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1.  Assessment of the safety and feasibility of administering anti-pyretic therapy in critically ill adults: study protocol of a randomized trial 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:147.
Fever is one of the most commonly observed abnormal signs in patients with critical illness. However, there is a paucity of evidence to guide the management of febrile patients without acute brain injury and little is known about the biologic response to treatment of fever. As such, observational studies suggest that the treatment of fever is inconsistent. This pilot clinical trial will assess the safety and feasibility of treating febrile critically ill adult patients with an aggressive versus a permissive temperature control strategy. The biologic response to these two different temperature control strategies will also be assessed through analysis of a panel of inflammatory mediators.
The study population will include febrile adult patients admitted to one of two general medical-surgical intensive care units (ICUs) in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Patients will be randomized to either an aggressive or permissive fever treatment strategy. The aggressive group will receive acetaminophen 650 mg enterally every 6 hours upon reaching a temperature ≥ 38.3°C and external cooling will be initiated for temperatures ≥ 39.5°C, whereas the permissive group will receive acetaminophen 650 mg every 6 hours upon reaching a temperature ≥ 40.0°C and external cooling for temperatures ≥ 40.5°C. The study will take place over 12 months with the goal of enrolling 120 patients. The primary outcome will be 28-day mortality after study enrolment, with secondary outcomes that will include markers of feasibility (e.g. the enrolment rate, and the number of protocol violations), and levels of select inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators.
Results from this study will lead to a better understanding of the inflammatory effects of anti-pyretic therapy and will evaluate the feasibility of a future clinical trial to establish the best treatment of fever observed in nearly one half of patients admitted to adult ICUs.
Trial Registration NCT01173367
PMCID: PMC3327640  PMID: 22420838
2.  Clinical outcome of empiric antimicrobial therapy of bacteremia due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae 
BMC Research Notes  2010;3:116.
Prompt administration of adequate empiric antimicrobial therapy is a major determinant influencing the outcome of serious infections. The objective of this study was to describe empiric antimicrobial therapy employed and assess its effect on the outcome of patients bacteremic with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae.
A retrospective surveillance study of all patients with bacteremias caused by ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae (EK-ESBL) from 2000-2007 in the Calgary Health Region was conducted. Data were available for 79 episodes of bacteremia among 76 patients. Forty-four (56%) were male, the median age was 70.0 yrs [interquartile range (IQR) 60.6-70.1 yrs], and 72 (91%) episodes were E. coli. Seventy-four episodes (94%) were treated with empiric therapy within the first 48 hours. A non-statistically significant increased mortality occurred in those treated empirically with a beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combination (6/16; 38% vs. 10/53; 18%; p = 0.063) while empiric carbapenem therapy was associated with lower mortality (0/10 died vs. 16/53 (30%), p = 0.089). Only 42 (53%) episodes received adequate therapy within the first 48 hours. The median time to first adequate antibiotic therapy was 41.0 hours [IQR 5.8-59.5] (n = 75). The case-fatality rate was not different among those that received adequate compared to inadequate therapy by 48 hours as compared to inadequate empiric therapy (9/42; 21% vs. 7/37; 19%; p = 1.0).
Inadequate empiric therapy is common among patients with EK-ESBL bacteremia in our region but was not associated with adverse mortality outcome.
PMCID: PMC2877056  PMID: 20423493
3.  Rationale for and protocol of a multi-national population-based bacteremia surveillance collaborative 
BMC Research Notes  2009;2:146.
Bloodstream infections are frequent causes of human illness and cause major morbidity and death. In order to best define the epidemiology of these infections and to track changes in occurrence, adverse outcome, and resistance rates over time, population based methodologies are optimal. However, few population-based surveillance systems exist worldwide, and because of differences in methodology inter-regional comparisons are limited. In this report we describe the rationale and propose first practical steps for developing an international collaborative approach to the epidemiologic study and surveillance for bacteremia.
The founding collaborative participants represent six regions in four countries in three continents with a combined annual surveillance population of more than 8 million residents.
Future studies from this collaborative should lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology of bloodstream infections.
PMCID: PMC2721840  PMID: 19624839

Results 1-3 (3)