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1.  Analysis of MMP2 promoter polymorphisms in childhood obesity 
BMC Research Notes  2011;4:253.
Background
Several lines of evidence suggest a possible functional role of Matrix metalloproteinase -2 (MMP-2) in obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of MMP-2 promoter polymorphisms in percentage body fat (PBF) as a measure of childhood obesity in a New Zealand population.
Findings
546 samples from the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative (ABC) study were genotyped for the three MMP-2 promoter SNPs -1306 C/T (rs243865), -1575G/A (rs243866) and -790 T/G (rs243864) using the Sequenom genotyping platform. The results demonstrated that an MMP-2 promoter haplotype is associated with PBF in New Zealand 7 year old children.
Conclusion
We have previously determined that environmental factors are associated with differences in PBF in this study group, and now we have demonstrated a possible genetic contribution.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-4-253
PMCID: PMC3154167  PMID: 21777433
childhood obesity; percentage body fat; matrix metalloproteinase-2; genetic association
2.  Genetic adult lactase persistence is associated with risk of Crohn's Disease in a New Zealand population 
BMC Research Notes  2010;3:339.
Background
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is an infective agent found in ruminants and milk products, which has been suggested to increase the risk of gastrointestinal inflammation in genetically susceptible hosts. It is hypothesized that lactase persistence facilitates exposure to such milk products increasing the likelihood of adverse outcomes. Individuals either homozygous or heterozygous for the T allele of DNA variant, rs4988235, located 14kb upstream from the LCT locus, are associated with having lactase persistence.
The aim of this study was to determine whether lactase persistence as evident by the T allele of rs4988235 is associated with Crohn's Disease (CD) in a New Zealand population.
Findings
Individuals homozygous for the T allele (T/T genotype) showed a significantly increased risk of having CD as compared with those homozygous for the C allele (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.03-2.51). Additionally, a significant increase in the frequency of the T allele was observed in CD patients (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.05-1.61, p = 0.013), indicating that the T allele encoding lactase persistence was associated with an increased risk of CD.
Conclusions
Our findings indicate that lactase persistence as evident by the presence of the T allele of rs4988235 is associated with risk of CD in this New Zealand Caucasian population.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-3-339
PMCID: PMC3020180  PMID: 21167073
3.  Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 1 (NOD1) haplotypes and single nucleotide polymorphisms modify susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases in a New Zealand caucasian population: a case-control study 
BMC Research Notes  2009;2:52.
Background
The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 1 (NOD1) gene encodes a pattern recognition receptor that senses pathogens, leading to downstream responses characteristic of innate immunity. We investigated the role of NOD1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on IBD risk in a New Zealand Caucasian population, and studied Nod1 expression in response to bacterial invasion in the Caco2 cell line.
Findings
DNA samples from 388 Crohn's disease (CD), 405 ulcerative colitis (UC), 27 indeterminate colitis patients and 201 randomly selected controls, from Canterbury, New Zealand were screened for 3 common SNPs in NOD1, using the MassARRAY® iPLEX Gold assay. Transcriptional activation of the protein produced by NOD1 (Nod1) was studied after infection of Caco2 cells with Escherichia coli LF82. Carrying the rs2075818 G allele decreased the risk of CD (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.50–0.88, p < 0.002) but not UC. There was an increased frequency of the three SNP (rs2075818, rs2075822, rs2907748) haplotype, CTG (p = 0.004) and a decreased frequency of the GTG haplotype (p = 0.02).in CD. The rs2075822 CT or TT genotypes were at an increased frequency (genotype p value = 0.02), while the rs2907748 AA or AG genotypes showed decreased frequencies in UC (p = 0.04), but not in CD. Functional assays showed that Nod1 is produced 6 hours after bacterial invasion of the Caco2 cell line.
Conclusion
The NOD1 gene is important in signalling invasion of colonic cells by pathogenic bacteria, indicative of its' key role in innate immunity. Carrying specific SNPs in this gene significantly modifies the risk of CD and/or UC in a New Zealand Caucasian population.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-2-52
PMCID: PMC2674453  PMID: 19327158

Results 1-3 (3)