly those rising into the layers of the colonic wall. Surgical resection remains the treatment of choice and produces an excellent prognosis.
Intussusception; Lipoma; Abdominal computed tomography; Colo-colic; Invagination
Resection of a retrocaval paraganglioma is technically challenging due to limited tumor accessibility and proximity to the vena cava.
A large, malignant paraganglioma was found behind the retrohepatic segment of the inferior vena cava of a 60-year-old male. During resection of this rare paraganglioma, the left lateral lobe of the liver, a portion of the caudate lobe of the liver, and the gallbladder were also removed. Unfortunately, the patient died six months after surgery due to hepatic metastasis.
This case demonstrates that a partial hepatectomy may be necessary to improve tumor accessibility during resection of a retrocaval paraganglioma, particularly if the tumor is proximal to the vena cava. Furthermore, palliative treatments may help prevent tumor recurrence and metastasis of malignant paragangliomas.
Paraganglioma; Inferior vena cava; Partial hepatectomy; Malignant
Incisional hernia is the most frequently seen long term complication after laparotomy causing much morbidity and even mortality. The overall incidence remains 11-20%, despite studies attempting to optimize closing techniques. Two patient groups, patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and obese patients, have a risk for incisional hernia after laparotomy of more than 30%. These patients might benefit from mesh augmented midline closure as a means to reduce incisional hernia incidence.
The PRImary Mesh Closure of Abdominal Midline Wound (PRIMA) trial is a double-blinded international multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing running slowly absorbable suture closure with the same closure augmented with a sublay or onlay mesh. Primary endpoint will be incisional hernia incidence 2 years postoperatively. Secondary outcomes will be postoperative complications, pain, quality of life and cost effectiveness.
A total of 460 patients will be included in three arms of the study and randomized between running suture closure, onlay mesh closure or sublay mesh closure. Follow-up will be at 1, 3, 12 and 24 months with ultrasound imaging performed at 6 and 24 months to objectify the presence of incisional hernia. Patients, investigators and radiologists will be blinded throughout the whole follow up.
The use of prosthetic mesh has proven effective and safe in incisional hernia surgery however its use in a prophylactic manner has yet to be properly investigated. The PRIMA trial will provide level 1b evidence whether mesh augmented midline abdominal closure reduces incisional hernia incidence in high risk groups.
Clinical trial.gov NCT00761475.
Medical errors are inherently of concern in modern health care. Although surgical errors as incorrect surgery (e.g., wrong patient, wrong site, or wrong procedure) are infrequent, they are devastating events to experience. To gain insight about incidents that could lead to incorrect surgery, we surveyed how surgical team members perceive near misses and their attitudes towards the use of Time Out protocols in the operating room. We hypothesised that perceptions of near-miss experiences and attitudes towards Time Out protocols vary widely among surgical team members.
This cross-sectional study (N = 427) included surgeons, anaesthetists, nurse anaesthetists, and operating room nurses. The questionnaire consisted of 14 items, 11 of which had dichotomous responses (0 = no; 1 = yes) and 3 of which had responses on an ordinal scale (never = 0; sometimes = 1; often = 2; always = 3). Items reflected team members’ experience of near misses or mistakes; their strategies for verifying the correct patient, site, and procedure; questions about whether they believed that these mistakes could be avoided using the Time Out protocol; and how they would accept the implementation of the protocol in the operating room.
In the operating room, 38% of respondents had experienced uncertainty of patient identity, 81% had experienced uncertainty of the surgical site or side, and 60% had prepared for the wrong procedure. Sixty-three per cent agreed that verifying the correct patient, site, and procedure should be a team responsibility. Thus, only nurse anaesthetists routinely performed identity checks prior to surgery (P ≤ 0.001). Of the surgical team members, 91% supported implementation of a Time Out protocol in their operating rooms.
The majority of our surgical personnel experienced near misses with regard to correct patient identity, surgical site, or procedure. Routines for ensuring the correct patient, site, and surgical procedure must involve all surgical team members. We find that the near-miss experiences are a wake-up call for systematic risk reducing efforts and the use of checklists in surgery.
Surgery; Operating room; Near misses; Medical errors; Checklist
Fecal incontinence is a common and severely disabling disorder. For patients with severe fecal incontinence, surgery may prove to be the only adequate treatment option.
