Rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life-threatening syndrome that can develop from a variety of causes. The aim of the work is to analyze the clinical spectrum and to evaluate the prevalence of various etiologies in children, who present to the emergency department (ED) with rhabdomyolysis.
During a 6-year study period, we retrospectively analyzed the medical charts of patients, aged 18 years or younger, with a definite diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis and serum creatinine phosphokinase (CK) levels greater than 1000IU/L. We analyzed the clinical spectrum and evaluated the potential risk factors of acute renal failure (ARF).
Thirty-seven patients (mean age = 10.2 ± 5.5 years), including 26 males and 11 females, were enrolled in the study. Two of the most common presented symptoms in these 37 patients were muscle pain and muscle weakness (83.8% and 73%, respectively). Dark urine was reported in only 5.4% of the patients. The leading cause of rhabdomyolysis in the 0- to 9-year age group was presumed infection, and the leading cause in the 10- to 18-year age group was trauma and exercise. The incidence of ARF associated with rhabdomyolysis was 8.1 % and no child needed for renal replacement therapy (RRT). We did not identify any reliable predictors of ARF or need for RRT.
The classic triad of symptoms of rhabdomyolysis includes myalgia, weakness and dark urine are not always presented in children. The cause of rhabdomyolysis in younger age is different from that of teenager group. However, the prognosis of rhabdomyolysis was good with appropriate management.
Rhabdomyolysis; Emergency department; Children
Few studies have examined the relations of adiposity and lifestyle factors in young offspring with their parents as children (parentschild) or at their current age (parentsadult). Therefore, we compared measures of adiposity and lifestyle in parentschild and parentsadult with their offspring.
Two generations (one parent and his/her offspring) participated in this study: 234 parents from a previously established cohort and 382 offspring. Parentsadult and offspring underwent measurements for height, weight, waist circumference, % body fat, visceral fat, and lifestyle habits. Participants were classified as normal weight, overweight, obese based on age-specific BMI criteria. Mixed model linear regression analysis evaluated the associations of adiposity and lifestyle factors of parentschild and parentsadult with that of their offspring, adjusting for age, sex, race, and family membership.
The prevalence of obesity was greater among offspring mean age 12.3 years compared to their parentschild mean age 12.6 years (18.4% vs 10.1%, p<0.001) even though hours of television (TV) watching were similar between the two generations as children (p=0.80). Sixty percent of parents (as children and adults) and offspring reported more than 2 hours of TV/day. Offspring of parents who were overweight and obese as children had greater BMI (all p<0.001) than offspring of parents who were normal weight as children. For both parentadult and offspring, adiposity was greater with greater total screen time.
Identifying high-risk families is important for early intervention of overweight, especially in children.
Offspring; Parents; Adiposity; Television; Total screen time
The introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) has brought a remarkable reduction in HIV-related mortality and morbidity both in adults and children living with HIV/AIDS. Adherence to ART is the key to the successful treatment of patients as well as containment of drug resistance. Studies based on caregivers’ report have shown that adherence to ART among children is generally good. However, subjective methods such as caregivers’ report are known to overestimate the level of adherence. This study determined the rate of adherence and its predictors using unannounced home-based pill count and compared the result with caregivers’ report in a tertiary referral hospital in Ethiopia.
A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 1, 2011 and January 30, 2012. The study participants were 210 children on ART and their caregivers attending pediatric ART clinic of Tikur Anbessa Hospital (TAH), Addis Ababa University. Caregivers were interviewed at the ART clinic using a structured questionnaire. Then, unannounced home-based pill count was done 7 days after the interview.
Caregiver-reported adherence in the past 7 days prior to interview was 93.3%. Estimated adherence using unannounced home-based pill count was found, however, to be 34.8%. On multivariate logistic regression model, children with married [aOR = 7.85 (95% CI: 2.11,29.13)] and widowed/divorced [aOR = 7.14 (95% CI: 2.00,25.46)] caregivers, those who were not aware of their HIV sero-status [aOR = 2.35 (95% CI:1.09, 5.06)], and those with baseline WHO clinical stage III/IV [OR = 3.18 (95% CI: 1.21, 8.40] were more likely to adhere to their ART treatment. On the other hand, children on d4T/3Tc/EFV combination [OR = 0.10 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.53)] were less likely to adhere to their treatment. Caregivers’ forgetfulness and child refusal to take medication were reported as the major reasons for missing doses.
The level of adherence based on unannounced home-based pill count was unacceptably low. Interventions are urgently needed to improve adherence to ART among children at TAH. Besides, a longitudinal study measuring adherence combined with clinical parameters (viral load and CD4 count) is needed to identify a simple and reliable measure of adherence in the study area.
Children; HAART; Adherence; Home-based unannounced pill count; Ethiopia
The adoption of inappropriate feeding practices is one of the reasons for under nutrition in Nepal and elsewhere. The objective of this study was to describe the rate of and identify the factors associated with providing the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended infant feeding practices of minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet in Nepal amongst young children between 6–23 months in 2011.
