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1.  Inflammatory cytokines induce MAdCAM-1 in murine hepatic endothelial cells and mediate alpha-4 beta-7 integrin dependent lymphocyte endothelial adhesion In Vitro 
BMC Physiology  2007;7:10.
Background
MAdCAM-1 plays a central role in T-lymphocyte homing to the gut, but its role in chronic liver inflammation remains unknown. Therefore, this study measured MAdCAM-1 expression, regulation, and function in cultured murine hepatic endothelial cells.
Methods
Cultures of hepatic endothelial cells (HEC) were prepared from mice expressing a temperature-sensitive SV40 large T antigen (H-2Kb-tsA58) under the control of an IFN-γ promoter. Time and dose dependent expression of MAdCAM-1 in response to TNF-α, IL-1β and IFN-γ was studied by immunoblotting. Lymphocyte adhesion was studied using α4β7integrin expressing lymphocytes (TK-1) +/- anti-MAdCAM-1 mAb.
Results
TNF-α induced MAdCAM-1 dose-and time-dependently with maximum expression at 20 ng/ml and at 48 hours. IL-1β also induced MAdCAM-1 to a lesser extent compared to TNF-α; IFN-γ did not induce MAdCAM-1. TNF-α significantly increased lymphocyte-endothelial adhesion (P < 0.01), which was reversed by anti-MAdCAM-1 antibody. MAdCAM-1 expression was also reduced by N-acetylcysteine and by two NO donors (SperNO, DETANO) suggesting that hepatic endothelial MAdCAM-1 is oxidant and NO regulated.
Conclusion
MAdCAM-1 is a major determinant of leukocyte recruitment in chronic inflammation and is expressed by HEC in response to IL-1β and TNF-α. This system may provide a useful model for studying inflammatory mechanisms in liver disease and help determine if controlled MAdCAM-1 expression might influence inflammation in liver disease.
doi:10.1186/1472-6793-7-10
PMCID: PMC2045088  PMID: 17868448
2.  Troglitazone, a PPAR-γ activator prevents endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression and lymphocyte adhesion mediated by TNF-α 
BMC Physiology  2005;5:3.
Background
Cytokine mediated induction of the mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1(MAdCAM-1) expression is associated with the onset and progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Results
Using western blotting and cell-based ELISA, we show in this study that troglitazone, an activator of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), widely used in the treatment of diabetes, has as well recently been highlighted as protective in models of inflammation and cancer. We found that troglitazone (10–40 μM), significantly reduced the TNF-α (1 ng/ml) mediated induction of endothelial MAdCAM-1 in a dose-dependent manner, achieving a 34.7% to 98.4% reduction in induced MAdCAM-1. Trogliazone (20μM) reduced TNF-α induced VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin expression. Moreover, troglitazone significantly reduced α4β7-integrin dependent lymphocyte adhesion to TNF-α cultured endothelial cells.
Conclusions
These results suggest that PPAR-γ agonists like troglitazone may be useful in the clinical treatment of IBD.
doi:10.1186/1472-6793-5-3
PMCID: PMC549552  PMID: 15694007

Results 1-2 (2)