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1.  A postal survey of maternal sleep in late pregnancy 
Background
Sleep disturbances in late pregnancy are common. This study aimed to survey sleep problems in third trimester pregnant women and to compare sleep in the pre-pregnancy period with the third trimester.
Methods
Third-trimester women (n=650) were sent a postal survey containing questions relating to sleep experience, including perceived sleep quality, sleep difficulties, night waking, sleep environment, snoring, daytime tiredness and daytime napping. Time periods reported on were before pregnancy and in the last week.
Results
Respondents numbered 244 (38%). Before pregnancy, the mean reported duration of night-time sleep was 8.1 (SD 1.1) hours; in the last week this had decreased to 7.5 (SD 1.8) hours (p<.0001). Only 29% rated their sleep quality in the last week as very good or fairly good, compared with 82% rating their sleep this way before the pregnancy. The main reasons for sleeping difficulties were discomfort (67%) and pain (36%). Snoring increased significantly over the course of the pregnancy, with 37% reporting snoring often or every night in the last week. Those with a pre-pregnancy body mass index of greater than 25 were significantly more likely to snore (p=.01). Only 4% of women had an abnormal Epworth Sleepiness Scale score (i.e. >10) prior to pregnancy, whereas in the last week 33% scored in the abnormal range. Likewise, 5% had regularly napped during the daytime before pregnancy, compared with 41% in the last week.
Conclusions
Sleep problems are common in women in late pregnancy, and increase markedly compared with before pregnancy.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-12-144
PMCID: PMC3541269  PMID: 23228137
Pregnancy; Sleep disturbances; Sleep quality; Snoring; Daytime sleepiness
2.  Sleep position and risk of late stillbirth 
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth  2012;12(Suppl 1):A12.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-12-S1-A12
PMCID: PMC3428675
3.  Concluding remarks 
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth  2012;12(Suppl 1):A14.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-12-S1-A14
PMCID: PMC3428676
5.  Emerging ideas to better understand and prevent stillbirths 
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth  2012;12(Suppl 1):A1.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-12-S1-A1
PMCID: PMC3428684  PMID: 22950795
6.  Relationship between obesity, ethnicity and risk of late stillbirth: a case control study 
Background
In high income countries there has been little improvement in stillbirth rates over the past two decades. Previous studies have indicated an ethnic disparity in the rate of stillbirths. This study aimed to determine whether maternal ethnicity is independently associated with late stillbirth in New Zealand.
Methods
Cases were women with a singleton, late stillbirth (≥28 weeks' gestation) without congenital abnormality, born between July 2006 and June 2009 in Auckland, New Zealand. Two controls with ongoing pregnancies were randomly selected at the same gestation at which the stillbirth occurred. Women were interviewed in the first few weeks following stillbirth, or at the equivalent gestation for controls. Detailed demographic data were recorded. The study was powered to detect an odds ratio of 2, with a power of 80% at the 5% level of significance, given a prevalence of the risk factor of 20%. A multivariable regression model was developed which adjusted for known risk factors for stillbirth, as well as significant risk factors identified in the current study, and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated.
Results
155/215 (72%) cases and 310/429 (72%) controls consented. Pacific ethnicity, overweight and obesity, grandmultiparity, not being married, not being in paid work, social deprivation, exposure to tobacco smoke and use of recreational drugs were associated with an increased risk of late stillbirth in univariable analysis. Maternal overweight and obesity, nulliparity, grandmultiparity, not being married and not being in paid work were independently associated with late stillbirth in multivariable analysis, whereas Pacific ethnicity was no longer significant (adjusted Odds Ratio 0.99; 0.51-1.91).
Conclusions
Pacific ethnicity was not found to be an independent risk factor for late stillbirth in this New Zealand study. The disparity in stillbirth rates between Pacific and European women can be attributed to confounding factors such as maternal obesity and high parity.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-11-3
PMCID: PMC3027197  PMID: 21226915

Results 1-6 (6)