Prepubertal gynecomastia is a rare condition and most frequently classified as idiopathic. In HIV-infected adults gynecomastia is a recognised but infrequent side-effect of antiretroviral treatment (ART) and mostly attributed to efavirenz use. Gynecomastia should be distinguished from pseudogynecomastia as part of the lipodystrophy syndrome caused by Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) to avoid incorrect substitution of drugs. In the medical literature only five cases of prepubertal gynecomastia in children taking ART are described and underlying pathogenesis was unknown. The occurrence of adverse effects of ART may interfere with therapy adherence and long-term prognosis and for that reason requires attention. We report the first case of prepubertal gynecomastia in a young girl attributed to efavirenz use.
A seven-year-old African girl presented with true gynecomastia four months after initiation on ART (abacavir, lamivudine, efavirenz). History, physical examination and laboratory tests excluded known causes of gynecomastia and efavirenz was considered as the most likely cause. Six weeks after withdrawal of efavirenz the breast enlargement had completely resolved.
Efavirenz-induced gynecomastia may occur in children as well as in adults. With the increasing access to ART, the possibility of efavirenz-exposure and the potential occurrence of its associated side-effects may be high. In resource-poor settings, empirical change from efavirenz to nevirapine may be considered, providing no other known or alarming cause is identified, as efavirenz-induced gynecomastia can resolve quickly after withdrawal of the drug. Timely recognition of gynecomastia as a side-effect of efavirenz is important in order to intervene while the condition may still be reversible, to sustain adherence to ART and to maintain the sociopsychological health of the child.
Gynecomastia; HIV; Efavirenz; Child; Prepubertal
Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification (IIAC) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by wide spread calcifications in arterial walls, leading to vaso-occlusive ischaemia of multiple organs. Mortality is high, and there is no definitive treatment.
A male neonate, 36+5 weeks gestation, 2.81 kg, was admitted to NICU for respiratory distress. At one hour of age, he was noted to be pale, hypoperfused, with weak pulses, a hyperdynamic precordium and a grade IV/VI pansystolic murmur. The rest of his examination was normal. A chest X-ray showed massive cardiomegaly and pulmonary oedema. An echocardiogram (ECHO) indicated moderate persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN) of unclear etiology. A diagnosis of Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification was made and a trial of Editronate therapy was given without success.
IIAC is a rare disorder, it should be considered whenever a neonate presents with unexplainable cardiac failure, PPHN, echogenic vessels on X-ray/ultrasound and, or concentric hypertrophic ventricles on ECHO. Serial antenatal ultrasound findings of echogenic cardiac foci should raise the suspicion of IIAC. Further studies to determine the long term effects of Editronate on vascular calcifications, disease outcome, and other treatment options are needed.
Neonate; Infantile arterial calcification; Pulmonary hypertension; Biphosphonate
Benign hyperplastic thymus is a rare but important differential diagnosis of anterior mediastinal lesions. Histological and radiological criteria are used to distinguish this benign condition from other malignant diseases but have their limitations, and biopsy of mediastinal masses can be risky. We report for the first time the diagnostic value of fluorodeoxyglucose 18 F positron emission tomography for patients with incidentally identified anterior mediastinal masses to avoid biopsy in some cases.
A 2 year old girl presented with new onset of emesis and constipation leading to the incidental discovery of an anterior mediastinal mass on radiograph. Chest computed tomography revealed cystic components within the mass concerning for a malignancy. Biopsy of the lesion and bone marrow aspiration and biopsy were negative but there was concern that the mediastinal biopsy may have missed the malignant component of the lesion. Hence, a positron emission tomography scan was obtained that showed mild homogeneous fluorodeoxyglucose 18 F avidity within the mass similar to that of normal thymus. The diagnosis of benign hyperplastic thymus was made.
The differential diagnosis of an incidentally found anterior mediastinal mass includes malignancy, but benign lesions such as benign hyperplastic thymus must also be considered, particularly when the complete blood count and biochemical profile are normal. Fluorodeoxyglucose 18 F positron emission tomography can help guide a clinician’s decision for further interventions and treatment.
