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1.  Prevalence of pre- and postpartum depression in Jamaican women 
Background
Maternal depression during pregnancy has been studied less than depression in postpartum period. The aims of this study were to find out the prevalence of prepartum and postpartum depression and the risk factors associated in a cohort of Afro-Jamaican pregnant women in Jamaica.
Methods
The Zung self-rating depression scale instrument was administered to 73 healthy pregnant women at 28 weeks gestation and at 6 weeks postpartum for quantitative measurement of depression. Blood samples were collected at 8, 28, 35 weeks gestation and at day 1 and 6 weeks postpartum to study the thyroid status.
Results
Study demonstrated depression prevalence rates of 56% and 34% during prepartum and postpartum period, respectively. 94% women suffering depression in both periods were single. There were significant variations in both FT3 and TT4 concentrations which increased from week 8 to week 28 prepartum (p < 0.05) and then declined at the 35th week (p < 0.05 compared with week 28) and 1 day post delivery study (p < 0.05 compared with week 35). The mean values for TSH increased significantly from week 8 through week 35. The mean values at 1 day postpartum and 6 week postpartum were not significantly different from the 35 week values. For FT3, TT4 and TSH there were no significant between group differences in concentrations. The major determinants of postpartum depression were moderate and severe prepartum depression and change in TT4 hormone concentrations.
Conclusion
High prevalence of depression was found during pre- and postpartum periods. Single mothers, prepartum depression and changes in TT4 were factors found to be significantly associated with postpartum depression.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-5-15
PMCID: PMC1310611  PMID: 16277665
2.  Determination of Interleukin-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha concentrations in Iranian-Khorasanian patients with preeclampsia 
Background
Our objective was to determine the role of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), markers of immune activation and endothelial dysfunction, in patients with preeclampsia.
Methods
Twenty four women with preeclampsia and eighteen antepartum normotensive pregnant women were recruited as controls. Serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We used independent-samples t test to assess the differences in the concentration of cytokines in preeclamptic patients and control subjects.
Results
IL-6 levels [mean (S.D.)] were significantly higher in preeclamptic women [5.8 (4.85) pg/ml] compared to normal pregnant women [3.01 (2.45) pg/ml] (p = 0.02). There was no significant change in concentration of TNF-alpha in preeclamptic women [53.8 (30.0) pg/ml] compared to normal pregnant women [51.9 (33.8) pg/ml] (p > 0.1).
Conclusion
The results of this study show that IL-6 as a pro-inflammatory cytokine is present in higher concentration in women with preeclampsia. The study was undertaken in women with established preeclampsia and it is not possible to determine whether the increased concentration of IL-6 is a cause or consequence of the disease. Furthermore, these findings suggest that serum TNF-alpha level is not associated with preeclampsia.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-5-14
PMCID: PMC1298308  PMID: 16259641
3.  Longer postpartum hospitalization options – who stays, who leaves, what changes? 
Background
This paper examines the practice implications of a policy initiative, namely, offering women in Ontario Canada up to a 60-hour postpartum in-hospital stay following an uncomplicated vaginal delivery. This change was initiated out of concern for the effects of 'early' discharge on the health of mothers and their infants. We examined who was offered and who accepted extended stays, to determine what factors were associated with the offer and acceptance of this option, and the impact that these decisions had on post-discharge health status and service utilization of mothers and infants.
Methods
The data reported here came from two related studies of health outcomes and service utilization of mothers and infants. Data were collected from newly delivered mothers who had uncomplicated vaginal deliveries. Questionnaires prior to discharge and structured telephone interviews at 4-weeks post discharge were used to collect data before and after policy implementation. Qualitative data were collected using focus groups with hospital and community-based health care managers and providers at each site. For both studies, samples were drawn from the same five purposefully selected hospitals. Further analysis compared postpartum health outcomes and post discharge service utilization of women and infants before and after the practice change.
