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1.  Molecular distinction amongst varieties of Mulberry using RAPD and DAMD profiles 
BMC Plant Biology  2001;1:3.
Background
Mulberry trees are the most important host for rearing mulberry silkworms in sericulture. Improved varieties of mulberry tree have been developed through traditional breeding procedures. Not much work, however, has been carried out on the molecular characterization of these varieties. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Directed Amplification of Minisatellite DNA (DAMD) methods based on Polymerase Chain Reaction are important tools to analyze genetic diversity of mulberries. These have been used to determine variation amongst nine varieties of Morus spp. maintained at Banthra Research Station of National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow.
Results and Discussion
The varieties were analyzed using 23 arbitrary sequence decamer primers for RAPD, and 3 minisatellite core sequence primers for DAMD reactions. The RAPD and DAMD band data, (a total of 200 bands), were used to determine the pair wise distances according to Jaccard's algorithm. From these distance values Neighbour Joining (NJ) analyses were carried out separately for the RAPD and the DAMD data. The triploid varieties were found to be most similar to each other using RAPD analysis, while the varieties S13 and S34 were more similar using DAMD analysis. Nearly 85% of the RAPD bands and 91% of the DAMD bands were polymorphic across the nine varieties.
Conclusions
The mulberry varieties could be distinguished by their RAPD and DAMD profiles. As many as five RAPD primers and one DAMD primer generated profiles that can together differentiate all the nine varieties in terms of unique bands.
doi:10.1186/1471-2229-1-3
PMCID: PMC64612  PMID: 11801190
2.  The role of chlorophyll b in photosynthesis: Hypothesis 
BMC Plant Biology  2001;1:2.
Background
The physico-chemical properties of chlorophylls b and c have been known for decades. Yet the mechanisms by which these secondary chlorophylls support assembly and accumulation of light-harvesting complexes in vivo have not been resolved.
Presentation
Biosynthetic modifications that introduce electronegative groups on the periphery of the chlorophyll molecule withdraw electrons from the pyrrole nitrogens and thus reduce their basicity. Consequently, the tendency of the central Mg to form coordination bonds with electron pairs in exogenous ligands, a reflection of its Lewis acid properties, is increased. Our hypothesis states that the stronger coordination bonds between the Mg atom in chlorophyll b and chlorophyll c and amino acid sidechain ligands in chlorophyll a/b- and a/c-binding apoproteins, respectively, enhance their import into the chloroplast and assembly of light-harvesting complexes.
Testing
Several apoproteins of light-harvesting complexes, in particular, the major protein Lhcb1, are not detectable in leaves of chlorophyll b-less plants. A direct test of the hypothesis – with positive selection – is expression, in mutant plants that synthesize only chlorophyll a, of forms of Lhcb1 in which weak ligands are replaced with stronger Lewis bases.
Implications
The mechanistic explanation for the effects of deficiencies in chlorophyll b or c points to the need for further research on manipulation of coordination bonds between these chlorophylls and chlorophyll-binding proteins. Understanding these interactions will possibly lead to engineering plants to expand their light-harvesting antenna and ultimately their productivity.
doi:10.1186/1471-2229-1-2
PMCID: PMC59834  PMID: 11710960
3.  Influence of CSP 310 and CSP 310-like proteins from cereals on mitochondrial energetic activity and lipid peroxidation in vitro and in vivo 
BMC Plant Biology  2001;1:1.
Background
The development of chilling and freezing injury symptoms in plants is known to frequently coincide with peroxidation of free fatty acids. Mitochondria are one of the major sources of reactive oxygen species during cold stress. Recently it has been suggested that uncoupling of oxidation and phosphorylation in mitochondria during oxidative stress can decrease ROS formation by mitochondrial respiratory chain generation. At the same time, it is known that plant uncoupling mitochondrial protein (PUMP) and other UCP-like proteins are not the only uncoupling system in plant mitochondria. All plants have cyanide-resistant oxidase (AOX) whose activation causes an uncoupling of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. Recently it has been found that in cereals, cold stress protein CSP 310 exists, and that this causes uncoupling of oxidation and phosphorylation in mitochondria.
Results
We studied the effects of CSP 310-like native cytoplasmic proteins from a number of cereal species (winter rye, winter wheat, Elymus and maize) on the energetic activity of winter wheat mitochondria. This showed that only CSP 310 (cold shock protein with molecular weight 310 kD) caused a significant increase of non-phosphorylative respiration. CSP 310-like proteins of other cereals studied did not have any significant influence on mitochondrial energetic activity. It was found that among CSP 310-like proteins only CSP 310 had prooxidant activity. At the same time, Elymus CSP 310-like proteins have antioxidant activity. The study of an influence of infiltration by different plant uncoupling system activators (pyruvate, which activates AOX, and linoleic acid which is a substrate and activator for PUMP and CSP 310) showed that all of these decreased lipid peroxidation during cold stress.
Conclusions
Different influence of CSP 310-like proteins on mitochondrial energetic activity and lipid peroxidation presumably depend on the various subunit combinations in their composition. All the plant cell systems that caused an uncoupling of oxidation and phosphorylation in plant mitochondria can participate in plant defence from oxidative damage during cold stress.
doi:10.1186/1471-2229-1-1
PMCID: PMC58587  PMID: 11667950

Results 1-3 (3)