Oral health education (OHE) in schools has largely been imparted by dental professionals. Considering the substantial cost of this expert-led approach, the strategies relying on teachers, peer-leaders and learners themselves have also been utilized. However the evidence for comparative effectiveness of these strategies is lacking in the dental literature. The present study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of dentist-led, teacher-led, peer-led and self-learning strategies of oral health education.
A two-year cluster randomized controlled trial following a parallel design was conducted. It involved five groups of adolescents aged 10-11 years at the start of the study. The trial involved process as well as four outcome evaluations. The present paper discusses the findings of the study pertaining to the baseline and final outcome evaluation, both comprising of a self-administered questionnaire, a structured interview and clinical oral examination. The data were analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations.
All the three educator-led strategies of OHE had statistically higher mean oral health knowledge (OHK), oral health behavior (OHB), oral hygiene status (OHS) and combined knowledge, behavior and oral hygiene status (KBS) scores than the self-learning and control groups (p<0.001). The mean OHK, OHS and KBS scores of the three educator-led strategies did not differ significantly. The peer-led strategy was, however, found to have a significantly better OHB score than the respective score of the teacher-led strategy (p<0.05). The self-learning group had significantly higher OHB score than the control group (p<0.05) but the OHK, OHS and KBS scores of the two groups were not significantly different.
The dentist-led, teacher-led and peer-led strategies of oral health education are equally effective in improving the oral health knowledge and oral hygiene status of adolescents. The peer-led strategy, however, is almost as effective as the dentist-led strategy and comparatively more effective than the teacher-led and self-learning strategies in improving their oral health behavior.
Oral health education; Dental health education; Oral health promotion; Prevention; Oral diseases; Peer-led; Teacher-led; Dentist-led
Few publications report on the relationship between salutogenesis, as measured by the concept of sense of coherence, and oral health-related quality of life. Even less information is to be found when the behavioural aspect of dental anxiety is added. The aim of the present study was to evaluate how oral health-related quality of life is related to sense of coherence and dental anxiety.
The study had a cross-sectional design and included 500 randomly selected women in Gothenburg, Sweden, 38 and 50 years of age, from health examinations in 2004–05. The survey included questionnaires covering global questions concerning socio-economic status, oral health/function and dental care behaviour, and tests of oral health-related quality of life, sense of coherence, and dental anxiety.
High dental anxiety and low sense of coherence predicted low oral health-related quality of life. In addition, socioeconomic status as measured by income, perceived oral functional status as captured by chewing ability and self-reported susceptibility to periodontal disease were also important predictors of oral health-related quality of life.
Dental anxiety and sense of coherence had an inverse relationship with regard to oral health-related quality of life. These associations were stronger than other risk factors for low oral health-related quality of life.
Dental anxiety; Epidemiology; Oral health-related quality of life; Sense of coherence; Women
According to the United States census, there are 28 categories that define “Hispanic/Latinos.” This paper compares differences in oral health status between Mexican immigrants and other Latino immigrant groups.
Derived from a community-based sample (N = 240) in Los Angeles, this cross-sectional study uses an interview covering demographic and behavioral measures, and an intraoral examination using NIDCR epidemiologic criteria. Descriptive, bivariate analysis, and multiple regression analysis were conducted to examine the determinants that are associated with the Oral Health Status Index (OHSI).
Mexican immigrants had a significantly higher OHSI (p < .05) compared to other Latinos. The multilinear regression showed that both age and gender (p < .05), percentage of untreated decayed teeth (p < .001), number of replaced missing teeth (p < .001), and attachment loss (p < .001) were significant.
Compared with the other Latino immigrants in our sample, Mexican immigrants have significantly better oral health status. This confirms the epidemiologic paradox previously found in comparisons of Mexicans with whites and African Americans. In this case of oral health status the paradox also occurs between Mexicans and other Latinos. Therefore, when conducting oral health studies of Latinos, more consideration needs to be given to differences within Latino subgroups, such as their country of origin and their unique ethnic and cultural characteristics.
Oral health status index; Immigrant; Latinos; Epidemiologic paradox
The severity of physical and mental impairments and oral problems, as well as socioeconomic factors, may have an impact on quality of life of children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this research was to assess the impact of impairments and oral health conditions, adjusted by socioeconomic factors, on the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of children with CP using their parents as proxies.
Sixty children, between 6-14 years of age were selected. Their parents answered a children’s OHRQoL instrument (5 domains) which combines the Parental-Caregivers Perception Questionnaire (P-CPQ) and Family Impact Scale (FIS). The severity of dental caries, type of CP, communication ability, gross motor function, seizures and socioeconomic conditions were assessed.