Results
Average length of stay (LOS) increased marginally. There was a significant reduction in stays of <24 hours. The offer of up to a 60-hour LOS was dependent upon the hospital site, having a family physician, and maternal ethnicity. Acceptance of a 60-hour LOS was more likely if the baby had a post-delivery medical problem, it was the woman's first live birth, the mother identified two or more unmet learning needs in hospital, or the mother was unsure about her own readiness for discharge. Mother and infant health status in the first 4 weeks after discharge were unchanged following introduction of the extended stay option. Infant service use also was unchanged but rate of maternal readmission to hospital increased and mothers' use of community physicians and emergency rooms decreased.
Conclusion
This research demonstrates that this policy change was selectively implemented depending upon both institutional and maternal factors. LOS marginally increased overall with a significant decrease in <24-hour stays. Neither health outcomes nor service utilization changed for infants. Women's health outcomes remained unchanged but service utilization patterns changed.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-5-13
PMCID: PMC1266374  PMID: 16225678
4.  Antenatal screening for Group B Streptococcus: A diagnostic cohort study 
Background
A range of strategies have been adopted to prevent early onset Group B Streptococcal (EOGBS) sepsis, as a consequence of Group B Streptococcal (GBS) vertically acquired infection. This study was designed to provide a scientific basis for optimum timing and method of GBS screening in an Australian setting, to determine whether screening for GBS infection at 35–37 weeks gestation has better predictive values for colonisation at birth than screening at 31–33 weeks, to examine the test characteristics of a risk factor strategy and to determine the test characteristics of low vaginal swabs alone compared with a combination of perianal plus low vaginal swabs per colonisation during labour.
Methods
Consented women received vaginal and perianal swabs at 31–33 weeks gestation, 35–38 weeks gestation and during labour. Swabs were cultured on layered horse blood agar and inoculated into selective broth prior to analysis. Test characteristics were calculated with exact confidence intervals for a high risk strategy and for antenatal screening at 31–33 and 35–37 weeks gestation for vaginal cultures alone, perianal cultures alone and combined low vaginal and perianal cultures.
Results
The high risk strategy was not informative in predicting GBS status during labour. There is an unequivocal benefit for the identification of women colonised with GBS during labour associated with delaying screening until 36 weeks however the results for method of screening were less definitive with no clear advantage in using a combined low vaginal and perianal swabbing regimen over the use of a low vaginal swab alone.
Conclusion
This study can contribute to the development of prevention strategies in that it provides clear evidence for optimal timing of swabs. The addition of a perianal swab does not confer clear benefit. The quantification of advantages and disadvantages provided in this study will facilitate communication with clinicians and pregnant women alike.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-5-12
PMCID: PMC1190189  PMID: 16042773
5.  Pregnancy-induced hypertension and infant growth at 28 and 42 days postpartum 
Background
No previous studies have examined the effect of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) on early infant growth. The objective was to study infant growth patterns of babies born to mothers with PIH at 28 and 42 days postpartum.
Methods: Design
We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of 16,936 pregnancies delivered between January 1, 1989 through December 31, 1990 in Suzhou, China. PIH was classified as gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia. Infant Growth Percentage (IGP) was calculated as the weight gain from birth to infant weight at 28 or 42 days postpartum divided by the birth weight. Univariate analysis and multivariate linear regression were performed to compare the infant weight as well as IGP at 28 and 42 days postpartum between various types of PIH and the normotensive group.
Results
Infant weights at 28 and 42 days postpartum were significantly lower in severe preeclampsia (e.g., 4679.9 g at 42 days) and preeclampsia (e.g., 4763.8 g at 42 days) groups than in the normotensive group (e.g., 4869.1 g at 42 days, p < 0.01). However, there were no differences in IGP between groups. After stratifying by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) status, if babies were not intrauterine growth restricted, none of the PIH types showed a significantly lower weight at 28 and 42 days postpartum and their IGPs were similar to those of the reference group. When babies were growth restricted, all PIH groups showed significantly lower weights but higher IGP at 28 and 42 days postpartum as compared to the normotensive group.