This study reports on 43 patients that were treated with a prosthetic sphincter system between 2005 and 2009 in three coloproctological centres. Main Outcome Measures: complications, anal pressures before and after surgery, fecal continence score.
The new artificial sphincter system significantly improves continence but leads to some complications in clinical practice. After implantation of the device, continence improved significantly (Keller & Jostarndt continence score 2.6 to 14.3 (P < 0.01)). With the band activated, resting pressure improved significantly as compared to baseline (10.7 mmHg vs. 66.1 mm Hg, P < 0.01). The same holds for anal sphincter squeeze pressure (32.2 mmHg versus 85.9 mm Hg, P < 0.01). Complications occurred in 21 patients (48.8%): 10 surgical and 13 technical. Two patients were affected by both technical and surgical problems. The median time of the occurrence was 3 months postop. In five patients difficulties arose within the first postoperative month leading to explantation of the device in three patients. 90% of complications occurred in the first year.
The soft anal band of AMI (AAS), a new artificial anal sphincter, improves severe anal incontinence, but it must be regarded as a last treatment option to avoid a stoma.
Fecal incontinence; Prosthetic sphincter; Treatment option
Chronic pain after prosthetic inguinal hernioplasty is one of the most important current issues in the current literature debate. Mechanisms related to pain development are only partially known. Influence of age as well as other factors is still unclear. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether development of chronic pain after open prosthetic plug and mesh inguinal hernioplasty is influenced by age.
Analysis was retrospectively conducted, dividing our cohort of patients (2,902) who had undergone prosthetic open plug&mesh inguinal hernioplasty from Jannuary 1994 to May 2012, following only the age criterion (cut-off 65 yrs.), into two groups (Gr.A<65 yrs, Gr.B>65 yrs.). All patients were routinely submitted to a postoperative questionnaire. Complications such as analgesic assumption were registered in both groups. Pain intensity was classified following the Visual Analogic Scale (VAS). Incidence of chronic pain, discomfort, and numbness, was assessed in both groups. Statistical significance was assessed by X2-test.
Only 0.2% of patients suffered from a recurrence in our cohort. Postoperative chronic pain was observed in Gr. A in 0.12% of patients vs Gr.B 0.09% (p>0.05). Incidence of other postoperative symptoms such as discomfort or numbness were slightly prevalent on young patients (respectively p = 0.0286 and p = 0.01), while for hyperesthesia and sensation of foreign body no statistically significant difference of incidence between groups was observed.
Real chronic pain after inguinal hernioplasty is a rare clinical entity. Other causes of chronic pain should be accurately researched and excluded. In young patients psychological factors seem to show a slight influence. There was no influence of age on chronic postoperative pain incidence after inguinal hernioplasty.
Intestinal ischemia is an abdominal emergency that accounts for approximately 2% of gastrointestinal illnesses. It represents a complex of diseases caused by impaired blood perfusion to the small and/or large bowel including acute arterial mesenteric ischemia (AAMI), acute venous mesenteric ischemia (AVMI), non occlusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI), ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R), ischemic colitis (IC). In this study different study methods (US, CT) will be correlated in the detection of mesenteric ischemia imaging findings due to various etiologies.
Basing on our institutions experience, 163 cases of mesenteric ischemia/infarction from various cases, investigated with CT and undergone surgical treatment were retrospectively evaluated, in particular trought the following findings: presence/absence of arterial/venous obstruction, bowel wall thickness and enhancement, presence/absence of spastic reflex ileus, hypotonic reflex ileus or paralitic ileus, mural and/or portal/mesenteric pneumatosis, abdominal free fluid, parenchymal ischemia/infarction (liver, kidney, spleen).
To make an early diagnosis useful to ensure a correct therapeutic approach, it is very important to differentiate between occlusive (arterial, venous) and non occlusive causes (NOMI). The typical findings of each forms of mesenteric ischemia are explained in the text.
The radiological findings of mesenteric ischemia have different course in case of different etiology. In venous etiology the progression of damage results faster than arterial even if the symptomatology is less acute; bowel wall thickening is an early finding and easy to detect, simplifying the diagnosis. In arterial etiology the damage progression is slower than in venous ischemia, bowel wall thinning is typical but difficult to recognize so diagnosis may be hard. In the NOMI before/without reperfusion the ischemic damage is similar to AAMI with additional involvement of large bowel parenchymatous organs. In reperfusion after NOMI and after AAMI the CT and surgical findings are similar to those of AVMI, and the injured bowel results quite easy to identify. The prompt recognition of each condition is essential to ensure a successful treatment.
