HIV/AIDS has several means of transmission. Exposure to blood and other body fluids is a very important means of transmission. Healthcare workers are exposed to this disease mainly due to the nature of their work. This is an exploration of the perceptions of healthcare workers of the University of Gondar Hospital.
Based on purposive sampling seven healthcare workers were selected from different departments in the hospital so that they could reflect on their perceptions. The selected healthcare workers were asked about the risks related to their work, their experience of HIV related hazards and their general views on the transmission of HIV. The main themes were identified for analysis and the views were summarized under the themes.
All the respondents were aware of the risk of acquiring HIV in healthcare settings. Some had experienced accidents that made them take post-exposure prophylaxis, and most witnessed accidents like needle-stick injuries to their colleagues. They also expressed their feelings that their workplace was not the best place to work at.
Health professionals are well aware of the possibility of HIV transmission associated with their practice. Accidents like needle stick injuries are apparently common; and at the same time, the practice of healthcare workers towards using universal precautions looks poor.
Healthcare workers’ perception; HIV/AIDS; Occupational risk
Health control beliefs were postulated to be associated with health behaviour. However, the results of studies assessing these associations suggest that they might not be universal. Among young adults associations have been reported, but the evidence is limited. The objective of this analysis was to re-examine these associations in a sample of university students in Germany.
Data from a multicentre cross-sectional study among university students in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany was used (N=3,306). The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale with three dimensions (one internal and two external) and six aspects of health behaviour (smoking habits, alcohol use, drug consumption, being over-/ or underweight, physical activity, and importance of healthy nutrition) were evaluated. Students with stronger internal locus of control paid more attention to healthy nutrition and displayed a higher level of physical activity. Individuals with a stronger belief in health professionals were less likely to use drugs and paid more attention to healthy nutrition. Furthermore, higher scores in the second external locus of control dimension (beliefs in luck or chance) were associated with a higher likelihood of current smoking, lower physical activity and less attention to healthy nutrition.
Students engaged more strongly in unhealthy behaviour if they believed that luck determines health. In contrast, believing in having control over one’s own health was associated with more healthy behaviour. These findings support the need to consider health control beliefs while designing preventive strategies in this specific population.
Locus of control; Health behaviour; Students; Cross-National Student Health Study
The detection of enteropathogens in stool specimens increasingly relies on the detection of specific nucleic acid sequences. We observed that such detection was hampered in diarrheic stool specimens and we set-up an improved protocol combining lyophilization of stools prior to a semi-automated DNA extraction.
A total of 41 human diarrheic stool specimens comprising of 35 specimens negative for enteropathogens and six specimens positive for Salmonella enterica in culture, were prospectively studied. One 1-mL aliquot of each specimen was lyophilised and total DNA was extracted from lyophilised and non-lyophilised aliquots by combining automatic and phenol-chloroform DNA extraction. DNA was incorporated into real-time PCRs targeting the 16S rRNA gene of Bacteria and the archaea Methanobrevibacter smithii and the chorismate synthase gene of S. enterica. Whereas negative controls consisting in DNA-free water remained negative, M. smithii was detected in 26/41 (63.4%) non-lyophilised (Ct value 28.78 ± 9.1) versus 39/41 (95.1%) lyophilised aliquots (Ct value 22.04 ± 5.5); bacterial 16S rRNA was detected in 33/41 (80.5%) non-lyophilised (Ct value 28.11 ± 5.9) versus 40/41 (97.6%) lyophilised aliquots (Ct value 24.94 ± 6.6); and S. enterica was detected in 6/6 (100%) non-lyophilized and lyophilized aliquots (Ct value 26.98 ± 4.55 and 26.16 ± 4.97, respectively). S. enterica was not detected in the 35 remaining diarrheal-stool specimens. The proportion of positive specimens was significantly higher after lyophilization for the detection of M. smithii (p = 0.00043) and Bacteria (p = 0.015).
Lyophilization of diarrheic stool specimens significantly increases the PCR-based detection of microorganisms. The semi-automated protocol described here could be routinely used for the molecular diagnosis of infectious diarrhea.
DNA extraction; Lyophilization; Diarrheal stools
The objective of the research was to evaluate the current effectiveness of Ciprofloxacin on the uropathogens prevalent in infected urines of a cross-section of patients in Karachi, Pakistan.