Conclusion
Infants born to mothers with PIH but without IUGR have normal early infant growth. IUGR secondary to PIH is associated with significant catch-up growth at 28 and 42 days postpartum.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-5-10
PMCID: PMC1168902  PMID: 15907210
6.  SSRI'S and other antidepressant use during pregnancy and potential neonatal adverse effects: Impact of a public health advisory and subsequent reports in the news media 
Background
On Aug 9th 2004 Health Canada released an advisory, which followed a similar one from the FDA regarding the use of SSRI's and other antidepressants during pregnancy and potential adverse effects on newborns. In neither advisory was it stated that women should discontinue their antidepressant. In the seven days following the release of this advisory, The Motherisk Program received 49 calls from anxious women in response to the media reporting of this information.
Objective
To examine the impact of the advisory and subsequent reporting in the media, on the decision-making of women, currently taking an antidepressant, who called The Motherisk Program after becoming aware of this information.
Methods
We attempted to follow up all the women who had called us who were alarmed by this advisory and asked them to complete a specially designed questionnaire.
Results
We were able to complete 43/49 (88%) follow-ups of the women who contacted us. All of the callers reported that the messages in the media caused a great deal of anxiety. Seven misunderstood the advisory, ie their children were more than 1 year old, five had discontinued their antidepressant (3 abruptly (2 later restarted after speaking with Motherisk counsellors)and 2 with some form of tapering off) and(6) were considering discontinuation, but decided to continue following reassurance from Motherisk
Conclusion
Medical information regarding fetal and infant safety, disseminated in the public domain, should be transferred in a way that does not influence a pregnant woman to make decisions that may not be in the best interest of hers or her child's health.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-5-11
PMCID: PMC1156906  PMID: 15907207
7.  Incidence of stillbirth and perinatal mortality and their associated factors among women delivering at Harare Maternity Hospital, Zimbabwe: a cross-sectional retrospective analysis 
Background
Death of an infant in utero or at birth has always been a devastating experience for the mother and of concern in clinical practice. Infant mortality remains a challenge in the care of pregnant women worldwide, but particularly for developing countries and the need to understand contributory factors is crucial for addressing appropriate perinatal health.
Methods
Using information available in obstetric records for all deliveries (17,072 births) at Harare Maternity Hospital, Zimbabwe, we conducted a cross-sectional retrospective analysis of a one-year data, (1997–1998) to assess demographic and obstetric risk factors for stillbirth and early neonatal death. We estimated risk of stillbirth and early neonatal death for each potential risk factor.
Results
The annual frequency of stillbirth was 56 per 1,000 total births. Women delivering stillbirths and early neonatal deaths were less likely to receive prenatal care (adjusted relative risk [RR] = 2.54; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 2.19–2.94 and RR = 2.52; 95% CI 1.63–3.91), which for combined stillbirths and early neonatal deaths increased with increasing gestational age (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 3.98, HR = 7.49 at 28 and 40 weeks of gestation, respectively). Rural residence was associated with risk of infant dying in utero, (RR = 1.33; 95% CI 1.12–1.59), and the risk of death increased with increasing gestational age (HR = 1.04, HR = 1.69, at 28 and 40 weeks of gestation, respectively). Older maternal age was associated with risk of death (HR = 1.50; 95% CI 1.21–1.84). Stillbirths were less likely to be delivered by Cesarean section (RR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.51–0.79), but more likely to be delivered as breech (RR = 4.65; 95% CI 3.88–5.57, as were early neonatal deaths (RR = 3.38; 95% CI 1.64–6.96).
Conclusion
The frequency of stillbirth, especially macerated, is high, 27 per 1000 total births. Early prenatal care could help reduce perinatal death linking the woman to the health care system, increasing the probability that she would seek timely emergency care that would reduce the likelihood of death of her infant in utero. Improved quality of obstetric care during labor and delivery may help reduce the number of fresh stillbirths and early neonatal deaths.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-5-9
PMCID: PMC1156907  PMID: 15876345
8.  Hospitalisation for bed rest for women with a triplet pregnancy: an abandoned randomised controlled trial and meta-analysis 
Background
This abandoned randomised controlled trial assessed the effects of hospitalisation from 24 to 30 weeks gestation for women with a triplet pregnancy on the risk of preterm birth.