Data from Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2011 was used. Prevalence of minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet was obtained by using descriptive statistics. A Chi-square test (χ2) followed by multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine the adjusted effect of potential factors on the outcome variables.
Of the 698 children aged 6–23 months; while 535 (76.6%) received the minimum meal frequency, only 212 (30.4%) children received the minimum dietary diversity, and 185 (26.5%) received an acceptable diet. Children of older mothers (>35 years); educated mothers and fathers; and mothers from all the development regions except the Mid-western region were more likely to have been provided with the recommended dietary diversity. Children of mothers who had attended ≥4 antenatal visits and who lived in the Eastern region were more likely to provide their child with the recommended meal frequency. Children of mothers, who attended ≥ 4 antenatal visits, were educated and whose fathers had at least a secondary education were more likely to meet the recommended acceptable diet standards.
Young children aged less than two years in Nepal are at risk for not meeting the WHO recommended infant feeding standards given that only about one in three children were provided with the recommended dietary diversity and acceptable diet. This finding suggests that the majority of children are at risk of under nutrition. An appropriate mix of health education and food supplements could be a feasible option for Nepal to improve the number of children who meet the recommended infant feeding guidelines, reduce under nutrition and improve the survival rates of young children.
Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type-A given by manual intramuscular needle placement in the lower extremity under general anaesthesia is an established treatment and standard of care in managing spasticity in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Optimal needle placement is essential. However, reports of injection and verification techniques used in previous studies have been partly incomplete and there are methodological shortcomings. This paper describes a detailed protocol for manual intramuscular needle placement checked by passive stretching and relaxing of the target muscle for each individual muscle injection location in the lower extremity during botulinum toxin type-A treatment under general anaesthesia in children with spastic cerebral palsy. It explains the design of a study to verify this protocol, which consists of an injection technique combined with a needle localizing technique, as by means of electrical stimulation to determine its precision.
Setting: University Medical Centre, Department of Paediatric Rehabilitation Medicine, the Netherlands.
Design: prospective observational study.
Participants: children with spastic cerebral palsy, aged 4 to 18 years, receiving regular botulinum toxin type-A treatment under general anaesthesia to improve their mobility, are recruited from the Department of Paediatric Rehabilitation Medicine at VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Method: a detailed protocol for manual intramuscular needle placement checked by passive stretching and relaxing of the target muscle has been developed for each individual muscle injection location of the adductor brevis muscle, adductor longus muscle, gracilis muscle, semimembranosus muscle, semitendinosus muscle, biceps femoris muscle, rectus femoris muscle, gastrocnemius lateralis muscle, gastrocnemius medialis muscle and soleus muscle. This protocol will be verified as by means of electrical stimulation.
Technical details: 25 mm or 50 mm Stimuplex-needle and a Stimuplex-HNS-12 electrical stimulator will be used.
Botulinum toxin type-A injected in the intended muscle is expected to yield the greatest effect in terms of activities. Protocols for manual intramuscular needle placement should be described in detail and verified to determine its precision. Detailed and verified protocols are essential to be able to interpret the results of botulinum toxin type-A treatment studies.
Needle placement; Botulinum toxin type-A; Electrical stimulation; Children; Cerebral palsy; Spasticity; Injections
Term neonates are at increased risk of infections due to undeveloped immune mechanisms, and proper neutrophil function is important for perinatal immune defence. Galectin-3, an endogenous β-galactoside-binding lectin, is emerging as an inflammatory mediator and we have previously shown that primed/activated, but not resting, adult neutrophils respond to this lectin by production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We investigated if galectin-3 is of importance in perinatal immune defence, focusing on plasma levels and neutrophil responsiveness.
Neutrophils were isolated from peripheral blood of healthy adults and cord blood (CB) after elective Caesarean section (CSCB) and vaginal delivery (VDCB). ROS production was measured by chemiluminescence, L-selectin expression by flow cytometry, and interleukin-8 (IL-8) and galectin-3 concentrations by ELISA. Statistical evaluations were performed using the Mann–Whitney test.
In response to galectin-3, CSCB neutrophils showed a small but clear ROS production not evident in adult cells, signifying that neonatal neutrophils exist in a primed state. IL-8 production was elevated in CSCB cells while L-selectin exposure was equal to adult cells. Comparing CSCB to VDCB neutrophils, the latter showed an extensive galectin-3 responsiveness, indicating that the degree of priming is dependent on mode of delivery. VDCB neutrophils were increasingly prone to shed L-selectin, while the amount of IL-8 was similar to CSCB cells. The endogenous galectin-3 levels were higher in neonatal as compared to adult plasma, unaffected by mode of delivery.
Neutrophils enter a pre-primed state already in the fetus. Upon exposure to the inflammatory stimuli that are associated with labor, the neutrophils develop a reactive phenotype with extensive priming features.