Intestinal ischemia; Computed Tomography; Emergency radiology
Thyroid cancer is a rare disease characterized by the subtle appearance of a nodule. Fine-needle cytology (FNC) is the first diagnostic procedure used to distinguish a benign from a malignant nodule. However, FNC yields inconclusive results in about 20% of cases. BRAFV600E mutation is the most frequent genetic alteration in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC); its high prevalence makes this oncogene a useful marker to refine inconclusive FNC results. However, the prevalence of the BRAFV600E mutation depends on detection methods, geographical factors, and age. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of BRAFV600E mutation and its utility as a diagnostic tool in elderly subjects.
FNC from 92 PTC patients were subjected to the analysis of BRAF mutation by pyrosequencing and direct sequencing; age-dependent prevalence was also determined.
BRAF mutation analysis was successful in all FNC specimens. BRAFV600E was documented in 62 (67.4%) and in 58 (63.0%) PTCs by pyrosequencing and direct sequencing, respectively. BRAFV600E prevalence did not correlate with patient's age at diagnosis. Twenty out of 32 PTCs (62.5%) were correctly diagnosed by BRAF mutation analysis in inconclusive FNC results.
Detection of BRAFV600E in cytology specimens by pyrosequencing is a useful diagnostic adjunctive tool in the evaluation of thyroid nodules also in elderly subjects.
Gallstone ileus is a rare cause of gastrointestinal obstruction, more frequent in elderly patients, whose treatment is essentially surgical, although some para-surgical and mini-invasive possibilities exist, allowing the solution of such obstructive condition in a completely non-invasive way.
In our study, after reporting two cases of biliary ileus managed by our surgical division, we will analyze the most suitable diagnostic procedures and the therapeutic approaches to this pathology.
Gallstone ileus is a quite rare pathology in population, but affects more frequently elderly people; The treatment of this disease is mainly surgical.
Minimal invasive adrenalectomy has become the procedure of choice to treat adrenal tumors with a benign appearance, ≤ 6 cm in diameter and weighing < 100 g. Authors evaluated medium- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA), performed for ten years in a single endocrine surgery unit.
We retrospectively reviewed 88 consecutive patients undergone LA for lesions of adrenal glands from 2003 to 2013. The first 30 operations were considered part of the learning curve. Doxazosin was preoperatively administered in case of pheochromocytoma (PCC), while spironolactone and potassium were employed to treat Conn's disease. Perioperative cardiovascular status modifications and surgical and medium- and long-term results were analyzed.
Forty nine (55.68%) functioning tumors, and one (1.13%) bilateral adrenal disease were identified. In 2 patients (2.27%) a supposed adrenal metastasis was postoperatively confirmed, while in no patients a diagnosis of incidental primitive malignancy was performed. There was no mortality or major post operative complication. The mean operative time was higher during the learning curve. Conversion and morbidity rates were respectively 1.13% and 5.7%. Intraoperative hypertensive crises (≥180/90 mmHg) were observed in 23.5% (4/17) of PCC patients and were treated pharmacologically with no aftermath. There was no influence of age, size and operative time on the occurrence of PCC intraoperative hypertensive episodes. Surgery determined a normalization of the endocrine profile. One single PCC persistence was observed, while in a Conn's patient, just undergone right LA, a left sparing adrenalectomy was performed for a contralateral metachronous aldosteronoma.
LA, a safe, effective and well tolerated procedure for the treatment of adrenal neoplasms ≤ 6 cm, is feasible for larger lesions, with a similar low morbidity rate. Operative time has improved along with the increase of the experience and of the technological development. Preoperative adrenergic blockade did not prevent PCC intraoperative hypertensive crises, but facilitated the control of the hemodynamic stability.
Perioperative prophylactic antibiotic treatment significantly influences intestinal microflora, resulting in impaired bowel functioning in some patients, sometimes requiring further investigations. This may lead to a worse health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Probiotics administrated in the early post-operative period may help avoiding such nuisances in older people.