Methods
Women with a triplet pregnancy and no other condition necessitating hospital admission were approached for participation in the study, and randomised to either antenatal hospitalisation (hospitalised group), or to routine antenatal care (control group). The randomisation schedule used variable blocks with stratification by parity, and a researcher not involved with clinical care contacted by telephone to determine treatment allocation by opening the next in a series of consecutively numbered, opaque, sealed envelopes. Primary study outcomes were preterm birth (defined as birth less than 37 weeks gestation) and very preterm birth (defined as birth less than 34 weeks gestation), and the development of maternal pregnancy induced hypertension. The trial was ceased prior to achieving the calculated sample size due to difficulties in recruitment. The results of this randomised controlled trial were then combined with the results of another comparing bed rest in women with a triplet pregnancy.
Results
Seven women with a triplet pregnancy were recruited to the trial, with three randomised to the hospitalisation group, and four to the control group. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups for the primary outcomes birth before 37 weeks (3/3 hospitalisation group versus 4/4 control group; relative risk (RR) not estimable), birth before 34 weeks (3/3 hospitalisation group versus 2/4 control group; RR 2.00 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) 0.75–5.33) and pregnancy induced hypertension (1/3 hospitalisation group versus 1/4 control group; RR 1.33 95%CI 0.13–13.74).
When the results of this trial were incorporated into a meta-analysis with the previous randomised controlled trial assessing hospitalisation and bed rest for women with a triplet pregnancy, (total sample size 26 women and 78 infants), there were no statistically significant differences identified between the two groups.
Conclusion
The results of this trial and meta-analysis suggest no benefit of routine hospitalisation and bed rest for women with a triplet pregnancy to reduce the risk of preterm birth. The adoption or continuation of a policy of routine hospitalisation and bed rest for women with an uncomplicated triplet pregnancy cannot be recommended.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-5-8
PMCID: PMC1084350  PMID: 15804370
9.  Antiplatelet agents for prevention of pre-eclampsia and its consequences: a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis 
Background
There is now good evidence that antiplatelet agents (principally low dose aspirin) prevent pre-eclampsia, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for pregnant women and their babies. A Cochrane Review identified moderate, but clinically important, reductions in the relative risks of pre-eclampsia (19%), preterm birth (7%) and perinatal mortality (16%) in women allocated antiplatelets, rather than placebo or no antiplatelet.
Uncertainty remains, however, about whether some women (in terms of risk) benefit more than others, what dose of aspirin is best and when in pregnancy treatment should ideally start. Rather than undertake new trials, the best way to answer these questions is to utilise existing individual patient data from women enrolled in each trial.
Methods/Design
Systematic review with meta-analysis based on individual patient data. This involves the central collection, validation and re-analysis of thoroughly checked data from individual women in all the available randomised trials.
The objective is to confirm that antiplatelet agents, given during pregnancy, will reduce the incidence of pre-eclampsia. The review will then determine the size of this effect, and whether antiplatelets delay the onset of pre-eclampsia or its impact on important outcomes for women and their babies. It will also explore whether the effect of antiplatelets differs by womens' risk profile; when commenced during pregnancy; and/or by dose.
Discussion
The PARIS (Perinatal Antiplatelet Review of International Studies) Collaboration has been formed to undertake the review. This will be the first individual patient data review in the perinatal field. Final results should be available by 2006–7.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-5-7
PMCID: PMC555958  PMID: 15833147
10.  Women's health groups to improve perinatal care in rural Nepal 
Background
Neonatal mortality rates are high in rural Nepal where more than 90% of deliveries are in the home. Evidence suggests that death rates can be reduced by interventions at community level. We describe an intervention which aimed to harness the power of community planning and decision making to improve maternal and newborn care in rural Nepal.
Methods
The development of 111 women's groups in a population of 86 704 in Makwanpur district, Nepal is described. The groups, facilitated by local women, were the intervention component of a randomized controlled trial to reduce perinatal and neonatal mortality rates. Through participant observation and analysis of reports, we describe the implementation of this intervention: the community entry process, the facilitation of monthly meetings through a participatory action cycle of problem identification, community planning, and implementation and evaluation of strategies to tackle the identified problems.
