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1.  Pilot survey of oral health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study of adults in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria 
BMC Oral Health  2005;5:7.
Background
Oral health studies conducted so far in Nigeria have documented prevalence and incidence of dental disease using traditional clinical measures. However none have investigated the use of an oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) instrument to document oral health outcomes. The aims of this study are: to describe how oral health affects and impacts quality of life (QoL) and to explore the association between these affects and the oral health care seeking behavior of adults in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.
Methods
A cross-sectional survey recruited 356 adults aged 18–64 years from two large hospital outpatient departments and from members of a university community. Closed-ended oral health questionnaire with "effect and impact" item-questions from OHQoL-UK© instrument was administered by trained interviewers. Collected data included sociodemographic, dental visits, and effects and impact of oral health on QoL. Univariate and bivariable analyses were done and a chi-square test was used to test differences in proportions. Multivariable analyses using ANOVA examined the association between QoL factors and visits to a dentist.
Results
Complete data was available for 83% of the participants. About 62% of participants perceived their oral health as affecting their QoL. Overall, 82%, 63%, and 77% of participants perceived that oral health has an effect on their eating or enjoyment of food, sleep or ability to relax, and smiling or laughing, respectively. Some 46%, 36%, and 25% of participants reported that oral health impact their daily activities, social activities, and talking to people, respectively. Dental visits within the last year was significantly associated with eating, speech, and finance (P < 0.05). The summary score for the oral health effects on QoL ranged from 33 to 80 with a median value of 61 (95% CI: 60, 62) and interquartile range of 52–70. Multivariable modeling suggested a model containing only education (F = 6.5, pr>F = 0.0111). The mean of effects sum score for those with secondary/tertiary education levels (mean = 61.8; 95% CI: 60.6, 62.9) was significantly higher than those with less than secondary level of education (mean = 57.2; 95% CI: 57.2, 60.6).
Conclusion
Most adults in the study reported that oral health affects their life quality, and have little/no impact on their quality of life. Dental visits within the last year were associated with eating, speech, and finance.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-5-7
PMCID: PMC1190187  PMID: 16042806
2.  Mandibular facial talon cusp: Case report 
BMC Oral Health  2005;5:9.
Background
Talon cusp is a supernumerary structure projecting from the dento-enamel junction to a variable distance towards the incisal edge of an anterior tooth. Studies have shown that it consists of enamel, dentine and a variable amount of pulp tissue. Hyperactivity of the enamel organ during morphodifferentiation has been attributed to its formation. Most previous reports have been made concerning the occurrence of this structure on primary and permanent teeth and mostly on the palatal aspect. Only few have been reported on the facial aspect of the teeth. When it occurs, the effects are mainly aesthetic and functional and so early detection and treatment is essential in its management to avoid complications.
Case presentation
An unusual case of talon cusp on the facial aspect of a mandibular central incisor is reported. Its presence resulted in attrition of the opposing tooth. Reduction of the cusp and topical application of fluoride gel was initiated.
Conclusion
The management and treatment outcome of talon cusp depends on the size, presenting complications and patient cooperation.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-5-9
PMCID: PMC1334182  PMID: 16336661
3.  Ethnic variations in orthodontic treatment need in London schoolchildren 
BMC Oral Health  2005;5:8.
Background
The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of orthodontic treatment need in children from minority ethnic groups and compare the need to the white population. The second objective was to explore variations in agreement between subjective and objective treatment need in a multiethnic context using the aesthetic component of Orthodontic Treatment Need Index (IOTN AC).
Methods
A cross-sectional study in North West London, 14 schools were randomly selected from the 27 schools in the two boroughs of Harrow and Hillingdon. Comparison between objective and subjective treatment need was carried out using IOTN AC index. Clinical orthodontic treatment need was also recorded using the dental health component of Orthodontic Treatment Need Index (IOTN DHC).
Results
2,788 children were examined and completed the questionnaire. 16% of the study population were already wearing appliances or had finished orthodontic treatment. Of the remaining children; 15% had definite need for treatment using the dental health component of the IOTN. There was no significant variation in the need for orthodontic treatment between different ethnic backgrounds (P > 0.05) whether using the AC or DHC components of the IOTN index. However, poor agreement was detected between professional and subjective assessment of ethnic minority of orthodontic treatment need using IOTN AC index.
