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1.  Socio-demographic factors and edentulism: the Nigerian experience 
BMC Oral Health  2004;4:3.
Background
The rate of total edentulism is said to be increasing in developing countries and this had been attributed mainly to the high prevalence of periodontal diseases and caries. Several reports have shown that non-disease factors such as attitude, behavior, dental attendance, characteristics of health care systems and socio-demographic factors play important roles in the aetiopathogenesis of edentulism. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between socio-demographic factors and edentulism.
Methods
A total of 152 patients made up of 80 (52.6%) males and 72 (47.4%) females who presented in two prosthetic clinics located in an urban and a rural area were included in the study. The relationship between gender, age, socio-economic status and edentulism in this study population was established.
Results
No significant relationship between gender and denture demand was noted in the study. The demand for complete dentures increased with age while the demand for removable partial dentures also increased with age until the 3rd decade and then started to decline. A significant relationship was found between denture demand and the level of education with a higher demand in lower educational groups (p < 0.001). In addition, the lower socio-economic group had a higher demand more for prostheses than the higher group.
Conclusions
The findings in this study revealed a significant relationship between socio-demographic variables and edentulism with age, educational level and socio-economic status playing vital roles in edentulism and denture demand.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-4-3
PMCID: PMC538266  PMID: 15555072
2.  Endodontic flare-ups: comparison of incidence between single and multiple visit procedures in patients attending a Nigerian teaching hospital 
BMC Oral Health  2004;4:4.
Background
Until recently the most accepted technique of doing root canal treatment stresses multiple visit procedure. Most schools also concentrated upon teaching the multi-visit concept. However, it has now been reported that the procedure of single visit treatment is advocated by at least 70% of schools in all geographical areas. It was therefore the aims of the present study to find the incidence of post-obturation flare-ups following single and multiple visit endodontic treatment procedures, and to establish the relationship between pre-operative and post-obturation pain in patients referred for endodontic therapy in a Nigerian teaching Hospital.
Methods
Data collected included pulp vitality status, the presence or absence of pre-operative, inter-appointment and post-obturation pain. Pain was recorded as none, slight, or moderate/severe. Flare-ups were defined as either patient's report of pain not controlled with over the counter medication or as increasing swelling. The patients were recalled at three specific post-obturation periods, 1st, 7th and 30th day. The presence or absence of pain, or the appropriate degree of pain was recorded for each recall visits and the interval between visits. The compiled data were analysed using chi-square where applicable. P level ≤ 0.05 was taken as significant.
Results
Ten endodontic flare-ups (8.1%) were recorded in the multiple visit group compared to 19 (18.3%) flare-ups for the single visit group, P = 0.02. For both single and multiple visit procedures, there were statistically significant correlations between pre-operative and post-obturation pain (P = 0.002 and P = 0.0004 respectively). Teeth with vital pulps reported the lowest frequency of post-obturation pain (48.8%), while those with nonvital pulps were found to have the highest frequency of post-obturation pain (50.3%), P = 0.9.
Conclusion
The present study reported higher incidences of post-obturation pain and flare-ups following the single visit procedures. However, single visit endodontic therapy has been shown to be a safe and effective alternative to multiple visit treatment, especially in communities where patients default after the first appointment at which pain is relieved.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-4-4
PMCID: PMC539257  PMID: 15566567
3.  Grouping of tooth surfaces by susceptibility to caries: a study in 5–16 year-old children 
BMC Oral Health  2004;4:2.
Background
The decline in caries has slowed and this may be indicative of variation in the susceptibility of differing teeth to caries. This study tests the hypothesis that in children, there are groups of tooth sites that exhibit differences in caries susceptibility.
Methods
Probit analysis of caries data collected from a 4-year longitudinal study of 20,000 schoolchildren aged between 5 and 16 years in 10 differing locations in the United States.
Results
The development of dental caries within the mouth followed a fixed hierarchy indicating that tooth surfaces show variation in caries susceptibility. Certain teeth and tooth sites have similar susceptibilities and can be grouped, the sizes of the groups vary. The most susceptible group consists of six tooth surfaces: the buccal pits and occlusal fissured surfaces of the first molar teeth. The second group consisted of 12 sites on the second molar and premolar teeth. The group formed by the least susceptible sites included the largest number of tooth surfaces and consists of the majority of the lower anterior teeth and canines.
Conclusion
Variation in the caries susceptibility of tooth surfaces exists. Surfaces can be grouped according to caries susceptibility. An effect that reduces the cariogenic challenge of one of the sites within a group is likely to affect all the other sites within the particular group.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-4-2
PMCID: PMC526778  PMID: 15511295
4.  Survey of attitudes, materials and methods employed in endodontic treatment by general dental practitioners in North Jordan 
BMC Oral Health  2004;4:1.
Background
General dental practitioners provide the majority of endodontic treatment in Jordan. The aim of this study was to gather information on the methods, materials and attitudes employed in root canal treatment by dentists in North Jordan, in order to evaluate and improve the quality of current practice.
Methods
A questionnaire was posted to all registered general dental practitioners working in private practice in Irbid Governate in North Jordan (n = 181). The questionnaire included information on methods, materials and techniques used in endodontic treatment.
Results
Reply rate was 72% (n = 131). The results demonstrated that only five dentists used rubber dam occasionally and not routinely. The majority used cotton rolls for isolation solely or in combination with a high volume saliva ejector (n = 116). The most widely used irrigants were sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide, which were used by 32.9% (n = 43) and 33.6% (n = 44) of the respondents, respectively. Forty eight percent of the respondents (n = 61) used the cold lateral condensation technique for canal obturation, 31.3% (n = 41) used single cone, 9.9% (n = 13) used vertical condensation and 12.2% (n = 16) used paste or cement only for the obturation. The majority used zinc oxide eugenol as a sealer (72.5%). All, but one, respondents used hand instruments for canal preparation and the technique of choice was step back (52.7%). More than 50% (n = 70) of the dentists took one radiograph for determining the working length, whilst 22.9% (n = 30) did not take any radiograph at all. Most practitioners performed treatment in three visits for teeth with two or more root canals, and in two visits for teeth with a single root canal.
Conclusions
This study indicates that dentists practicing in North Jordan do not comply with international quality standards and do not use recently introduced techniques. Many clinicians never take a radiograph for determining the working length and never used rubber dam or intra-canal medicaments.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-4-1
PMCID: PMC518977  PMID: 15361258

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