Results
In response to the needs of the group, participatory health education was added to the intervention and the women's groups developed varied strategies to tackle problems of maternal and newborn care: establishing mother and child health funds, producing clean home delivery kits and operating stretcher schemes. Close linkages with community leaders and community health workers improved strategy implementation. There were also indications of positive effects on group members and health services, and most groups remained active after 30 months.
Conclusion
A large scale and potentially sustainable participatory intervention with women's groups, which focused on pregnancy, childbirth and the newborn period, resulted in innovative strategies identified by local communities to tackle perinatal care problems.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-5-6
PMCID: PMC1079874  PMID: 15771772
11.  Individual patient data meta-analysis : Cervical stitch (cerclage) for preventing pregnancy loss in women 
Background
Cervical cerclage is a surgical procedure involving suturing the cervix with a purse type stitch to keep it closed during pregnancy. This procedure has been used widely in the management of pregnancies considered at high risk of preterm delivery. Several observational studies into the efficacy of cervical cerclage have claimed high rates of successful pregnancy outcome in women with a poor obstetric history attributed to cervical incompetence. However, a recent aggregate data Cochrane review found no such conclusive evidence from seven included randomised studies. Current data suggests that cervical cerclage is likely to benefit women considered to be 'at very high risk' of a second trimester miscarriage due to a cervical factor, however identifying such women remains elusive and many women may be treated unnecessarily. Undertaking an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis of the studies will allow us to investigate whether treatment is more effective in particular subgroups. Such an analysis will also provide a more powerful analysis of the predictors of preterm delivery and pregnancy loss, including ultrasound measurement of cervical length, and will allow a more complete analysis of 'time to event' outcomes.
Methods/Design
The analysis will include data from randomised trials comparing the intervention of elective cerclage versus no cerclage or bedrest to prevent miscarriage or pre-term labour. A specific list of data will be requested for each trial, including demographic and obstetric history data. The primary outcomes of interest will be neonatal mortality/morbidity. Attention will also be given to secondary outcomes such as time from randomisation to delivery, preterm delivery before 32 weeks and maternal morbidity. An intention to treat analysis will be performed, with attention paid to assessing clinical and statistical heterogeneity. Multilevel models with patients and trials as the two levels will be explored to investigate treatment effect on various outcomes. Patient-level covariates will be incorporated into the models in an attempt to account for statistical heterogeneity as well as to investigate interactions with treatment effect.
Discussion
Predictive models generated from our analysis should lead to more effective counselling of women at risk and a more cost effective use of cerclage.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-5-5
PMCID: PMC553972  PMID: 15727683
12.  Polymorphisms in immunoregulatory genes and the risk of histologic chorioamnionitis in Caucasoid women: a case control study 
Background
Chorioamnionitis is a common underlying cause of preterm birth (PTB). It is hypothesised that polymorphisms in immunoregulatory genes influence the host response to infection and subsequent preterm birth. The relationship between histologic chorioamnionitis and 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 11 immunoregulatory genes was examined in a case-control study.
Methods
Placentas of 181 Caucasoid women with spontaneous PTB prior to 35 weeks were examined for histologic chorioamnionitis. Polymorphisms in genes IL1A, IL1B, IL1RN, IL1R1, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), IL4, IL6, IL10, transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFB1), Fas (TNFRSF6), and mannose-binding lectin (MBL2) were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction and sequence specific primers. Multivariable logistic regression including demographic and genetic variables and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses of genotype frequencies and pregnancy outcome were performed.
Results
Sixty-nine (34%) women had histologic evidence of acute chorioamnionitis. Carriage of the IL10-1082A/-819T/592A (ATA) haplotype [Multivariable Odds ratio (MOR) 1.9, P = 0.05] and MBL2 codon 54Asp allele (MOR 2.0, P = 0.04), were positively associated with chorioamnionitis, while the TNFRSF6-1377A/-670G (AG) haplotype (MOR 0.4, P = 0.03) and homozygosity for TGFB1-800G/509T (GT) haplotype (MOR 0.2, P = 0.04) were negatively associated.