Conclusion
Orthodontic treatment need in children of ethnic minorities does not differ significantly from the vast majority of white children. However treatment need based on aesthetic index continues to vary in all ethnic groups from the professional aesthetic assessment
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-5-8
PMCID: PMC1249581  PMID: 16188024
4.  Children's acceptance of milk with xylitol or sorbitol for dental caries prevention 
BMC Oral Health  2005;5:6.
Background
Xylitol, a polyol sugar, has been shown to reduce dental caries when mixed with food or chewing gum. This study examines the taste acceptability of xylitol in milk as a first step toward measuring the effectiveness of xylitol in milk for the reduction of dental caries in a public health program.
Methods
Three different types of milk (Ultra High Temperature (UHT), powder and evaporated) were tested for acceptability by 75 Peruvian children (25 per milk group, ages 4 to 7 years). Each group evaluated xylitol and sorbitol in one type of milk. In the first phase, each child was presented with a tray of four plastic cups containing 50 ml of milk with 0.021 g/ml xylitol, 0.042 g/ml xylitol, 0.042 g/ml sorbitol or no sugar. Each child was asked to taste the samples in a self-selected order. After tasting each sample, the child placed the milk cup in front of one of three cartoon faces (smile, frown or neutral) representing the child's response to the taste of each sample. In the second phase, the child was asked to rank order the milk samples within each category (smile, frown or neutral). Ranks within categories were then combined to obtain a rank ordering for all the test samples.
Results
The ranking from best to worst for the samples across categories (UHT, powder, evaporated) was xylitol (0.0.042 g/ml), sorbitol (0.042 g/ml), xylitol (0.021 g/ml) and milk alone (Friedman's ANOVA). Xylitol and sorbitol were preferred over milk alone, and xylitol (0.042 g/ml) was preferred to sorbitol (0.042 g/ml)(p < .05 sign test).
Conclusion
Milk sweetened with xylitol is well accepted by Peruvian children ages 4–7 years.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-5-6
PMCID: PMC1183221  PMID: 16042782
5.  Sodium channel Nav1.8 immunoreactivity in painful human dental pulp 
BMC Oral Health  2005;5:5.
Background
The tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.8 (SNS1/PN3) is expressed by nociceptors and may play a role in pain states.
Methods
Using specific antibodies for immunohistochemistry, we studied Nav1.8 – immunoreactivity in human dental pulp in relation to the neuronal marker neurofilament. Human tooth pulp was extracted from teeth harvested from a total of twenty-two patients (fourteen without dental pain, eight patients with dental pain).
Results
Fibres immunoreactive for Nav1.8, were significantly increased on image analysis in the painful group: median (range) Nav1.8 to Neurofilament % area ratio, non-painful 0.059 (0.006–0.24), painful 0.265 (0.13–0.5), P = 0.0019.
Conclusion
Nav1.8 sodium channels may thus represent a therapeutic target in trigeminal nerve pain states.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-5-5
PMCID: PMC1183220  PMID: 16001984
6.  Oral clefts with associated anomalies: findings in the Hungarian Congenital Abnormality Registry 
BMC Oral Health  2005;5:4.
Background
Over the years, great efforts have been made to record the frequency of orofacial clefts in different populations. However, very few studies were able to account for the etiological and phenotypic heterogeneity of these conditions. Thus, data of cases with syndromic orofacial clefts from large population-based studies are infrequent.
Methods
Clinically recognized and notified syndromes and associations including cleft lip with or without cleft palate and other congenital anomalies were selected from the Hungarian Congenital Abnormality Registry (HCAR) between 1973 and 1982 and prevalence rates were calculated.
Results
Of 3,110 cases reported as having orofacial clefts, 653 had multiple congenital abnormalities. Of these, 60 (9.2%) had a known etiology (monogenic: 25 or 3.8%, chromosomal: 31 or 4.7%, teratogenic: 4 or 0.6%). Seventy-three subjects (11.2%) had schisis in addition to the oral cleft. Skeletal anomalies were the most common malformations among cases with cleft lip with/without cleft palate (CL/P) and cleft palate (CP). Disorders of the central nervous system and cardiovascular malformations were also frequently associated.
Conclusion
Surveillance systems, such as the HCAR, provide useful information about prevalence rates of congenital anomalies in a population. However, in a field where new syndromes are being discovered and classifications regularly updated, these rates should only be accepted as provisional.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-5-4
PMCID: PMC1182377  PMID: 15985166
7.  A randomised controlled trial to explore attitudes to routine scale and polish and compare manual versus ultrasonic scaling in the general dental service in Scotland [ISRCTN99609795] 
BMC Oral Health  2005;5:3.