An observational study conducted in a private diagnostic laboratory and its branches in key areas of Karachi City from February 2010 to July 2011. A total of 2963 consecutive urine samples were cultured on chocolate agar, CLED medium and selective EMB agar. Growth of possible uropathogens was noted, and compared retrospectively with earlier lab data of suggestive urine cultures (n = 1997) recorded during January 2009 and December 2009. The isolates were identified using routine procedures and the API 20 system and evaluated for their sensitivity to ciprofloxacin by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Data was subjected to statistical analysis on SPSS version 16. Out of the present-day culture-positive urines, 2409 (80.4%) yielded gram-negative rods, and 554 (18.5%) gram-positive cocci. E.coli (43.1%) was most frequent, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (22.4%) and Staphylococcus aureus (15.5%). 57.2% of the Gram-negative bacteria and 48.7% of the Gram-positive isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. In the earlier (2009) screening, 39% of Gram-negative rods and 48% of Gram-positive cocci were indifferent to the drug.
A decrease in bacterial susceptibility of uropathogens to ciprofloxacin, a commonly prescribed drug in our population, is underlined, occurring possibly due to overuse pressure. Empirical initial treatment with ciprofloxacin would be inadequate in more than half of UTI cases, thereby counseling increased C/S testing of urines to provide existing sensitivity data for apt drug prescription.
Urine; Isolates; Ciprofloxacin; Karachi
Apical ballooning syndrome mimics acute coronary syndromes and it is characterized by reversible left ventricular apical ballooning in the absence of angiographically significant coronary artery stenosis.
This is a case of a 40-year-old Caucasian male without any health related problems that was submitted to an urgent coronary angiography because of acute chest pain and marked precordial T-wave inversions suggestive of acute myocardial ischemia. Coronary angiography showed no significant stenosis of the coronary arteries. Left ventriculography showed systolic apical ballooning with mild basal hypercontraction.
Physicians should be aware of the presentation of apical ballooning syndrome, and the chest pain after following acute stress should not be readily attributed to anxiety.
Apical ballooning syndrome; Stress cardiomyopathy; Acute coronary syndrome
Exposure to early adverse events can result in the development of later psychopathology, and is often associated with cognitive impairment. This may be due to accelerated cell aging, which can be catalogued by attritioned telomeres. Exercise enhances neurogenesis and has been proposed to buffer the effect of psychological stress on telomere length. This study aimed to investigate the impact of early developmental stress and voluntary exercise on telomere length in the ventral hippocampus (VH) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the rat. Forty-five male Sprague–Dawley rats were categorised into four groups: maternally separated runners (MSR), maternally separated non-runners (MSnR), non-maternally separated runners (nMSR) and non-maternally separated non-runners (nMSnR). Behavioural analyses were conducted to assess anxiety-like behaviour and memory performance in the rats, after which relative telomere length was measured using qPCR.
Maternally separated (MS) rats exhibited no significant differences in either anxiety levels or memory performance on the elevated-plus maze and the open field compared to non-maternally separated rats at 49 days of age. Exercised rats displayed increased levels of anxiety on the day that they were removed from the cages with attached running wheels, as well as improved spatial learning and temporal recognition memory compared to non-exercised rats. Exploratory post-hoc analyses revealed that maternally separated non-exercised rats exhibited significantly longer telomere length in the VH compared to those who were not maternally separated; however, exercise appeared to cancel this effect since there was no difference in VH telomere length between maternally separated and non-maternally separated runners.
The increased telomere length in the VH of maternally separated non-exercised rats may be indicative of reduced cellular proliferation, which could, in turn, indicate hippocampal dysfunction. This effect on telomere length was not observed in exercised rats, indicating that voluntary exercise may buffer against the progressive changes in telomere length caused by alterations in maternal care early in life. In future, larger sample sizes will be needed to validate results obtained in the present study and obtain a more accurate representation of the effect that psychological stress and voluntary exercise have on telomere length.
Stress; Exercise; Relative telomere length
Data accuracy and completeness are crucial for ensuring both the correctness and epidemiological relevance of a given data set. In this study we evaluated a clinical register in the administrative district of Marburg-Biedenkopf, Germany, for these criteria.
The register contained data gathered from a comprehensive integrated breast-cancer network from three hospitals that treated all included incident cases of malignant breast cancer in two distinct time periods from 1996–97 (N=389) and 2003–04 (N=488). To assess the accuracy of this data, we compared distributions of risk, prognostic, and predictive factors with distributions from established secondary databases to detect any deviations from these “true” population parameters. To evaluate data completeness, we calculated epidemiological standard measures as well as incidence-mortality-ratios (IMRs).