Cord blood, Galectin-3; Neonatal immunity; Neutrophils; Priming; Reactive oxygen species
Infants who survive advanced necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) at the time of birth are at increased risk of having poor long term physiological and neurodevelopmental growth. The economic implications of the long term morbidity in these children have not been studied to date. This paper compares the long term healthcare costs beyond the initial hospitalization period incurred by medical and surgical NEC survivors with that of matched controls without a diagnosis of NEC during birth hospitalization.
The longitudinal healthcare utilization claim files of infants born between January 2002 and December 2003 and enrolled in the Texas Medicaid fee-for-service program were used for this research. Propensity scoring was used to match infants diagnosed with NEC during birth hospitalization to infants without a diagnosis of NEC on the basis of gender, race, prematurity, extremely low birth weight status and presence of any major birth defects. The Medicaid paid all-inclusive healthcare costs for the period from 6 months to 3 years of age among children in the medical NEC, surgical NEC and matched control groups were evaluated descriptively, and in a generalized linear regression framework in order to model the impact of NEC over time and by birth weight.
Two hundred fifty NEC survivors (73 with surgical NEC) and 2,909 matched controls were available for follow-up. Medical NEC infants incurred significantly higher healthcare costs than matched controls between 6–12 months of age (mean incremental cost = US$ 5,112 per infant). No significant difference in healthcare costs between medical NEC infants and matched controls was seen after 12 months. Surgical NEC survivors incurred healthcare costs that were consistently higher than that of matched controls through 36 months of age. The mean incremental healthcare costs of surgical NEC infants compared to matched controls between 6–12, 12–24 and 24–36 months of age were US$ 18,274, 14,067 (p < 0.01) and 8,501 (p = 0.06) per infant per six month period, respectively. These incremental costs were found to vary between sub-groups of infants born with birth weight < 1,000g versus ≥ 1,000g (p < 0.05).
The all-inclusive healthcare costs of surgical NEC survivors continued to be substantially higher than that of matched controls through the early childhood development period. These results can have important treatment and policy implications. Further research in this topic is needed.
Ventilator treatment exposes newborns to both hyperoxemia and hyperventilation. It is not known how common hyperoxemia and hyperventilation are in neonatal intensive care units in Norway. The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of current care by studying deviations from the target range of charted oxygenation and ventilation parameters in newborns receiving mechanical ventilation.
Single centre, retrospective chart review that focused on oxygen and ventilator treatment practices.
The bedside intensive care charts of 138 newborns reflected 4978 hours of ventilator time. Arterial blood gases were charted in 1170 samples. In oxygen-supplemented newborns, high arterial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) values were observed in 87/609 (14%) samples. In extremely premature newborns only 5% of the recorded PaO2 values were high. Low arterial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2) values were recorded in 187/1170 (16%) samples, and 64 (34%) of these were < 4 kPa. Half of all low values were measured in extremely premature newborns. Tidal volumes above the target range were noted in 22% of premature and 20% of full-term newborns.
There was a low prevalence of high PaO2 values in premature newborns, which increased significantly with gestational age (GA). The prevalence of low PaCO2 values was highest among extremely premature newborns and decreased with increasing GA. Further studies are needed to identify whether adherence to oxygenation and ventilation targets can be improved by clearer communication and allocation of responsibilities between nurses and physicians.
Newborn infant; Premature infant; Mechanical ventilation; Oxygenation
Acute respiratory illness, a leading cause of cough in children, accounts for a substantial proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. In some children acute cough progresses to chronic cough (>4 weeks duration), impacting on morbidity and decreasing quality of life. Despite the importance of chronic cough as a cause of substantial childhood morbidity and associated economic, family and social costs, data on the prevalence, predictors, aetiology and natural history of the symptom are scarce. This study aims to comprehensively describe the epidemiology, aetiology and outcomes of cough during and after acute respiratory illness in children presenting to a tertiary paediatric emergency department.
A prospective cohort study of children aged <15 years attending the Royal Children’s Hospital Emergency Department, Brisbane, for a respiratory illness that includes parent reported cough (wet or dry) as a symptom. The primary objective is to determine the prevalence and predictors of chronic cough (≥4 weeks duration) post presentation with acute respiratory illness. Demographic, epidemiological, risk factor, microbiological and clinical data are completed at enrolment. Subjects complete daily cough dairies and weekly follow-up contacts for 28(±3) days to ascertain cough persistence. Children who continue to cough for 28 days post enrolment are referred to a paediatric respiratory physician for review. Primary analysis will be the proportion of children with persistent cough at day 28(±3). Multivariate analyses will be performed to evaluate variables independently associated with chronic cough at day 28(±3).
Our protocol will be the first to comprehensively describe the natural history, epidemiology, aetiology and outcomes of cough during and after acute respiratory illness in children. The results will contribute to studies leading to the development of evidence-based clinical guidelines to improve the early detection and management of chronic cough in children during and after acute respiratory illness.