Background
To investigate, within general dental practice, patients' and vocational dental practitioners' (VDP) attitudes towards the benefits and costs of a simple scale and polish and to compare the experience of using manual versus ultrasonic instruments to scale teeth.
Methods
28 VDPs and 420 patients participated. Patients were randomly allocated to either group. Patients' and VDPs' attitudes towards, and experience of, the scale and polish were elicited by means of self-administered questionnaires.
Results
The majority of patients (99%) believed a scale and polish was beneficial. VDPs considered ultrasonic treatment to be appropriate on significantly more occasions than they did for manual scale and polish (P < 0.001). Patient discomfort: with ultrasonic scaling 69.2% felt 'a little uncomfortable' or worse compared with 60% of those undergoing manual treatment (P = 0.072). VDPs considered treatment charges were appropriate for 77% of patients.
Conclusion
Routine scaling and polishing is considered beneficial by both patients and vocational trainees. The majority of patients, regardless of treatment method, experience some degree of discomfort when undergoing a scale and polish. VDPs showed a preference for the ultrasonic treatment method.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-5-3
PMCID: PMC1183219  PMID: 15975140
8.  Risk-based early prevention in comparison with routine prevention of dental caries: a 7-year follow-up of a controlled clinical trial; clinical and economic aspects 
BMC Oral Health  2005;5:2.
Background
The results in an earlier study with 2–5-year-old children indicated that, in comparison with conventional prevention, a risk-based prevention programme was effective in reducing dental caries in a low-caries community. The aim of the present study was to examine the clinical and economic findings seven years after the cessation of the targeted programme, from the perspective of public health care.
Methods
The present material was collected from the dental records of the public health care centres, and included all dental visits after the 5-year examination until the 12-year examination. The groups were compared in relation to clinically detected caries at the age of 12 years, the number of dental visits needed from 5 to 12 years of age, and the estimation of running costs during these years. Statistical analyses included univariate analysis of variance, and calculation of absolute risk reduction and number needed to treat (NNT) values.
Results
At the age of 12 years, DMF was significantly related to the risk category determined ten years earlier, in both study groups. In the risk-based group, the absolute risk reduction for caries in permanent dentition was 0.13 (95% confidence interval 0.06 – 0.21), and the associated NNT value was 8 (95% confidence interval 5 – 17). The total number of preventive, as well as restorative visits was lower in the risk-based than in the routine prevention group. The findings indicate that early risk-based prevention can be correctly targeted, clinically effective, and economically profitable also from the long-term point of view.
Conclusion
Early prevention of dental caries also has long-term benefits in a 7-year follow-up perspective. This seems to hold true as regards targeting, as well as clinical and economic effectiveness. Success in risk-based prevention enables successful work division, and consequently, economic effectiveness.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-5-2
PMCID: PMC1079873  PMID: 15784155
9.  The prevalence of dental erosion in Nigerian patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease 
BMC Oral Health  2005;5:1.
Background
In various people of the Western world, gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) has been reported to be a common problem. Various studies have also assessed the relationship between GOR and dental erosion. The authors are not aware of such studies in Nigerians. It is therefore the aims of the present study to estimate the prevalence of GOR; to estimate the prevalence of dental erosion in patients with GORD; to document the oral findings in patients diagnosed with GORD and to compare these findings with previous studies elsewhere.
Methods
A total of 225 subjects comprising of 100 volunteers and 125 patients diagnosed with GORD were involved in this study. History of gastric juice regurgitation and heartburn were recorded. Oral examination to quantify loss of tooth structure was done using the tooth wear index (TWI) designed by Smith and Knight (1984).
Results
Twenty patients with GORD presented with dental erosion in the maxillary anterior teeth with TWI scores ranging from 1–3. The prevalence of erosion was found to be statistically significant between GORD patients (16%) and control (5%) (p < 0.05), but not significant between endoscopic diagnostic groups (p > 0.05).
Conclusion
The present study supports the consideration of dental erosion as the extra-oesophageal manifestation of GORD. However the association between GORD and burning mouth sensation needs more investigation.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-5-1
PMCID: PMC554987  PMID: 15740613

Results 1-9 (9)