In total, 12% (13 of 109) of the variables exhibited inaccuracies: 9% (5 out of 56) in 1996–97 and 15% (8 out of 53) in 2003–04. In contrast to raw, unstandardized incidence rates, (in-) directly age-standardized incidence rates showed no systematic deviations. Our final completeness estimates were IMR=36% (1996–97) and IMR=43% (2003–04).
Overall, the register contained accurate, complete, and correct data. Regional differences accounted for detected inaccuracies. Demographic shifts occurred. Age-standardized measures indicate an acceptable degree of completeness. The IMR method of measuring completeness was inappropriate for incidence-based data registers. For the rising number of population-based health-care networks, further methodological advancements are necessary. Correct and epidemiologically relevant data are crucial for clinical and health-policy decision-making.
Data quality; Data quality indicators (DQI); Data correctness; Data accuracy; Data completeness
Diabetic muscle infarction is a rare complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) and is often misdiagnosed as cellulitis. This complication is usually associated with poor disease prognosis and high mortality with previous studies reporting a risk of 50% recurrence or another macrovascular complication occurring within one year. Thus, there needs to be greater awareness of this complication of diabetes.
In the current work, we present a case report and literature review of DMI occurring in a calf of a 57 year old male. However, unlike the suspected trend, our patient has performed well after this incident and has not sustained another macrovascular event now > 15 month since his original diabetic muscle infarction.
Even though diabetic muscle infarction is an uncommon condition, it is important to consider this diagnosis in a diabetic patient. We hope that our findings and literature review will aid clinicians to better diagnose and manage this condition.
Diabetic muscle infarction; Diabetic myonecrosis
Patients increasingly turn to the Internet for information on medical conditions, including clinical news and treatment options. In recent years, an online patient community has arisen alongside the rapidly expanding world of social media, or “Web 2.0.” Twitter provides real-time dissemination of news, information, personal accounts and other details via a highly interactive form of social media, and has become an important online tool for patients. This medium is now considered to play an important role in the modern social community of online, “wired” cancer patients.
Fifty-one highly influential “power accounts” belonging to cancer patients were extracted from a dataset of 731 Twitter accounts with cancer terminology in their profiles. In accordance with previously established methodology, “power accounts” were defined as those Twitter accounts with 500 or more followers. We extracted data on the cancer patient (female) with the most followers to study the specific relationships that existed between the user and her followers, and found that the majority of the examined tweets focused on greetings, treatment discussions, and other instances of psychological support. These findings went against our hypothesis that cancer patients’ tweets would be centered on the dissemination of medical information and similar “newsy” details.
At present, there exists a rapidly evolving network of cancer patients engaged in information exchange via Twitter. This network is valuable in the sharing of psychological support among the cancer community.
Breast cancer; Breast neoplasms; Internet; Leukemia; Social media; Twitter messaging; Web 2.0
Animal bites are typically harmless, but in rare cases infections introduced by such bites can be fatal. Capnocytophaga canimorsus, found in the normal oral flora of dogs, has the potential to cause conditions ranging from minor cellulitis to fatal sepsis. The tendency of C. canimorsus infections to present with varied symptoms, the organism’s fastidious nature, and difficulty of culturing make this a challenging diagnosis. Rarely, bacterial cytotoxins such as those produced by C. canimorsus may act as causative agents of TTP, further complicating the diagnosis. Early recognition is crucial for survival, and the variability of presentation must be appreciated. We present the first known case of C. canimorsus infection resulting in TTP that initially presented as splenic infarction.
72-year-old Caucasian male presented with a four-day history of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and intermittent confusion. On presentation, vital signs were stable and the patient was afebrile. Physical examination was unremarkable apart from petechiae on the inner left thigh, and extreme diffuse abdominal pain to palpation and percussion along with positive rebound tenderness. Initial investigations revealed leukocytosis with left shift and thrombocytopenia, but normal liver enzymes, cardiac enzymes, lipase, INR and PTT. Abdominal CT demonstrated a non-enhancing spleen and hemoperitoneum, suggesting complete splenic infarction. Although the patient remained afebrile, he continued deteriorating over the next two days with worsening thrombocytopenia. After becoming febrile, he developed microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and hemodynamic instability, and soon after was intubated due to hypoxic respiratory failure and decreased consciousness. Plasma exchange was initiated but subsequently stopped when positive blood cultures grew a gram-negative organism. The patient progressively improved following therapy with piperacillin-tazobactam, which was switched to imipenem, then meropenem when Capnocytophaga was identified.