Acute respiratory illness; Chronic lung disease; Chronic cough; Paediatric emergency department
In adults, low circulating interleukin 10 (IL10) has been associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, studies investigating IL10 in overweight and obese children have yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with serum IL10 concentration in young Chinese adolescents.
Young adolescents (n=325) ages 13.33±1.10 years were recruited into the cross-sectional study from 2010 to 2011. Parameters of obesity, individual components of MetS, iron status and serum IL10 were evaluated.
Compared with their normal weight counterparts, overweight adolescents had lower serum IL10 but higher TNFα, nitric oxide (NO) and IL1β concentrations (all p<0.05). Obese adolescents had increased IL1β but decreased hepcidin concentration compared with normal weight (p<0.01 and p<0.05; respectively). A strong inverse relationship (p<0.0001) was found between IL10 and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL1β). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed serum IL1β was significantly correlated with IL10 (β=−0.156, p<0.0001). When overweight and obese adolescents were assessed separately from normal weight, only IL1β was inversely associated with serum IL10 (β=−0.231, p=0.0009). The association between IL10 and IL1β was weaker in adolescents with normal weight (β=−0.157, p=0.0002), after adjusting for gender, TNFα, IFNγ and NO.
Our study confirmed that low IL10 concentration is associated with overweight and obesity in young adolescents. We also demonstrated for the first time that pro-inflammatory cytokine IL1β is independently associated with IL10. A decline in IL10 concentration in overweight and obese adolescents may further contribute to the IL1β-mediated inflammatory environment associated with obesity.
IL10; IL1β; Overweight and obese adolescents; Taiwan
The incidence of type 1 diabetes has increased worldwide, particularly in younger children and those with lower genetic susceptibility. These observations suggest factors in the modern environment promote pancreatic islet autoimmunity and destruction of insulin-producing beta cells. The Environmental Determinants of Islet Autoimmunity (ENDIA) Study is investigating candidate environmental exposures and gene-environment interactions that may contribute to the development of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes.
ENDIA is the only prospective pregnancy/birth cohort study in the Southern Hemisphere investigating the determinants of type 1 diabetes in at-risk children. The study will recruit 1,400 unborn infants or infants less than six months of age with a first-degree relative (i.e. mother, father or sibling) with type 1 diabetes, across five Australian states. Pregnant mothers/infants will be followed prospectively from early pregnancy through childhood to investigate relationships between genotype, the development of islet autoimmunity (and subsequently type 1 diabetes), and prenatal and postnatal environmental factors. ENDIA will evaluate the microbiome, nutrition, bodyweight/composition, metabolome-lipidome, insulin resistance, innate and adaptive immune function and viral infections. A systems biology approach will be used to integrate these data. Investigation will be by 3-monthly assessments of the mother during pregnancy, then 3-monthly assessments of the child until 24 months of age and 6-monthly thereafter. The primary outcome measure is persistent islet autoimmunity, defined as the presence of autoantibodies to one or more islet autoantigens on consecutive tests.
Defining gene-environment interactions that initiate and/or promote destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in early life will inform approaches to primary prevention of type 1 diabetes. The strength of ENDIA is the prospective, comprehensive and frequent systems-wide profiling from early pregnancy through to early childhood, to capture dynamic environmental exposures that may shape the development of islet autoimmunity.
Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000794707.
Type 1 diabetes; Islet autoimmunity; Beta cell; Pregnancy; Infancy; Microbiome; Insulin resistance; Immunity; Virus; Systems biology
The agreement between self-reported and proxy measures of health status in ill children is not well established. This study aimed to quantify the variation in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) derived from young patients and their carers using different instruments.
A hospital-based cross-sectional survey was conducted between August 2010 and March 2011. Children with meningitis, bacteremia, pneumonia, acute otitis media, hearing loss, chronic lung disease, epilepsy, mild mental retardation, severe mental retardation, and mental retardation combined with epilepsy, aged between five to 14 years in seven tertiary hospitals were selected for participation in this study. The Health Utilities Index Mark 2 (HUI2), and Mark 3 (HUI3), and the EuroQoL Descriptive System (EQ-5D) and Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-VAS) were applied to both paediatric patients (self-assessment) and caregivers (proxy-assessment).
The EQ-5D scores were lowest for acute conditions such as meningitis, bacteremia, and pneumonia, whereas the HUI3 scores were lowest for most chronic conditions such as hearing loss and severe mental retardation. Comparing patient and proxy scores (n = 74), the EQ-5D exhibited high correlation (r = 0.77) while in the HUI2 and HUI3 patient and caregiver scores were moderately correlated (r = 0.58 and 0.67 respectively). The mean difference between self and proxy-assessment using the HUI2, HUI3, EQ-5D and EQ-VAS scores were 0.03, 0.05, -0.03 and -0.02, respectively. In hearing-impaired and chronic lung patients the self-rated HRQOL differed significantly from their caregivers.
The use of caregivers as proxies for measuring HRQOL in young patients affected by pneumococcal infection and its sequelae should be employed with caution. Given the high correlation between instruments, each of the HRQOL instruments appears acceptable apart from the EQ-VAS which exhibited low correlation with the others.