Mediastinal disease; Mediastinum; Positron-emission tomography; Thymus hyperplasia
Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital malformation of unknown aetiology and is characterised by abnormalities of the urinary tract, a deficiency of abdominal musculature and bilateral cryptorchidism in males. We report a case of prune belly syndrome from Papua New Guinea, which was suspected on pregnancy ultrasound scan and confirmed upon delivery.
A 26-year-old married woman, Gravida 3 Para 2, presented to antenatal clinic in Madang, Papua New Guinea, at 21+5 weeks’ gestation by dates. She was well with no past medical or family history of note. She gave consent to participate in a clinical trial on prevention of malaria in pregnancy and underwent repeated ultrasound examinations which revealed a live fetus with persistent megacystis and anhydramnios. Both mother and clinicians agreed on conservative management of the congenital abnormality. The mother spontaneously delivered a male fetus weighing 2010 grams at 34 weeks’ gestation with grossly abnormal genitalia including cryptorchidism, penile aplasia and an absent urethral meatus, absent abdominal muscles and hypoplastic lungs. The infant passed away two hours after delivery. This report discusses the implications of prenatal detection of severe congenital abnormalities in PNG.
This first, formally reported, case of prune belly syndrome from a resource-limited setting in the Oceania region highlights the importance of identifying and documenting congenital abnormalities. Women undergoing antenatal ultrasound examinations must be carefully counseled on the purpose and the limitations of the scan. The increasing use of obstetric ultrasound in PNG will inevitably result in a rise in prenatal detection of congenital abnormalities. This will need to be met with adequate training, referral mechanisms and better knowledge of women’s attitudes and beliefs on birth defects and ultrasound. National medicolegal guidance regarding induced abortion and resuscitation of a fetus with severe congenital abnormalities may be required.
Congenital abnormality; Eagle-Barrett syndrome; Management; Papua New Guinea; Prenatal diagnosis; Prune belly syndrome; Ultrasound
Kearns-Sayre Syndrome (KSS) is a multisystem disorder caused by a dysfunction of the oxidative phosphorylation system within mitochondria. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) rearrangements are a key molecular feature of this disease, which manifest a broad phenotypic spectrum.
Here, we present a boy with KSS whose symptoms included cardiac conduction deficit, cardiomyopathy and growth hormone (GH) deficiency. The patient showed typical symptoms for KSS from early childhood (chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, retinopathy, short stature). Long-range PCR analysis disclosed a 7663-base pair heteroplasmic deletion in the mtDNA encompassing nucleotides 6340–14003. At 12 years of age, GH deficiency was recognized and recombinant growth hormone (rGH) therapy was started. At 15 years of age, a complete atrioventicular block was diagnosed and the patient received a pacemaker. During the following 6 months, progressive deterioration of the left ventricle was observed and an echocardiogram showed features of dilated cardiomyopathy. The rGH treatment was then discontinued at a final height of 163 cm. Unfortunately, due to multi-organ insufficiency and inflammation, the patient died at the age of 18 years.
The response to rGH therapy in the patient was very satisfactory. The large mtDNA deletion had no apparent impact on the response to rGH. Cardiac disturbances occurred as part of the syndrome and were not related to rGH therapy; however, the progression of the disease led to death.
Growth hormone treatment; Mitochondrial disease; Atrio-ventricular block; Cardiomyopathy; Short stature
Long-term complications of sympathomimetic drug overdosing have not been adequately investigated in infants and young children. Despite reports discouraging their use in children, these formulations are frequently administered for “cold-like symptoms”. Their frequent adverse events are different forms of arrhythmias, including multifocal atrial tachycardia.
A 3-year-old toddler developed multifocal atrial tachycardia following an iatrogenic overdose of epinephrine accidentally administered intravenously. His ECG showed wandering atrial pacemaker (p-waves with different origins and configurations) that persisted for at least one year. This event demonstrated the sensitivity of young children to the sympathomimetic drugs, especially overdosing.
Health care providers and parents should be warned of toxicities associated with sympathomimetic drug overdosing. Future studies are needed to determine whether wandering atrial pacemaker is a potential long-term complication of high-dose sympathomimetics.
Epinephrine; Iatrogenic; Supraventricular tachycardia; Sympathomimetic toxicity; Wandering pacemaker; Arrhythmia
Evaluation of palpable neck masses may be a diagnostic problem in pediatric patients, with differential diagnosis including congenital, inflammatory, tumoral and traumatic lesions. Ultrasonography is usually a satisfactory method to make a correct pre-operative evaluation of neck masses, although diagnosis is often challenging for the surgeon and the radiologist and sometimes only possible after a histopathological examination of the resected lesion.