There is a common misconception amongst practitioners that the presence of systemic infection excludes the possibility of TTP and vice versa. This case emphasizes that TTP may occur secondary to a systemic infection, thereby allowing the two processes to coexist. It is important to maintain a wide differential when considering the diagnosis of either TTP or C. canimorsus infection since delays in treatment may have fatal consequences.
Capnocytophaga canimorsus; Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; Splenic infarction; Dog bite
Fibroadenomas are benign human breast tumors, characterized by proliferation of epithelial and stromal components of the terminal ductal unit. They may grow, regress or remain unchanged, as the hormonal environment of the patient changes. Expression of antigen TF in mucin or mucin-type glycoproteins and of galectin-3 seems to contribute to proliferation and transformations events; their expression has been reported in ductal breast cancer and in aggressive tumors.
Lectin histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence were used to examine the expression and distribution of antigen TF and galectin-3. We used lectins from Arachis hypogaea, Artocarpus integrifolia, and Amaranthus lecuocarpus to evaluate TF expression and a monoclonal antibody to evaluate galectin-3 expression. We used paraffin-embedded blocks from 10 breast tissues diagnosed with fibroadenoma and as control 10 healthy tissue samples. Histochemical and immunofluorescence analysis showed positive expression of galectin-3 in fibroadenoma tissue, mainly in stroma, weak interaction in ducts was observed; whereas, in healthy tissue samples the staining was also weak in ducts. Lectins from A. leucocarpus and A. integrifolia specificaly recognized ducts in healthy breast samples, whereas the lectin from A. hypogaea recognized ducts and stroma. In fibroadenoma tissue, the lectins from A. integrifolia, A. Hypogaea, and A. leucocarpus recognized mainly ducts.
Our results suggest that expression of antigen TF and galectin-3 seems to participate in fibroadenoma development.
Antigen TF; Galectin-3; Fibroadenoma; Breast cancer; Plant lectins
Increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) within macroglia is commonly seen as a hallmark of glial activation after damage within the central nervous system, including the retina. The increased expression of GFAP in glia is also considered part of the pathologically inhibitory environment for regeneration of axons from damaged neurons. Recent studies have raised the possibility that reactive gliosis and increased GFAP cannot automatically be assumed to be negative events for the surrounding neurons and that the context of the reactive gliosis is critical to whether neurons benefit or suffer. We utilized transgenic mice expressing a range of Gfap to titrate the amount of GFAP in retinal explants to investigate the relationship between GFAP concentration and the regenerative potential of retinal ganglion cells.
Explants from Gfap-/- and Gfap+/- mice did not have increased neurite outgrowth compared with Gfap+/+ or Gfap over-expressing mice as would be expected if GFAP was detrimental to axon regeneration. In fact, Gfap over-expressing explants had the most neurite outgrowth when treated with a neurite stimulatory media. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that neurites formed bundles, which were surrounded by larger cellular processes that were GFAP positive indicating a close association between growing axons and glial cells in this regeneration paradigm.
We postulate that glial cells with increased Gfap expression support the elongation of new neurites from retinal ganglion cells possibly by providing a scaffold for outgrowth.
Glial fibrillary acidic protein; Axon regeneration; Retinal ganglion cell
Fascioliasis is an often-neglected zoonotic disease and currently is an emerging infection in Iraq. Fascioliasis has two distinct phases, an acute phase, exhibiting the hepatic migratory stage of the fluke’s life cycle, and a chronic biliary phase manifested with the presence of the parasite in the bile ducts through hepatic tissue. The incidence of Fascioliasis in Sulaimaniyah governorate was unexpected observation. We believe that shedding light on this disease in our locality will increase our physician awareness and experience in early detection, treatment in order to avoid unnecessary surgeries.
We retrospectively evaluated this disease in terms of the demographic features, clinical presentations, and managements by reviewing the medical records of 18 patients, who were admitted to the Sulaimani Teaching Hospital and Kurdistan Centre for Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Patients were complained from hepatobiliary and/or upper gastrointestinal symptoms and diagnosed accidentally with Fascioliasis during hepatobiliary surgeries and ERCP by direct visualization of the flukes and stone analysis. Elevated liver enzymes, white blood cells count and eosinophilia were notable laboratory indices. The dilated CBD, gallstones, liver cysts and abscess were found common in radiological images. Fascioliasis diagnosed during conventional surgical CBD exploration and choledochodoudenostomy, open cholecystectomy, surgical drainage of liver abscess, ERCP and during gallstone analysis.