Infection; Chronic conditions; Child; Health-related quality of life; Utility; Proxy
Periodic screening for developmental delays (DD) could avert the incidence of disability among children. However, such routine programme is yet to take off in rural welfare clinics in Ghana.
Mothers of under-5 children who were attending rural child welfare clinic participated in this study. The socio-demographic data of the mothers and their children were recorded. The children were screened to assess their gross motor skills, fine motor skills, communication skills, problem solving/cognition and social/personal interaction using Ages and Stages Questionnaire. Score below the threshold points on a developmental domain defines DD for a child. Data analysis involved percentages and frequency while Chi-square was performed to determine the associations between the selected socio-demographic risk factors and DD. Alpha value was set at p < 0.05.
Three hundren and thirty (330) children were screened and majority 60(18%), were found within the age range 3 months 1 day to 5 months 0 day. 251(76%) had normal weight (2.5 kg-3.5) while 26(7.6%) were underweight (<2.5 kg). Generally, 147(44.6%) of the children had DD in the different domains of the questionnaires. 41(12.4%) had DD in social/personal interaction while 19(5.8%) were delayed in the communication domain. Birth weight and duration of gestation were significantly associated with communication domain while the level of education of the mothers and duration of gestation were significantly associated with gross motor domain.
An appreciable proportion of the children were found to experience developmental delays and the most prevalent occurence was in personal/social interaction. Birth weight, gestational age and maternal educational level provide insight into a link with communication and gross motor skills.
Childhood asthma and obesity prevalence have increased in recent years suggesting a potential association. However, the direction of any association is poorly understood and the potential causal-relationship is unknown.
We examined the association between overweight/obesity, defined by body mass index (BMI) <18 years of age, and subsequent physician-diagnosed incident asthma at least one year after BMI assessment. We sought to explore potential effect modification by sex. PubMed and Embase were searched using keywords and restricted to subjects aged 0–18 years. There were no date or language restrictions. From each study we extracted: authors, publication date, location, overweight/obesity definitions, asthma definitions, number of participants, recruitment duration, description of cohort, follow-up time, adjusted effect estimates (with 95% CI) and estimates of subgroup analysis.
Six prospective cohort studies which focused on children <18 years of age met criteria for inclusion. The combined risk ratio (RR) of overweight was associated with asthma (RR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.15, 1.58). In boys, the combined RR of overweight on asthma was significant (RR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.05, 1.88). For girls, when BMI was defined by Z-score, the combined RR of overweight on asthma was also significant (RR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.06, 1.34). The combined risk ratio (RR) of obesity was associated with asthma in both boys and girls (RR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.22, 1.83), in boys only (RR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.93) and in girls only (RR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.09, 2.14).
Overweight and, especially, obese children are at increased risk of subsequent physician diagnosed asthma in comparison to normal weight children. Except for sex, no studies reported any other potential effect modifiers. The observed sex effects were inconsistent.
Asthma; Overweight; Obesity; Body mass index; Body weight; Pediatric
Obesity and mental health problems are prevalent among indigenous children in Canada and the United States. In this cross-sectional study the associations between adiposity and body size satisfaction, body image and self-concept were examined in indigenous children in grades four to six living in Cree communities in the Province of Quebec (Canada).
Weight status and body mass index (BMI) z-scores were derived from children’s measured height and weight using the World Health Organization growth reference. Multivariate regression models that included child’s age and sex were used to assess the association between (a) weight status and physical appearance satisfaction using pictorial and verbal body rating measures in 202 of 263 children, and (b) BMI z-score and self-concept measured using the Piers-Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale in a subset of 78 children.
Children (10.67 ± 0.98 years) were predominantly overweight (28.2%) or obese (45.0%). Many (40.0%) children had low global self-concept indicating that they had serious doubts about their self-worth and lacked confidence. About one-third (34.7%) of children did not like the way they looked and 46.3% scored low on the physical appearance and attributes domain of self-concept indicating poor self-esteem in relation to their body image and physical strength, feeling unattractive, or being bothered by specific aspects of their physical appearance. Compared to normal weight children, overweight and obese children were more likely to desire being smaller (OR=4.3 and 19.8, respectively), say their body size was too big (OR=7.7 and 30.6, respectively) and not liking the way they looked (OR=2.4 and 7.8, respectively). Higher BMI z-score was associated with lower scores for global self-concept (β=−1.3), intellectual and school status (β=−1.5) and physical appearance and attributes (β=−1.3) indicating negative self-evaluations in these areas. Despite comparable weight status to boys, girls were more likely to have lower scores for global self-concept (β=−3.8), physical appearance and attributes (β=−4.2), desiring to be smaller (OR=4.3) and not liking the way they looked (OR=2.3).
The psychosocial correlates of obesity are important considerations for indigenous children, particularly girls, given that poor self-concept and body size dissatisfaction negatively impact mental and emotional qualities of life.