We prospectively enrolled patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery aged over 70 years between 2005 and 2012. The study was approved by IRB. All patients received perioperative antibiotic treatment. Patients were randomized to one of two treatment arms: Group A patients received probiotics after surgery (VSL#3, VSL Pharmaceuticals, Inc. USA - 900 × 109 daily, while Group B patients received a Placebo (cornstarch). Patients were further divided in sub-groups whether ileo-caecal valve was spared or not. Patients were followed-up every 7 days for 4 weeks. Patients daily annotated bowel frequency, stool shape and consistency - according to Bristol's scale. HRQoL was assessed every week by means of SF-36 questionnaire.
Group A included 10 while Group B included 8 patients. One patient in each group experienced a postoperative complication. Group A patients had fewer bowel movements than controls, during every week. Stool consistency was higher in patients undergoing resections including ileo-caecal valve receiving VSL#3. HRQoL gradually increased in both groups; Group A patients had higher "social functioning" item scores at week 1 and 4 than controls.
Elderly patients undergoing resection of ileo-caecal valve may benefit from an early probiotics administration pathway after perioperative antibiotic treatment.
To evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and safety of strict prone posturing taken for 2 hours after operation in preventing the occurrence of unintentional retinal displacement in elderly patients operated on for retinal detachment (RD).
Twenty patients aged 60 or more with diagnosis of macula-off RD were asked to keep a strict face-down posturing for 2 hours after vitrectomy and 20% sulfur hexafluoride tamponade. IOP was measured immediately before and after surgery and after the 2-hour posturing. A questionnaire was administered to each patient to evaluate the rate of discomfort experienced because of the face-down posturing. Unintentional displacement of the retina was assessed by evaluating the presence of retinal vessel printings on fundus autofluorescence images taken 4 weeks after operation.
The 2-hour posturing was generally well-tolerated. A mild neck pain was the most common reported symptom. Only a few patients experienced moderate breath shortness while posturing and none had to break the posturing because of respiratory problems. Intraocular pressure (IOP) measured before operation (11.7 ± 2.6 mmHg) was significantly different from IOP recorded at the end of surgery (18.9 ± 4.9 mmHg) and from IOP measured 2 hours after surgery (16.8 ± 4.7 mmHg, P<0.05, Friedman test). IOPs measured immediately and 2 hours after surgery did not differ significantly. Fundus autofluorescence imaging showed RVPs in 7 eyes.
This study shows that a 2-hour face-down posturing is effective in reducing the rate of retinal displacement in patients operated on for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment using vitrectomy and SF6 20%. A 2-hour face-down posturing is feasible for elderly patients and does not appear to cause unwanted, post-operative IOP raises.
Gallbladder carcinoma is a rare high malignancy neoplasm. The incidence of intra or post-operative incidental gallbladder carcinoma diagnosis is estimated between 0,2 and 2,8%. Primary aim of our study is to evaluate incidental gallbladder carcinoma's incidence in our experience.
We retrospectively reviewed our Surgery Division's experience about the totality of laparoscopic cholecystectomies with post-operative histological evidence of incidental gallbladder cancer. We evaluated patients' characteristics, surgical related variables, histological response, surgivcal radicalization characteristics and surgical outcome.
In the considered sample we observed 7 accidental gallbladder adenocarcinomas in post-operative histological examination. Pathological results were:1 pT1b N0 (G1), 2 pT2 N0 (G2), 2 pT2 N1 (G3b), 2 pT3 N1 (G3b) (Table 1). In 5 cases we performed neoplasm radicalization surgery with standard procedure revision. Two patients died before radicalization. Median global survival was 34 months.
With the increase of laparoscopic cholecystectomies both elective and urgent performed in our centre we observed also an increase of incidentally diagnosed gallbladder neoplasms. Early diagnosis, meticulous peri-operative study and accurate surgical strategy are essential factors to obtain good results in incidental gallbladder cancer.
Liver represents the main organ subject to metastases from colorectal tumors. Resections of liver metastases from colorectal cancer have a well-considered therapeutic role underlined by survival of 5 years by approximately 50-60% of surgical cases as is deduced from an analysis of the most recent literature. The objective of surgery is to eradicate the metastases present and obtain a margin free from neoplastic impact of amplitude of approximately 1 cm with residual liver quantity at the end of the intervention that allows the patient to survive. Currently the dimensions and the number of colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) do not limit the hepatectomy. Purpose of this work is to evaluate the survival, according to our case studies of patients treated only with the wedge resection (atypical resection) approximately 1 cm from the margins of metastases.