Fascioliasis is indeed an emerging disease in our locality, but it is often underestimated and ignored. We recommend the differential diagnosis of patients suffering from Rt. Hypochondrial pain, fever and eosinophilia. The watercress ingestion was a common factor in patient’s history.
Fasciola hepatica; Fasciola gigantica; Zoonotic disease; Hepatobiliary surgery; Flukes; Stone analysis; ERCP
Cola is an extremely popular caffeinated soft drink. The media have recently cited a poll in which 16% of the respondents considered themselves to be addicted to cola soft drinks. We find the contrast between the apparent prevalence of cola addiction and the lack of scientific literature on the subject remarkable. To our knowledge, this is the first case of cola dependency described in the scientific literature.
The patient is a 40-year-old woman, who when feeling down used cola to give her an energy boost and feel better about herself. During the past seven years her symptoms increased, and she was prescribed antidepressant medication by her family doctor. Due to worsening of symptoms she was hospitalised and later referred to a specialised outpatient clinic for affective disorders. At entry to the clinic she suffered from constant tiredness, lack of energy, failing concentration, problems falling asleep as well as interrupted sleep. She drank about three litres of cola daily, and she had developed a metabolic syndrome.
The patient fulfilled the ICD-10 criteria for dependency, and on the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) she scored 40 points. Her clinical mental status was at baseline assessed by the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) = 41, Hamilton Depression - 17 item Scale (HAMD-17) = 14, Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) = 2 and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale = 45.
During cognitive therapy sessions she was guided to stop drinking cola and was able to moderate her use to an average daily consumption of 200 ml of cola. Her concentration improved and she felt mentally and physically better. At discharge one year after entry her YFAS was zero. She was mentally stable (MDI =1, HAMD-17 = 0, YMRS = 0 and GAF = 85) and without antidepressant medication. She had lost 7.2 kg, her waistline was reduced by 13 cm and the metabolic syndrome disappeared.
This case serves as an example of how the overconsumption of a caffeinated soft drink likely was causing or accentuating the patient’s symptoms of mental disorder. When diagnosing and treating depression, health professionals should pay attention to potential overuse of cola or other caffeinated beverages.
Cola caffeinated soft drink; Depression; Addiction; Metabolic syndrome
The significant biodiversity found in Brazil is a potential for the emergence of new zoonoses. Study in some places of the world suggest of the presence to hantavirus in tissues of bats. Researches of hantavirus in wildlife, out rodents, are very scarce in Brazil. Therefore we decided to investigate in tissues of different species of wild animals captured in the same region where rodents were detected positive for this virus. The present work analyzed ninety-one animals (64 rodents, 19 opossums, and 8 bats) from a region of the Atlantic forest in Biritiba Mirin City, São Paulo State, Brazil. Lungs and kidneys were used for RNA extraction.
The samples were screened for evidence of hantavirus infection by SYBR-Green-based real-time RT-PCR. Sixteen samples positive were encountered among the wild rodents, bats, and opossums. The detection of hantavirus in the lungs and kidneys of three marsupial species (Micoureus paraguayanus, Monodelphis ihering, and Didelphis aurita) as well in two species of bats (Diphylla ecaudata and Anoura caudifer) is of significance because these new hosts could represent an important virus reservoirs.
The analysis of nucleotide sequences of the partial S segment revealed that these genes were more related to the Araraquara virus strains. This work reinforces the importance of studying hantavirus in different animal species and performing a continued surveillance before this virus spreads in new hosts and generated serious problems in public health.
Hantavirus; Wild rodents; Bats; Remaining rain forest; Brazil
The localized scleroderma (LS) known as morphea, presents a variety of clinical manifestations that can include systemic involvement. Current classification schemes divide morphea into categories based solely on cutaneous morphology, without reference to systemic disease or autoimmune phenomena. This classification is likely incomplete. Autoimmune phenomena such as vitiligo and Hashimoto thyroiditis associated with LS have been reported in some cases suggesting an autoimmune basis. To our knowledge this is the first case of a morphea forming part of a multiple autoimmune syndrome (MAS) and presenting simultaneously with autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura and central nervous system vasculitis.
We report an uncommon case of a white 53 year old female patient with LS as part of a multiple autoimmune syndrome associated with pneumonitis, autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura and central nervous system vasculitis presenting a favorable response with thrombopoietin receptor agonists, pulses of methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide.
Is likely that LS have an autoimmune origin and in this case becomes part of MAS, which consist on the presence of three or more well-defined autoimmune diseases in a single patient.