Obesity; Body image; Self-esteem; Self-concept; Canada; First nations; Aboriginal; Indigenous; Child; Indians; North American
The aim of the study was to verify the association between body composition and physical fitness with bone status in children and adolescents.
A cross-sectional study was conducted with 300 healthy students (148 boys, 152 girls). Weight, height, fat and fat-free mass, and percentage of body fat (%BF) were evaluated, as were physical fitness (abdominal exercise, flexibility, and horizontal jump tests) and maximum oxygen consumption. Bone parameters (amplitude-dependent speed of sound; AD-SoS) and the Ultrasound Bone Profile Index (UBPI) were evaluated using DBM Sonic BP ultrasonography.
In the study group, girls had higher bone parameter values than boys. A univariate analysis assessed in a stepwise multiple regression model was conducted. It showed that for boys, the %BF and height were significant independent variables for AD-SoS and UBPI, but the horizontal jump test only for AD-SoS (adjusted r2 = 0.274; p < 0.001), and pubertal maturation only for UBPI (adjusted r2 = 0.295; p < 0.001). For girls, age and %BF were identified as significant independent variables for AD-SoS and UBPI (adjusted r2 = 0.093; p < 0.001) but height only for AD-SoS (adjusted r2 = 0.408; p < 0.001).
Variables related to growth (age, height, and pubertal maturation) are independent positive predictors for the bone parameters in both boys and girls. %BF is an independent negative predictor. For boys, the horizontal jump test was an independent positive predictor for AD-SoS, indicating that physical fitness related to the neuromotor system can influence the amount of bone present.
Ultrasonography; Phalangeal; Fat mass; Physical activity; Body composition
Although migrant workers account for the majority of newborns in Beijing, their children are less likely to undergo appropriate universal newborn hearing screening/rescreening (UNHS) than newborns of local non-migrant residents. We hypothesised that this was at least in part due to the inadequacy of the UNHS protocol currently employed for newborn babies, and therefore aimed to modify the protocol to specifically reflect the needs of the migrant population.
A total of 10,983 healthy babies born to migrant mothers between January 2007 and December 2009 at a Beijing public hospital were investigated for hearing abnormalities according to a modified UNHS protocol. This incorporated two additional/optional otoacoustic emissions (OAE) tests at 24–48 hours and 2 months after birth. Infants not passing a screening test were referred to the next test, until any hearing loss was confirmed by the auditory brainstem response (ABR) test.
A total of 98.91% (10983/11104) of all newborn children underwent the initial OAE test, of which 27.22% (2990/10983) failed the test. 1712 of the failed babies underwent the second inpatient OAE test, with739 failing again; thus significantly decreasing the overall positive rate for abnormal hearing from 27.22% to 18.36% ([2990–973 /10983)]; p = 0). Overall, 1147(56.87%) babies underwent the outpatient OAE test again after1-month, of whom 228 failed and were referred for the second outpatient OAE test (i.e. 2.08% (228/10983) referral rate at 1month of age). 141 of these infants underwent the referral test, of whom 103 (73.05%) tested positive again and were referred for a final ABR test for hearing loss (i.e. final referral rate of 1.73% ([228-38/10983] at 2 months of age). Only 54 infants attended the ABR test and 35 (0.32% of the original cohort tested) were diagnosed with abnormal hearing.
Our study shows that it is feasible and practical to achieve high coverage rates for screening hearing loss and decrease the referral rates in newborn babies of migrant workers, using a modification of the currently employed UNHS protocol.
Auditory brainstem response (ABR); Migrant people; Newborn babies; Otoacoustic emissions (OAE); Universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS)
Previous studies have shown an association between adiposity, especially intra-abdominal adipose tissue, and hemodynamic/metabolic comorbidities in adults, however it is not clear in pediatric population. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and components of metabolic syndrome (MS) with values of intra-abdominal (IAAT) and subcutaneous (SCAT) adipose tissue in obese children and adolescents.
Cross-sectional study. Subjects: 182 obese sedentary children and adolescents (aged 6 to 16 y), identified by the body mass index (BMI). Measurements: Body composition and trunk fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry- DXA; lipid profile, blood pressure and pubertal stage were also assessed. NAFLD was classified as absent (0), mild (1), moderate (2) and severe (3), and intra-abdominal and subcutaneous abdominal fat thickness were identified by ultrasound. The MS was identified according to the cut offs proposed by World Health Organization adapted for children and adolescents. The chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables, and the binary logistic regression indicated the magnitude of the associations adjusted by potential cofounders (sex, age, maturation, NAFLD and HOMA-IR).
Higher quartile of SCAT was associated with elevated blood pressure (p = 0.015), but not associated with NAFLD (p = 0.665). Higher IAAT was positively associated with increased dyslipidemia (p = 0.001), MS (p = 0.013) and NAFLD (p = 0.005). Intermediate (p = 0.007) and highest (p = 0.001) quartile of IAAT were also associated with dyslipidemia, independently of age, sex, maturation, NAFLD and HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance).