We report an 8-month-old patient with a cervical, anterior midline mass. Ultrasonographic images showed features suggesting a partly cystic lesion, with a preoperative suspect of thyroglossal duct cyst. Histological examination, performed after surgical removal of the mass, led to a diagnosis of lymph node angiomyomatous hamartoma (AH).
AH, a rarely occurring benign lymph node lesion, has been reported in the neck lateral region only twice. This case, presenting as a palpable neck midline mass, is the first reported case occurring in infancy. Although rare, AH should be included in the differential diagnosis of head and neck masses.
Angiomyomatous hamartoma; Pediatric neck mass; Ultrasonography; Lymph node
Intestinal spirochetosis is an unusual infection in children and its clinical significance in humans is uncertain. The presence of these microorganisms in humans is well-known since the late 1800’s and was first described in 1967 by Harland and Lee by electron microscopy.
This article reports the findings of one pediatric case, review of the current literature, and an overview of therapeutic options.
A high degree of suspicion is required in cases presenting with abdominal pain, chronic diarrhoea and/or hematochezia associated with a normal endoscopic examination, thus emphasizing the importance of multiple biopsies throughout the colon.
Intestinal spirochetosis; Brachyspira aalborgi; Brachyspira pilosicoli; Inflammatory bowel disease
The ATP7A gene encodes the ATP7A protein, which is a trans-Golgi network copper transporter expressed in the brain and other organs. Mutations in this gene cause disorders of copper metabolism, such as Menkes disease. Here we describe the novel and unusual mutation (p.T1048I) in the ATP7A gene of a child with Menkes disease. The mutation affects a conserved DKTGT1048 phosphorylation motif that is involved in the catalytic activity of ATP7A. We also describe the clinical course and the response to copper treatment in this patient.
An 11-month-old male Caucasian infant was studied because of hypotonia, ataxia and global developmental delay. The patient presented low levels of serum copper and ceruloplasmin, and was shown to be hemizygous for the p.T1048I mutation in ATP7A. The diagnosis was confirmed when the patient was 18 months old, and treatment with copper-histidinate (Cu-His) was started immediately. The patient showed some neurological improvement and he is currently 8 years old. Because the p.T1048I mutation affects its catalytic site, we expected a complete loss of functional ATP7A and a classical Menkes disease presentation. However, the clinical course of the patient was mild, and he responded to Cu-His treatment, which suggests that this mutation leads to partial conservation of the activity of ATP7A.
This case emphasizes the important correlation between genotype and phenotype in patients with Menkes disease. The prognosis in Menkes disease is associated with early detection, early initiation of treatment and with the preservation of some ATP7A activity, which is necessary for Cu-His treatment response. The description of this new mutation and the response of the patient to Cu-His treatment will contribute to the growing body of knowledge about treatment response in Menkes disease.
ATP7A; Menkes disease; Copper transporter; Cu-His treatment
The association of achondroplasia and Klinefelter syndrome is extremely rare. To date, five cases have been previously reported, all of them diagnosed beyond the postnatal period, and only one was molecularly characterized. We describe the first case of this unusual association diagnosed in the neonatal period, the clinical findings and the molecular studies undertaken.
The boy was born at term with clinical and radiological features indicating the diagnosis of achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia combined with the prenatal karyotype of Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY). Neonatal FGFR3 mutation screening showed that the newborn was heterozygous for the classic achondroplasia G340R mutation. Microsatellite marker analysis showed that the sex chromosome aneuploidy had arisen from a non-disjunction error in paternal meiosis I, with a recombination event in the pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1).
Specific mutation analysis is appropriate to confirm the clinical diagnosis of achondroplasia for appropriate diagnosis, prognosis, and genetic counseling, especially when the karyotype does not explain the abnormal prenatal sonographic findings. In the present case, a recombination event was observed in the PAR1 region, although recombinational events in paternally derived Klinefelter syndrome cases are much rarer than expected.
Klinefelter syndrome; Achondroplasia; Mutation; Karyotype; Prenatal diagnosis