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1.  Recurrent secondary postpartum hemorrhages due to placental site vessel subinvolution and local uterine tissue coagulopathy 
Background
Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) represents a serious problem for women and obstetricians. Because of its association with hemorrhagic shock and predisposition to disseminated coagulopathy, it is a leading cause of maternal deaths worldwide. Furthermore, the jeopardy of PPH is rising with the secondary form of PPH occurring between 24 hours and 6 weeks postpartum, when women are already discharged home. The causes of this pathology are severe inflammation (endometritis), inherited coagulation disorders, consumptive coagulopathy, and retained products of conceptions. Others are of rare occurrence, such as vessel subinvolution (VSI) of the placental implantation site, uterine artery pseudoaneurysm, or trauma.
Case presentation
We present a rare form of recurrent secondary postpartum hemorrhage in a woman after uncomplicated cesarean delivery, with review of the literature linked to the management of this situation originating in the rare local VSI in the placental implantation site, defective decidual homeostasis, and coagulopathy confined to the uterus.
Conclusion
The placental site VSI is one of the rare causes of secondary PPH, and this situation is frequently underdiagnosed by clinicians. The histological confirmation of dilated “clustered”-shaped myometrial arteries partially occluded by thrombi of variable “age” together with the presence of endovascular extravillous trophoblasts confirms the diagnosis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-14-80
PMCID: PMC3943456  PMID: 24558972
Puerperium; Secondary postpartum hemorrhage; Vessel subinvolution; Coagulopathy
2.  Is minimally invasive parathyroid surgery an option for patients with gestational primary hyperparathyroidism? 
Background
Gestational primary hyperparathyroidism is associated with serious maternal and neonatal complications, which require prompt surgical treatment. Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy reduces pain, improves cosmesis and may achieve cure rates comparable to traditional open bilateral neck exploration. We report the clinical course of a woman with newly diagnosed gestational primary hyperparathyroidism and discuss the decision making behind the choice of video-assisted minimally invasive parathyroidectomy, amongst the other minimally invasive parathyroidectomy techniques available.
Case presentation
A 38-years-old pregnant woman at 9 weeks of gestation, with severe hyperemesis and hypercalcaemia secondary to gestational primary hyperparathyroidism (ionised calcium 1.28 mmol/l) was referred for surgery. Ultrasound examination of her neck identified 2 suspicious parathyroid enlargements. In view of pregnancy, a radioisotope Sestamibi parathyroid scan was not performed. Bilateral four-gland exploration was therefore deemed necessary to guarantee cure. This was performed with video-assisted minimally invasive parathyroidectomy, which relies on a single 15 mm central incision with external retraction and endoscopic magnification, allowing bilateral neck exploration.
Surgery was performed at 23 weeks of gestation. Four glands were identified in orthotopic positions of which three had normal appearance. The fourth was a right superior parathyroid adenoma of 756 mg. Ionized calcium (1.12 mmol/l) and PTH (0.9 pmol/l) normalised postoperatively. Patient was discharged on the second postoperative day, needing no pain relief. Cosmetic result was excellent. Her pregnancy progressed normally and she delivered a healthy baby.
Conclusion
Video-assisted minimally invasive parathyroidectomy allows bilateral four-gland exploration, and is an optimal technique to treat gestational primary hyperparathyroidism. This procedure removes the need for radiation exposure, reduces pain, improves cosmesis and may achieve cure rates comparable to traditional open bilateral neck exploration.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-13-130
PMCID: PMC3691590  PMID: 23758620
Minimally invasive; Parathyroidectomy; Gestational primary hyperparathyroidism; Video assisted; Hypercalcemia without Sestamibi
3.  4th Stage Transvaginal omental herniation during VBAC complicated by shoulder dystocia: a unique presentation of uterine rupture 
Background
Uterine rupture is a common complication in women attempting their first virginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC) but the risk diminishes with subsequent VBACs. It occurs in rates of 0.5-9% and is influenced by various factors.
Case presentation
A unique case of uterine rupture in a Kenyan woman of African descent during a repeat VBAC complicated by shoulder dystocia was discovered during the 4th stage of labour when omentum was noted protruding through the vagina. She had delivered 4 years earlier by caesarean section.