Obese children and adolescents, with higher IAAT are more prone to develop MS and NAFLD than those with higher values of SCAT, independent of possible confounding variables.
Obesity; Children; Adolescents; Metabolic syndrome; Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; Trunk fat
The Nurse Family Partnership programme was developed in the USA where it is made available to pregnant young mothers in some socially deprived geographic areas. The related Family Nurse Partnership programme was introduced in England by the Department of Health in 2006 with the aim of improving outcomes for the health, wellbeing and social circumstances of young first-time mothers and their children.
Methods / design
This multi-centre individually randomised controlled trial will recruit 1600 participants from 18 Primary Care Trusts in England, United Kingdom. The trial will evaluate the effectiveness of Family Nurse Partnership programme and usual care versus usual care for nulliparous pregnant women aged 19 or under, recruited by 24 weeks gestation and followed until the child’s second birthday. Data will be collected from participants at baseline, 34-36 weeks gestation, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months following birth. Routine clinical data will be collected from maternity, primary care and hospital episodes statistics. Four primary outcomes are to be reported from the trial: birth weight; prenatal tobacco use; child emergency attendances and/or admissions within two years of birth; second pregnancy within two years of first birth.
This trial will evaluate the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of the Family Nurse Partnership in England. The findings will provide evidence on pregnancy and early childhood programme outcomes for policy makers, health professionals and potential recipients in three domains (pregnancy and birth, child health and development, and parental life course and self-sufficiency) up to the child’s second birthday.
Trial registration number: ISRCTN 23019866
Pregnancy in adolescence; Prenatal care; Maternal health; Home visiting; Birth weight; Smoking cessation; Child maltreatment; Family nurse partnership; Early years prevention; Randomised controlled trial
Functional constipation is a common disorder worldwide and is found in all paediatric age groups. Functional constipation can be caused by delayed colonic transit or dysfunction of the pelvic floor muscles. Standard medical care in paediatric practice is often based on clinical experience and mainly consists of a behavioural approach and toilet training, along with the prescription of laxatives. Evidence to evaluate the effectiveness of pelvic physiotherapy for this complaint is lacking.
A two-armed multicentre randomised controlled trial has been designed. We hypothesise that the combination of pelvic physiotherapy and standard medical care will be more effective than standard medical care alone for constipated children, aged 5 to 17 years. Children with functional constipation according to the Rome III will be included. Web-based baseline and follow-up measurements, scheduled at 3 and 6 months after inclusion, consist of the numeric rating scale in relation to the perceived severity of the problem, the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and subjective improvement post-intervention (global perceived effect). Examination of the pelvic floor muscle functions, including digital testing and biofeedback, will take place during baseline and follow-up measurements at the physiotherapist. The control group will only receive standard medical care, involving at least three contacts during five months, whereas the experimental group will receive standard medical care plus pelvic physiotherapy, with a maximum of six contacts. The physiotherapy intervention will include standard medical care, pelvic floor muscle training, attention to breathing, relaxation and awareness of body and posture. The study duration will be six months from randomisation, with a three-year recruitment period. The primary outcome is the absence of functional constipation according to the Rome III criteria.
This section discusses the relevance of publishing the study design and the development of the presented physiotherapy protocol. It also addresses difficulties when interpreting the literature with regard to the effectiveness of biofeedback, potential confounding, and future research indications. To our knowledge, this article is the first to describe the design of a randomised controlled trial among children with constipation to assess the effect of pelvic physiotherapy as an add-on to standard medical care.
Current Controlled Trials NL30551.068.09
Biofeedback; Children; Constipation; Incontinence; Manometry; Pelvic floor; Physiotherapy; Physical therapy; Randomised controlled trial; Study protocol
Quality assessment of pediatric randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in China is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quantitative trends and quality indicators of RCTs published in mainland China over a recent 10-year period.
We individually searched all 17 available pediatric journals published in China from January 1, 2002 to December 30, 2011 to identify RCTs of drug treatment in participants under the age of 18 years. The quality was evaluated according to the Cochrane quality assessment protocol.
Of 1287 journal issues containing 44398 articles, a total of 2.4% (1077/44398) articles were included in the analysis. The proportion of RCTs increased from 0.28% in 2002 to 0.32% in 2011. Individual sample sizes ranged from 10 to 905 participants (median 81 participants); 2.3% of the RCTs were multiple center trials; 63.9% evaluated Western medicine, 32.5% evaluated traditional Chinese medicine; 15% used an adequate method of random sequence generation; and 10.4% used a quasi-random method for randomization. Only 1% of the RCTs reported adequate allocation concealment and 0.6% reported the method of blinding. The follow-up period was from 7 days to 96 months, with a median of 7.5 months. There was incomplete outcome data reported in 8.3%, of which 4.5% (4/89) used intention-to-treat analysis. Only 0.4% of the included trials used adequate random sequence allocation, concealment and blinding. The articles published from 2007 to 2011 revealed an improvement in the randomization method compared with articles published from 2002 to 2006 (from 2.7% to 23.6%, p = 0.000).