Conclusion
These findings demonstrate that polymorphisms in immunoregulatory genes IL10, MBL2, TNFRSF6 and TGFB1 may influence susceptibility to chorioamnionitis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-5-4
PMCID: PMC554771  PMID: 15723707
13.  Customized birth weight for gestational age standards: Perinatal mortality patterns are consistent with separate standards for males and females but not for blacks and whites 
Background
Some currently available birth weight for gestational age standards are customized but others are not. We carried out a study to provide empirical justification for customizing such standards by sex and for whites and blacks in the United States.
Methods
We studied all male and female singleton live births and stillbirths (22 or more weeks of gestation; 500 g birth weight or over) in the United States in 1997 and 1998. White and black singleton live births and stillbirths were also examined. Qualitative congruence between gestational age-specific growth restriction and perinatal mortality rates was used as the criterion for identifying the preferred standard.
Results
The fetuses at risk approach showed that males had higher perinatal mortality rates at all gestational ages compared with females. Gestational age-specific growth restriction rates based on a sex-specific standard were qualitatively consistent with gestational age-specific perinatal mortality rates among males and females. However, growth restriction patterns among males and females based on a unisex standard could not be reconciled with perinatal mortality patterns. Use of a single standard for whites and blacks resulted in gestational age-specific growth restriction rates that were qualitatively congruent with patterns of perinatal mortality, while use of separate race-specific standards led to growth restriction patterns that were incompatible with patterns of perinatal mortality.
Conclusion
Qualitative congruence between growth restriction and perinatal mortality patterns provides an outcome-based justification for sex-specific birth weight for gestational age standards but not for the available race-specific standards for blacks and whites in the United States.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-5-3
PMCID: PMC551609  PMID: 15720720
14.  Association between fetal growth restriction and polymorphisms at sites -1 and +3 of pituitary growth hormone: a case-control study 
Background
Fetal growth restriction is associated with significantly increased risks of neonatal death and morbidity and with susceptibility to hypertension, cardiovascular disease and NIDDM later in life. Human birth weight has a substantial genetic component, with at least a quarter of the variation attributable to additive genetic effects.
Methods
One hundred twenty-five subjects (83 control and 42 case) were selected using stringent inclusion/exclusion criteria. DNA sequencing was used to identify 26 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the pituitary growth hormone gene (GH1) at which all subjects were genotyped. Association with fetal growth restriction was tested by logistic regression for all sites with minor allele frequencies greater than 5%.
Results
Logistic regression identified significant association with fetal growth restriction of C alleles at sites -1 and +3 (relative to the start of transcription) that are in complete linkage disequilibrium. These alleles are present at higher frequency (6% vs. 0.4%) in fetal growth restricted subjects and are associated with an average reduction in birth weight of 152 g in normal birth weight and 97 g in low birth weight subjects.
Conclusions
There is suggestive association between fetal growth restriction and the presence of C alleles at sites -1 and +3 of the pituitary growth hormone gene.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-5-2
PMCID: PMC548522  PMID: 15691369
15.  Postpartum maternal morbidity requiring hospital admission in Lusaka, Zambia – a descriptive study 
Background
Information on the extent of postpartum maternal morbidity in developing countries is extremely limited. In many settings, data from hospital-based studies is hard to interpret because of the small proportion of women that have access to medical care. However, in those areas with good uptake of health care, the measurement of the type and incidence of complications severe enough to require hospitalisation may provide useful baseline information on the acute and severe morbidity that women experience in the early weeks following childbirth. An analysis of health services data from Lusaka, Zambia, is presented.
Methods
Six-month retrospective review of hospital registers and 4-week cross-sectional study with prospective identification of postpartum admissions.
Results
Both parts of the study identified puerperal sepsis and malaria as, respectively, the leading direct and indirect causes of postpartum morbidity requiring hospital admission. Puerperal sepsis accounted for 34.8% of 365 postpartum admissions in the 6-month period. Malaria and pneumonia together accounted for one-fifth of all postpartum admissions (14.5% & 6% respectively). At least 1.7% of the postpartum population in Lusaka will require hospital-level care for a maternal morbidity.
Conclusions
In developing country urban settings with high public health care usage, meticulous review of hospital registers can provide baseline information on the burden of moderate-to-severe postpartum morbidity.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-5-1
PMCID: PMC549039  PMID: 15686592

Results 1-15 (15)