Conclusion
It is not common to experience uterine rupture among women attempting repeat VBAC. When it occurs, it may not always follow the known pattern intra-partum and is often associated with poor foetal outcome.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-13-76
PMCID: PMC3614469  PMID: 23521920
4.  Pseudo (Platelet-type) von Willebrand disease in pregnancy: a case report 
Background
Pseudo (platelet-type)-von Willebrand disease is a rare autosomal dominant bleeding disorder caused by an abnormal function of the glycoprotein lb protein; the receptor for von Willebrand factor. This leads to an increased removal of VWF multimers from the circulation as well as platelets and this results in a bleeding diathesis. Worldwide, less than 50 patients are reported with platelet type von Willebrand disease (PT-VWD).
Case presentation
We describe the management of platelet type von Willebrand disease in pregnancy of a 26 year old Caucasian primigravida. The initial diagnosis was made earlier following a significant haemorrhage post tonsillectomy several years prior to pregnancy. The patient was managed under a multidisciplinary team which included obstetricians, haematologists, anaesthetists and neonatologists. Care plans were made for the ante- natal, intra-partum and post-partum periods in partnership with the patient. The patient’s platelet count levels dropped significantly during the antenatal period. This necessitated the active exclusion of other causes of thrombocytopenia in pregnancy. A vaginal delivery was desired and plans were made for induction of labour at 38 weeks of gestation with platelet cover in view of the progressive fall of the platelet count. The patient however went into spontaneous labour on the day of induction. She was transfused two units of platelets before delivery. She had an unassisted vaginal delivery of a healthy baby. The successful antenatal counselling has encouraged the diagnosis of the same condition in her mother and sister. We found this to be a particularly interesting case as well as challenging to manage due to its rarity. Psuedo von Willebrand disease in pregnancy can be confused with a number of other differential diagnoses, such as gestational thrombocutopenia, idiopathatic thrombocytopenia, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and pre-eclampsia; all need consideration during investigations even in a case such as this where the diagnosis of platelet type von Willebrand disease was known before pregnancy.
Conclusion
Management of pseudo von Willebrand disease in pregnancy involves the co-operation of multidisciplinary teams, regular monitoring of platelet levels and factor VIII and replacement as appropriate. This case report highlights this rare condition and the need to exclude all the other differential diagnoses of thrombocytopenia in pregnant women with thrombocytopenia.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-13-16
PMCID: PMC3558368  PMID: 23327637
Von Willebrand; Platelet type; Thrombocytopenia; Pregnancy
5.  Spontaneous dissection of the coronary and vertebral arteries post-partum: case report and review of the literature 
Background
Spontaneous coronary and vertebral artery dissections are rare events occurring most commonly in otherwise healthy women during pregnancy or the post-partum period.
Case presentation
This report describes a 35-year-old female who presented with an acute inferior ST elevation myocardial infarction 7 months post-partum secondary to spontaneous dissection of the left obtuse marginal coronary artery. Despite appropriate medical therapy with dual anti-platelet therapy, the patient presented four weeks later with a spontaneous dissection of the right vertebral artery.
Conclusion
We review the presentation, diagnosis, and management of spontaneous dissections of the vasculature in the peri-partum period.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-12-122
PMCID: PMC3495043  PMID: 23121892
Spontaneous dissection; Vasculature; Pregnancy; Imaging
6.  Prenatal management and perinatal outcome in giant placental chorioangioma complicated with hydrops fetalis, fetal anemia and maternal mirror syndrome 
Background
Giant placental chorioangiomas have been associated with a number of severe fetal complications and high perinatal mortality.
Case presentation
We report a case of giant chorioangioma with fetal hydrops, additionally complicated by severe anemia, mild cardiomegaly with hyperdinamic heart circulation and maternal mirror syndrome. Intrauterine blood transfusion and amniodrainage was performed at 29 weeks. Worsening of the fetal and maternal condition prompted us to proceed with delivery at 29 + 5 weeks. The newborn died 3 hours later due to pulmonary hypoplasia and hemodynamic failure. Maternal course was favourable, mirror syndrome resolved in the second day and the patient was discharged four days following delivery.
Conclusions
In the case described here, fetal condition got worse despite of the anemia correction and amniodrainage. Our outcome raises the issue whether additional intrauterine clinical intervention, as intersticial laser, should have been performed to stop further deterioration of the fetal condition when progressive severe hydrops develops.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-12-72
PMCID: PMC3565867  PMID: 22840187
Fetal chorioangioma; Hydrops fetalis; Fetal anemia; Fetal therapy; Mirror syndrome

Results 1-6 (6)