Localized scleroderma; Morphea; Multiple autoimmune syndrome; Central nervous system vasculitis
Extensive research effort has advanced our understanding of Caenorhabditis as a model system, but its natural association with bacteria remains to be explored in an ecological context. Explored associations vary vastly from mutualistic to parasitic. Serratia marcescens has been shown to be pathogenic to Caenorhabditis with a fitness cost. The recent isolation of an entomopathogenic Caenorhabditis briggsae KT0001/S. marcescens SCBI association from the wild has allowed us to examine under laboratory conditions whether such an association poses a serious cost to Caenorhabditis as previously surmised for other Serratia.
A fecundity table of Caenorhabditis briggsae KT0001 fed on S. marcescens SCBI and the control fed on E. coli OP50 is presented. We found no significant difference in survivorship or total fecundity between the S. marcescens SCBI fed and E. coli OP50 fed Caenorhabditis briggsae KT0001. Only the mean onset of reproduction was significantly different between the two groups with E. coli fed C. briggsae maturing earlier (2.12 days) than those fed on Serratia (2.42 days).
S. marcescens SCBI is not highly pathogenic to C. briggsae KT0001 indicating that the entomopathogenicity reported for this association may be beneficial for both the nematode and bacteria. In light of the fact that hitherto conducted experimental tests conform to widely held view that Serratia are highly pathogenic to Caenorhabditis, the absence of a high fitness cost for C. briggsae we report here may indicate that this entomopathogenic association is non-transient suggesting nematode/bacterial associations in the wild may vary greatly. Consequently, broad generalizations about nematode/bacterial associations should be interpreted with care.
Caenorhabditis briggsae; Serratia; Symbiosis; Fitness; Nematode-bacterial associations
A measles outbreak was detected at Ndanga Hospital in Zaka district Masvingo Province on the 5th of May 2010 and there were five deaths. Source of infection was not known and an investigation was carried out to determine factors associated with contracting measles in Zaka district.
Materials and methods
A 1:1 unmatched case control study was conducted. A case was a person residing in Zaka district who developed signs and symptoms of measles or tested IgM positive from 06 May 2010 to 30 August 2010. A control was a person residing in the same community who did not have history of signs and symptoms of measles during the same period. A structured interviewer administered questionnaire (translated into shona) was used to solicit information from cases and controls. Ethical consideration like written consent from all participants, respect and confidentiality were observed. Permission to carry out the study was obtained from the medical research Council of Zimbabwe and the provincial Medical Directors Masvingo. Epi info was used to calculate frequencies, odds ratios and perform logistic regression to control for confounding variables.
A total of 110 cases and 110 controls were recruited. Most cases (63.03%) were from the apostolic sect while 44.7% of controls were from orthodox churches. Contact with a measles case [AOR= 41.14, 95% CI (7.47-226.5)],being unvaccinated against measles [AOR= 3.96, 95%CI (2.58-6.08)] and not receiving additional doses of measles vaccine [AOR 5.48, 95% CI (2.16-11.08)] were independent risk factor for contracting measles. Measles vaccination coverage for Zaka district was 75%. The median duration for seeking treatment after onset of illness was three days (Q1=2; Q3=7). There were no emergency preparedness plans in place.
This outbreak occurred due to a large number of unvaccinated children and a boarding school that facilitated person to person transmission. We recommend mandatory vaccination for all children before enrolling into schools. As a result of the study one day training on outbreak management and surveillance was done with all District Nursing Officers and Environmental Health Officers in personnel in the province.
Measles; Outbreak; Risk factor; Zimbabwe
Accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) and increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity are hallmarks of liver fibrosis. The aim of the present study was to develop a model of liver fibrosis combining ex vivo tissue culture of livers from CCl4 treated animals with an ELISA detecting a fragment of type III collagen generated in vitro by MMP-9 (C3M), known to be associated with liver fibrosis and to investigate cAMP modulation of MMP activity and liver tissue turnover in this model.
In vivo: Rats were treated for 8 weeks with CCl4/Intralipid. Liver slices were cultured for 48 hours. Levels of C3M were determined in the supernatants of slices cultured without treatment, treated with GM6001 (positive control) or treated with IBMX (phosphodiesterase inhibitor). Enzymatic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were studied by gelatin zymography. Ex vivo: The levels of serum C3M increased 77% in the CCl4-treated rats at week 8 (p < 0.01); Levels of C3M increased significantly by 100% in fibrotic liver slices compared to controls after 48 hrs (p < 0.01). By adding GM6001 or IBMX to the media, C3M was restored to control levels. Gelatin zymography demonstrated CCl4-treated animals had highly increased MMP-9, but not MMP-2 activity, compared to slices derived from control animals.