In "A. Rizzoli" Lacco Ameno Hospital (Ischia), from 2005 to 2010, 12 liver resections were performed for metastases from colorectal carcinoma with atypical resection. Synchronous surgical treatment with resection of the colorectal carcinoma and metastases was performed in 6 patients, 2 female and 4 male (Group 1). Surgical liver metastasectomy post-colectomy was performed on 6 patients, 3 female and 3 male (Group 2).
No patient was treated with chemotherapy. The mortality rate of intraoperative and perioperative infection was in both cases of 0%. Survival:11 patients treated surgically from 2005-2010 with synchronous surgery resection (Group 1) and liver metastasectomy (Group 2) are currently living. One 77-years-old patient died three years after surgery for BPCO.
This result was able to be obtained due to the wedge resection technique routinely used in our Hospital, associated with the indispensable use of intraoperatory ultrasound (IOUS). Significant differences between the synchronous and non-synchronous intervention emerged only regarding the number of days of hospital stay, higher in the first case.
Populations living in the area of the Mediterranean Sea suffered by decreased incidence of cancer compared with those living in the regions of northern Europe and US countries, attributed to healthier dietary habits. Nowadays, we are assisting to a moving away from the traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern, but whether this changing is influencing risk of cancers is still unclear. The aim of the study was to review recent evidence on potential relationship between the adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cancer.
The most recent pooled analyses of epidemiological studies supported strongly the hypothesis that the Mediterranean diet may play a role in preventing several types of cancers, especially those of digestive tract, whereas contrasting results were reported for hormone-dependent cancers. Specific aspects of the Mediterranean diet such as high fruit and vegetables and low red processed meat intake may explain such protective effects. Moreover, evidence regarding olive oil and whole grains increase the beneficial effects of such dietary pattern against cancer.
Literature evidence actually demonstrates that the increased adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern is beneficial to health across populations and may translate a protective effect with certain cancers.
Fibrosarcoma (FS) accounts for about 3% of all soft tissue sarcomas. It may arise in any area of the body, but it is relative rare in the head and neck district. Fine-needle cytology (FNC) is widely used in the diagnosis of neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions of soft tissue. This article describes a case of FS of the neck diagnosed by FNC.
FNC was performed in a sub-fascial supraclavicular mass of an elderly patient under ultrasound (US) control. FNC was used to prepare cytological smears that were conventionally and immunocytochemically (ICC) stained.
Smears showed a monomorphous spindle cell population and were positive at ICC for Vimentin and negative for CKAE1AE3, Actin, S-100, CD68, CT and PAX-8. The cytological diagnosis was confirmed by histological diagnosis. The patient underwent surgical resection and subsequent radiotherapy.
FNC diagnosis of FS is reliable and accurate and may be conveniently used in the scheduling of surgical procedures, when needed, avoiding the treatment of benign nodules.
Choriocarcinoma is a germ cell tumor containing syncytiotrophoblastic cells and secreting human Beta-HCG. Primary choriocarcinoma of the lung is extremely uncommon. The prognosis of this tumor is extremely poor, despite surgical and chemotherapeutic treatment. We report a surgically treated case of choriocarcinoma in a 37-year-old woman who came to our attention because of a isolated lung lesion. The tumor was successfully resected. Chemotherapy was started 2 months after thoracic surgery and consisted of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin. At 1-year follow-up the patient is alive in good condition. The hCG level is actually normal.
Malignant tumours of minor salivary glands are uncommon, representing only 2-4% of all head and neck cancers. In the larynx, minor salivary gland tumours rarely occur and constitute less than 1% of laryngeal neoplasm. Most of the minor salivary gland tumours arise in the subglottis; however, they can also occur in the supraglottis, in the false vocal cords, aryepiglottic folds and caudal portion of the epiglottis. The most common type of malignant minor salivary gland tumour is adenoid cystic carcinoma.
We present a unusual case of adenoid cystic carcinoma of glottic-subglottic region in a 61-year-old woman. Follow-up endoscopy and laryngeal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at three years after treatment showed no recurrence of the tumour.