In mainland China, the quantity of RCTs did not increase in the pediatric population, and the general quality was relatively poor. Quality improvements were suboptimal in the later 5 years.
Children; Drugs; Randomized controlled trials; Quality assessment
Tobacco products use is the leading cause of chronic diseases morbidity and mortality. This study explores an exposure to tobacco advertisements factors and knowledge, an association with snuff/pipe usage and cigarette smoking among Ellisras rural children aged between 11 to 18 years.
A total of 1654 subjects (854 boys and 800 girls) who were part of the Ellisras Longitudinal Study completed the questionnaire.
A significant (p < 0.05) number of boys (11.7%) compared to girls (8.8%) received free cigarettes from the members of the community. Bill boards were successful in advertising tobacco products among the Ellisras rural boys (17% boys and 12.8% for girls, p < 0.022). Multivariate analyses found significant association between cigarette smoking (OR = 1.7 95%CI 1.1-2.7 and Model 2 OR 1.6 95%CI 1.0-2.6 adjusted for age and gender) and advertisements of tobacco products on the TV screens, videos or movies.
Exposure to tobacco products advertisements was high among Ellisras rural children. Though tobacco products legislation exists in South Africa, efforts should be taken by the health professionals to emphasize the danger of using tobacco products even among the illiterate. Teachers and parents should refrain from advertising tobacco products at schools and at homes.
Advertisement; Tobacco use; Youth; Knowledge of tobacco; Comprehension
Small-for-gestational age (SGA) newborns constitute a special group of neonates who may have suffered varying degrees of intrauterine insults and deprivation. Variations in birth weight, length and Ponderal Index (PI) depend on the type and degree of intrauterine insults the babies were exposed to. The objective of the study was to determine the current prevalence of term SGA births in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital and the current pattern of Ponderal Indices among term SGA in a population of Nigerian babies.
Subjects comprised of consecutive term singleton mother-baby pairs in the first 24 hours of life. It was a cross sectional study. The anthropometric parameters of each baby were recorded and the PI was also determined.
Out of 1,052 live births during the study period (September to December, 2009), 825 were term, singleton babies. Five hundred and eight-one babies (70.4%) fall into the upper socio-economic classes 1 and II, 193 (23.4%) in the middle class and 51 (6.2%) were of the lower classes IV and V. None of the mothers indicated ingestion of alcohol or smoking of cigarette. Fifty-nine babies (7.2%) were small-for gestational age (SGA). Of the 59 SGA subjects, 26 (44.1%) were symmetrical SGA while 33 (55.9%) were asymmetrical SGA. There was no significant sex or socioeconomic predilection for either symmetrical or asymmetrical growth (p = 0.59, 0.73 respectively).
The findings showed that proportionality in SGA fetuses is a continuum, with the PI depending on the duration of intrauterine insult and the extent of its effects on weight and length before delivery.
Small-for-gestational age; Intrauterine growth; Ponderal Index
The mainstay treatment of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) based on weight loss and/or lifestyle changes is most often unsuccessful at all ages, thus requiring the implementation of pharmacological strategies. Targeting insulin resistance and oxidative stress has recently proven unsatisfactory. Among a number of proposed innovative approaches targeting novel pathomechanisms, probiotics appear an interesting and reasonable option acting on gut-liver axis malfunction through the modulation of diet-driven, obesogenic, and inflammatory intestinal microbiota.
A combined multiple pharmacological therapy directed simultaneously towards novel and old pathomechanisms (including, e.g., insulin resistance, oxidative stress, gut-liver axis, apoptosis) along with lifestyle interventions however might be necessary both in adult and pediatric NAFLD therapy.
Non alcoholic fatty liver disease; Children; Gut-liver axis; Microbiota; Probiotics; Therapy
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Vascular dysfunction is an early and critical event in the development of cardiovascular disease. Children with T1D have vascular dysfunction therefore early interventions to improve vascular health are essential to reduce cardiovascular mortality in T1D. Metformin is an insulin sensitising agent which is known to improve vascular health outcomes in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and other individuals with insulin resistance. It has been used safely in children and adolescents with T2D for over 10 years. This study aims to assess the effect of metformin on vascular health in children with T1D.
This study is a 12 month, double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial to determine the effect of metformin on vascular health in children (age 8–18) with T1D. The sample size is 76 with 38 children in the metformin group and 38 children in the placebo group. Vascular health and biochemical markers will be measured at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. Vascular function will be measured using flow mediated dilatation and glyceryl trinitrate mediated dilatation of the brachial artery and vascular structure will be measured with carotid and aortic intima media thickness, using standardised protocols.
This study will be the first to investigate the effect of metformin on vascular health in children with T1D. It will provide important information on a potential intervention to improve cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in this population at high risk from cardiovascular disease.
Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000148976
Endothelial function; Metformin; Type 1 diabetes; Child