We have combined an ex vivo model of liver fibrosis with measurement of a biochemical marker of collagen degradation in the condition medium. This technology may be used to evaluate the molecular process leading to structural fibrotic changes, as collagen species are the predominant structural part of fibrosis. These data suggest that modulation of cAMP may play a role in regulation of collagen degradation associated with liver fibrosis.
Precision-cut liver slices; Fibrosis; Ex vivo; cAMP
Corneal lacerations mostly affect younger children, commonly males, who will constitute the majority of the workforce. Clinical outcomes are reviewed and compared so that measures to reduce their occurrence and improve outcome can be proffered.
Records of all children between the ages of 1-18 yrs, who presented with penetrating eye injuries at the eye clinic of the University of Port Harcourt teaching Hospital, Rivers state, Nigeria between January 2002 and December 2009 were included. Information retrieved -patient’s Bio data, presenting symptoms, presenting visual acuity (VA), source of injury, surgical intervention and outcome using VA. All data analysed with EPI Info version 6 with the aid of a statistician.
Folders of thirty-six children (36 eyes) between the ages of 0–18 years diagnosed with corneal laceration over a period of 8 years out of 65 cases managed within that period available. Other folders reported as missing. Male female ratio 3:1, the mean age is 8.7 years (SD ± 3.67). Only one presented within 24 hours. Objects causing injury mainly missiles with stones/catapult injuries (n = 8, 22.2%). Presenting VAs in those that could be measured, ranged from 6/24 to 6/60 (n = 4, 11%) to no light perception (NLP) (n = 5, 13.9%). Associated injuries include lid laceration, cataract, vitreous haemorrhage and retinal detachment. Twenty one patients had primary corneal repair (58.3%) carried out within 7 days of presentation. Four had endophthalmitis. After 3 months follow up, VA of 6/60 and better was achieved in 11 of 18 eyes left in follow up (6/60-6/24 in 8 eyes (22.2%), 6/18 and better in 3 eyes (8.3%).
Most eye injuries in children are preventable. In this study, the prognosis was better in those whose injuries were confined to a peripheral part of the cornea, with no other associated injury, who presented within 5 days and who did not have any intraocular infection at the time of presentation. The importance of health education, adult supervision of play and application of appropriate measures that is necessary for reducing the incidence and severity of trauma is emphasized.
Corneal laceration; Missiles; Penetrating injury; Paediatric trauma; Ocular injury; University of port harcourt teaching hospital; Nigeria
Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a commonly used technique to quantify gene expression levels. Validated normalization is essential to obtain reliable qPCR data. In that context, normalizing to multiple reference genes has become the most popular method. However, expression of reference genes may vary per tissue type, developmental stage and in response to experimental treatment. It is therefore imperative to determine stable reference genes for a specific sample set and experimental model. The present study was designed to validate potential reference genes in hippocampal tissue from rats that had experienced early-life febrile seizures (FS). To this end, we applied an established model in which FS were evoked by exposing 10-day old rat pups to heated air. One week later, we determined the expression stability of seven frequently used reference genes in the hippocampal dentate gyrus.
Gene expression stability of 18S rRNA, ActB, GusB, Arbp, Tbp, CycA and Rpl13A was tested using geNorm and Normfinder software. The ranking order of reference genes proposed by geNorm was not identical to that suggested by Normfinder. However, both algorithms indicated CycA, Rpl13A and Tbp as the most stable genes, whereas 18S rRNA and ActB were found to be the least stably expressed genes.
Our data demonstrate that the geometric averaging of at least CycA, Rpl13A and Tbp allows reliable interpretation of gene expression data in this experimental set-up. The results also show that ActB and 18S rRNA are not suited as reference genes in this model.
Reference gene; Quantitative real-time PCR; Febrile seizures; Dentate gyrus
Benzodiazepine (BZD), the long-term treatment of which is harmful for cognitive function, is widely prescribed by General Practitioners in Spain. Based on studies performed in other countries we designed a nurse-led BZD withdrawal program adapted to Spanish Primary Care working conditions.
A pseudo-experimental (before-after) study took place in two Primary Care Centres in Barcelona. From a sample of 1150 patients, 79 were identified. They were over 44 years old and had been daily users of BZD for a period exceeding six months. Out of the target group 51 patients agreed to participate. BZD dosage was reduced every 2-4 weeks by 25% of the initial dose with the optional support of Hydroxyzine or Valerian. The rating measurements were: reduction of BZD prescription, demographic variables, the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) to measure quality of life, the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Sleep Scale, and the Goldberg Depression and Anxiety Scale.