The diagnosis of glottic-subglottic adenoid cystic carcinoma should be considered in patients who are characterized by dyspnea, cough and stridor, but do not respond to pharmacologic approach.
Adenoid cystic carcinoma is usually a very slow growing cancer, invested by an apparently normal laryngeal mucosa, so that it can show no clear symptoms for a long time. For these reasons the increasing number of diagnostic mistakes or late diagnosis that may be fatal in some cases.
With the increase in life expectancy, the incidence of head and neck cancer has grown in the elderly population. Free tissue transfer has become the first choice, among all the reconstructive techniques, in these cases. The safety and success of micro vascular transfer have been well documented in the general population, but its positive results achieved in elderly patients have received less attention.
We retrospectively studied 28 patients over the age of 60 years. The aim of this paper was to study the success rate of free tissue transfer and investigate the complication incidence in this patient population.
Twenty-eight free flaps were performed to reconstruct medium to large cervico-facial surgical defects in six years. No difference was noted between success and complication rates observed between general and elderly population.
This study indicates that free-flap technique for head and neck reconstruction could be considered a safe option in elderly patients when a good pre-operative general status is present.
Ultrasound is considered the best diagnostic method for the detection of metastatic cervical lymph nodes (LNs) in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). According to current guidelines, all patients undergoing thyroidectomy for malignancy should undergo preoperative neck ultrasound of the thyroid and central and lateral neck LNs, followed by fine needle aspiration of suspicious LNs. Cervical LN involvement determenes the extent of surgery. Complete surgical resection disease at the initial operation decreases likelihood of future surgery for recurrent disease and may impact survival. We use a new technique, B-flow imaging (BFI), recently used for evaluation of thyroid nodules, to estimate the presence of BFI twinkling signs (BFI-TS), within metastatic LNs in patients with PTC.
Between September 2006 and December 2012, 304 patients with known PTC were examined for preoperative sonographic evaluation with gray-scale US, color Doppler US and BFI. Only 157 with at least one metastatic LN were included in our study. All patients included underwent surgery, and the final diagnosis was based on the results of histologic examination of the resected specimens. The following LN characteristics were evaluated: LN shape, abnormal echogenicity, the absent of hilum, calcifications, cystic appearance, peripheral vascularization and the presence of BFI-TS.
A total of 767 LNs were analyzed. 329 out of 767 were metastatic, according to the histopathologic findings. BFI-TS, showed 99.5% specificity and 81,5% sensitivity. We detected BFI-TS in 6 metastatic LNs that were negative to the other conventional US features.
Our results indicate that the BFI-TS has a diagnostic accuracy higher than the other conventional sonographic signs. Our findings suggest that BFI can be helpful in the selection of suspicious neck LNs that should be examined at cytologic examination or open biopsy for accurate preoperative staging and individual therapy selection.
Long standing Hashimoto Thyroiditis (HT) causes shrinking and atrophy of the thyroid, but may also lead to diffuse enlargement of the gland and/or formation of nodules. These nodules should be differentiated from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and primary thyroidal non-Hodgkin lymphoma (PTL), which are possible complications of HT, and require pre-surgical diagnoses and different treatments.
This study focuses on the role of fine-needle cytology (FNC) in the clinical surveillance and pre-surgical diagnosis of HT with diffuse and nodular enlargement of the gland in elderly patients.
Thirty-four elderly patients (≥ 65 yrs) with HT and diffuse or nodular enlargement of the thyroid underwent ultrasound (US)-guided FNC. Smears were routinely stained and evaluated; additional passes were used for flow cytometry (FC) assessment of lymphoid infiltrate in 6 cases.
The cytological diagnosis was HT in 12 cases with prevalence of Hurtle cells in 2 cases, PTC in 1 case and PTL in 2 cases. FC assessed the reactive, non-lymphomatous nature of the lymphoid infiltrate in 5 cases and demonstrated light chain restriction, hence the lymphomatous nature of the lymphoid infiltrate in 2 cases of PTL.
FNC plays a key role in the clinical surveillance and pre-surgical diagnosis of diffuse enlargement and nodular presentation of HT in elderly patients. FNC can correctly diagnose HT, PTC and PTL indicating the need for surgery and its extension in suspicious or neoplastic cases, leaving other cases to the medical treatment and clinical surveillance.