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1.  First postoperative day review after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery: Is it necessary? 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:333.
Background
Our purpose was to examine the value of the first postoperative day review after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery.
Methods
291 patients who underwent uneventful phacoemulsification were randomized into two groups (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01247155): i) Next day review (NDR group, n = 146) and ii) No next day review (NNDR group, n = 145). The rate of complications, percentage of patients seeking non-scheduled medical consultation up to postoperative day 14, presence of any inflammation-related sign and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) on postoperative day 28 were analyzed.
Results
In the NDR group, 5.5% of patients developed a postoperative complication, whereas the respective rate was 6.2% in the NNDR group. The difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.791). The most frequent complications were: elevated intraocular pressure, allergy to postoperative treatment, corneal abrasion, punctuate epitheliopathy, iris prolapse and postoperative hyphema, whose rates did not differ between the two groups. The rate of patients seeking non-scheduled medical consultation up to postoperative day 14, presence of any inflammation-related sign, as well as BCVA on day 28 did not exhibit any significant differences between the study groups.
Conclusions
First postoperative day review could be omitted in cases of uneventful cataract surgery.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-333
PMCID: PMC3403973  PMID: 22738668
Cataract; Review; Postoperative; First day
2.  Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in dehydrated patients: a preliminary report 
BMC Research Notes  2011;4:435.
Background
Acute kidney injury has been recognized as a major contributor to end stage renal disease. Although neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (Ngal) has been reported as a promising biomarker for early detection of acute kidney injury, no study has yet examined its potential clinical impact in patients with normal renal function. The purpose of current study is to investigate possible difference in serum Ngal levels between dehydrated and control patients.
Findings
A total of twelve patients presented with symptoms of mild dehydration defined by history of diarrheas or vomiting and orthostatic (postural) hypotension and an age and sex matched group of twelve control patients were included. The two groups of patients did not seem to differ in basic clinical and laboratory parameters. Serum Ngal was higher in dehydrated patients when compared to control group (Ngal = 129.4 ± 25.7 ng/mL vs 60.6 ± 0.4 ng/mL, p = 0.02). Ngal was not correlated with age, hemoglobin, white blood cell count, red blood cell count, urea or creatinine.
Conclusions
The presence of elevated Ngal levels in dehydrated patients may suggest its role as a very sensitive biomarker in even minimal and "silent" prerenal kidney dysfunction
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-4-435
PMCID: PMC3207993  PMID: 22018285
dehydration; Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin; Ngal; biomarker; acute kidney injury
3.  Risk factors associated with diabetic retinopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 
BMC Research Notes  2010;3:153.
Background
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with microvascular complications, such as diabetic retinopathy (DR). DR is one of the main causes of visual loss in individuals aged 20-64 years old. This study aims to investigate the independent associations between the stage of DR and a variety of possible risk factors, including years since DM diagnosis, HbA1c levels, the coexistence of hypertension, age and gender.
Findings
120 patients were recruited in the Department of Internal Medicine, Veroia General Hospital, Veroia, Greece, and the DR stage was defined by an ophthalmologist. Afterwards, the DR association with the aforementioned factors was examined. Univariate and multivariate analysis (multivariate ordinal logistic regression) was performed. At the univariate analysis, there was a positive association between DR severity and age (Spearman's rho = 0.4869, p < 0.0001), years since DM diagnosis (Spearman's rho = 0.6877, p < 0.0001), HbA1c levels (Spearman's rho = 0.6315, p < 0.0001), history of hypertension (2.47 ± 1.37 vs. 0.50 ± 0.80 for patients without hypertension; p < 0.0001) and male sex (2.56 ± 1.41 vs. 2.05 ± 1.45 for female patients; p = 0.045, MWW). All these factors, except for age, retained their statistical significance at the multivariate ordinal logistic model.
Conclusions
Years since DM diagnosis, hypertension, HbA1c levels and male sex are independently associated with severe DR. The effect of age seems to reflect a confounding association.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-3-153
PMCID: PMC2888829  PMID: 20515457
4.  Volume of blood suctioned during vacuum-assisted breast biopsy predicts later hematoma formation 
BMC Research Notes  2010;3:70.
Background
To evaluate whether the volume of blood suctioned during vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB) is associated with hematoma formation and progression, patient's age and histology of the lesion.
Findings
177 women underwent VABB according to standardized protocol. The volume of blood suctioned and hematoma formation were noted at the end of the procedure, as did the subsequent development and progression of hematoma. First- and second-order logistic regression was performed, where appropriate. Cases with hematoma presented with greater volume of blood suctioned (63.8 ± 44.7 cc vs. 17.2 ± 32.9 cc; p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test for independent samples, MWW); the likelihood of hematoma formation was increasing till a volume equal to 82.6 cc, at which the second-order approach predicts a maximum. The volume of blood suctioned was positively associated with the duration of the procedure (Spearman's rho = 0.417, p < 0.001); accordingly, hematoma formation was also positively associated with the latter (p = 0.004, MWW). The volume of blood suctioned was not associated with patients' age, menopausal status and histopathological diagnosis.
Conclusion
The likelihood of hematoma is increasing along with increasing amount of blood suctioned, reaching a plateau approximately at 80 cc of blood lost.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-3-70
PMCID: PMC2848056  PMID: 20226029
5.  Breast ductal endoscopy: how many procedures qualify? 
BMC Research Notes  2009;2:115.
Background
Breast ductal endoscopy is a relatively new diagnostic method with ever growing importance in the work-up of patients with bloody nipple discharge. The ability to perform ductal endoscopy is very important and useful for breast fellows. Learning curve in breast ductal endoscopy remains a terra incognita, since no systematic studies have addressed this topic. The purpose of this study is to determine the point (number of procedures during training) beyond which ductal endoscopy is successfully performed.
Findings
Ten breast fellows received training in our Breast Unit. For the training process, an ex vivo model was adopted. Fellows were trained on 20 surgical specimens derived from modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer. The target of the education program was to acquire proficiency in performing ductoscopy. The achievement of four consecutively successful ductal endoscopies was determined as the point beyond which proficiency had been achieved. The number of procedures needed for the achievement of proficiency as defined above ranged between 9 and 17 procedures. The median value was 13 procedures; i.e. 50% of trainees had achieved proficiency at the 13th procedure or earlier.
Conclusion
These pilot findings point to approximately 13 procedures as a point beyond which ductal endoscopy is successfully performed; studies on a larger number of fellows are nevertheless needed. Further research, focusing on the learning curves of different training models of ductal endoscopy, seems desirable.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-2-115
PMCID: PMC2715411  PMID: 19566939

Results 1-5 (5)