By the end of the six-month intervention, 80.4% of the patients had discontinued BZD and 64% maintained abstinence at one year. An improvement in all parameters of the Goldberg scale (p <0.05) and in the mental component of SF-12 at 3.3 points (p = 0.024), as well as in most components of the MOS scale, was observed in the group that had discontinued BZD. No significant differences in these scales before and after the intervention were observed in the group that had not discontinued.
At one year approximately 2/3 of the patients had ceased taking BZD. They showed an overall improvement in depression and anxiety scales, and in the mental component of the quality of life scale. There was no apparent reduction in the sleep quality indicators in most of the analysed components. Nurses in a Primary Care setting can successfully implement a BZD withdrawal program.
Benzodiazepine; Habituation drug therapy; Primary care
Situs inversus totalis represents an unusual anomaly characterized by a mirror-image transposition of the abdominal and thoracic viscera. It often occurs concomitantly with other disorders that make difficult diagnosis and management of abdominal pathology. The relationship between situs inversus totalis and cancer remains unclear.
We describe a 33-year old Guinean man with situs inversus totalis who presented with obstructive jaundice. Imaging and endoscopic modalities demonstrated a mass of distal common bile duct which biopsy identified an adenocarcinoma. The patient was successfully treated by cephalic pancreaticoduodenectomy followed by adjuvant chemoradiation and he is doing well without recurrence 8 months after surgery.
The occurrence of bile duct adenocarcinoma in patient with situs inversus totalis accounts as a rare coincidence. In this setting, when the tumor is resectable, surgical management should be considered without contraindication and must be preceded by a careful preoperative staging.
Situs inversus totalis; Bile duct cancer; Preoperative staging; Surgical management
We previously proposed an algorithm for the identification of GO terms that commonly annotate genes whose expression is upregulated or downregulated in some microarray data compared with in other microarray data. We call these “differentially expressed GO terms” and have named the algorithm “matrix-assisted identification method of differentially expressed GO terms” (MIMGO). MIMGO can also identify microarray data in which genes annotated with a differentially expressed GO term are upregulated or downregulated. However, MIMGO has not yet been validated on a real microarray dataset using all available GO terms.
We combined Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) with MIMGO to identify differentially expressed GO terms in a yeast cell cycle microarray dataset. GSEA followed by MIMGO (GSEA + MIMGO) correctly identified (p < 0.05) microarray data in which genes annotated to differentially expressed GO terms are upregulated. We found that GSEA + MIMGO was slightly less effective than, or comparable to, GSEA (Pearson), a method that uses Pearson’s correlation as a metric, at detecting true differentially expressed GO terms. However, unlike other methods including GSEA (Pearson), GSEA + MIMGO can comprehensively identify the microarray data in which genes annotated with a differentially expressed GO term are upregulated or downregulated.
MIMGO is a reliable method to identify differentially expressed GO terms comprehensively.
Tuberculosis (TB) and HIV co-infection remains a major public health problem. In spite of different initiatives implemented to tackle the disease, many countries have not reached TB control targets. One of the major attributing reasons for this failure is infection with HIV. This study aims to determine the effect of HIV infection on the survival of TB patients.
A retrospective cohort study was employed to compare the survival between HIV positive and HIV negative TB patients (370 each) during an eight month directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) period. TB patient’s HIV status was considered as an exposure and follow up time until death was taken as an outcome. All patients with TB treatment outcomes other than death were censored, and death was considered as failure. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to determine the hazard ratio (HR) of death for each main baseline predictor. TB/HIV co-infected patients were more likely to die; adjusted Hazard Rate (AHR) =1.6, 95%CI (1.01, 2.6) during the DOTS period. This risk was statistically higher among HIV patients during the continuation phase (p=0.0003), as a result HIV positive TB patients had shorter survival (Log rank test= 6.90, df= 2, p= 0.008). The adjusted survival probability was lower in HIV positive TB patients (< 15%) than HIV negative TB patients (> 85%) at the end of the DOTS period (8th month).
TB treatment survival was substantially lower in HIV infected TB patients, especially during the continuation phase. Targeted and comprehensive management of TB/HIV with a strict follow up should be considered through the entire TB treatment period.
TB treatment; Survival; TB patients; HIV positive; Hawassa; Health center