Capilia TB is a simple immunochromatographic assay based on the detection of MPB64 antigen specifically secreted by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). Capilia TB was evaluated for rapid identification of MTC from BACTEC MGIT 960 and BACTEC 9120 systems in Kampala, Uganda. Since most studies have mainly dealt with respiratory samples, the performance of Capilia TB on blood culture samples was also evaluated.
One thousand samples from pulmonary and disseminated tuberculosis (TB) suspects admitted to the JCRC clinic and the TB wards at Old Mulago hospital in Kampala, Uganda, were cultured in automated BACTEC MGIT 960 and BACTEC 9120 blood culture systems. BACTEC-positive samples were screened for purity by sub-culturing on blood agar plates. Two hundred and fifty three (253) samples with Acid fast bacilli (AFB, 174 BACTEC MGIT 960 and 79 BACTEC 9120 blood cultures) were analyzed for presence of MTC using Capilia TB and in-house PCR assays.
The overall Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive and Negative Predictive values, and Kappa statistic for Capilia TB assay for identification of MTC were 98.4%, 97.6%, 97.7%, 98.4% and 0.96, respectively. Initially, the performance of in-house PCR on BACTEC 9120 blood cultures was poor (Sensitivity, Specificity, PPV, NPV and Kappa statistic of 100%, 29.3%,7%, 100% and 0.04, respectively) but improved upon sub-culturing on solid medium (Middlebrook 7H10) to 100%, 95.6%, 98.2%, 100% and 0.98, respectively. In contrast, the Sensitivity and Specificity of Capilia TB assay was 98.4% and 97.9%, respectively, both with BACTEC blood cultures and Middlebrook 7H10 cultured samples, revealing that Capilia was better than in-house PCR for identification of MTC in blood cultures. Additionally, Capilia TB was cheaper than in-house PCR for individual samples ($2.03 vs. $12.59, respectively), and was easier to perform with a shorter turnaround time (20 min vs. 480 min, respectively).
Capilia TB assay is faster and cheaper than in-house PCR for rapid identification of MTC from BACTEC MGIT 960 and BACTEC 9120 culture systems in real-time testing of AFB positive cultures.