Considering the total score of the OHRQoL instrument, only the reduction of communication ability and dental caries severity had a negative impact on the OHRQoL (p < 0.05). Considering each domain of the instrument, the severity of the type of CP and its reduction of communication ability showed a negative impact on oral symptoms and functional limitations domains (p < 0.05). Seizures have a negative impact on oral symptoms domain (p = 0.006). The multivariate fitted model showed that the severity of dental caries, communication ability and low family income were negatively associated with the impact on OHRQoL (p = 0.001).
The severity of dental caries, communication ability, and family income are conditions strongly associated with a negative impact on OHRQoL of children with CP.
Cerebral palsy; Children; Oral health related quality of life
The aim of this investigation was to assess the state of oral health of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and to compare this with that of a provably healthy control group (H).
33 patients who were receiving treatment as inpatients following acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina pectoris took part in the study (ACS-group). A healthy control group (H-group) made up of blood donors, was formed following matching for age, gender, and smoking habit with the study patient group.
The dental investigation consisted of the dental status (DMF-T), a plaque-Index (PI), an assessment of gingival inflammation (GI) and periodontal situation (Periodontal Screening Index: PSR®/PSI), and attachment loss (AL). Statistical evaluation: t-test, Mann–Whitney-test and chi- squared test (level of significance p < 0.05).
The mean DMF-T of the ACS-group (18.7 ± 6.8) and the H-group (19.4 ± 5.1) showed no difference (p = 0.7). Although, in the ACS-group the average loss of teeth (M-T: 8.4 ± 5.2) was higher than in the H-group (M-T: 5.8 ± 6.6) the difference was not significant (p = 0.2). Whereas with the PI no difference between the two groups was found (p = 0.9), the ACS-group showed significantly more signs of inflammation (GI) than the H-group (p = 0.045). In the case of PSR®/PSI, there was no difference between the two groups (p = 0.7). With regard to AL, no difference was revealed between ACS- and H-group (p = 0.2).
Although, the state of oral health of the ACS-group differed only insignificantly from that of control, patients with ACS showed more signs of gingival inflammation and a higher loss of teeth.
Oral health; Oral hygiene; Gingival inflammation; Periodontitis; Acute coronary syndrome; Acute myocardial infarction; Unstable angina pectoris
There are scarce evidences that evaluated the impact of periodontal disease on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) taking marginal gingival alterations into consideration. Thus, this study aimed to verify the association between OHRQoL and gingival enlargement and gingival bleeding in subjects under fixed orthodontic treatment (FOT).
330 participants under FOT for at least 6 months were examined by a single, calibrated examiner for periodontal variables and dental aesthetic index. Socio-economic background, body mass index, time with orthodontic appliances, and use of dental floss were assessed by oral interviews. OHRQoL was evaluated using the oral health impact profile (OHIP-14) questionnaire. The assessment of associations used unadjusted and adjusted Poisson regression models.
Higher impacts on the OHIP-14 overall were observed in subjects who presented higher levels of anterior gingival enlargement (RR 2.83; 95% CI 2.60-3.09), were non-whites (RR 1.29; 95% CI 1.15-1.45), had household income lower than five national minimum wages (RR 1.85; 95% CI 1.30-2.61), presented body mass index > 25 (RR 1.14; 95% CI 1.01-1.29), and showed a dental aesthetic index > 30 (RR 1.32; 95% CI 1.20-1.46).
Anterior gingival enlargement seems to influence the OHRQoL in subjects receiving orthodontic treatment.
Quality of life; Epidemiology; Risk factors; Orthodontics; Gingivitis; Gingival hyperplasia
There are only few studies considering the impact of oral mucosal lesions (OML) on the oral quality of life of patients with different dermatological conditions. This study aimed to assess the relationship between oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and OML and reported oral symptoms, perceived general and oral health condition and caries experience in adult skin diseased patients attending an outpatient dermatologic clinic in Sudan.
A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 544 diagnosed skin diseased patients (mean age 37.1 years, 50 % females), during the period October 2008 to January 2009. The patients were orally examined and OML and caries experience was recorded. The patients were interviewed using the Sudanese Arabic version of the OIDP. OHRQoL was evaluated by socio-demographic and clinical correlates according to number of types of OML diagnosed (no OML, one type of OML, > one type of OML) and number and types of oral symptoms.
An oral impact (OIDP > 0) was reported by 190 patients (35.6 %) (mean OIDP total score 11.6, sd = 6.7). The prevalence of any oral impact was 30.5 %, 36.7 % and 44.1 %, in patients with no OML, one type of OML and more than one type of OML, respectively. Number of types of OML and number and types of oral symptoms were consistently associated with the OIDP scores. Patients who reported bad oral health, patients with ≥ 1 dental attendance, patients with > 1 type of OML, and patients with ≥ 1 type of oral symptoms were more likely than their counterparts in the opposite groups to report any OIDP. The odds ratios (OR) were respectively; 2.9 (95 % CI 1.9-4.5), 2.3 (95 % CI 1.5-3.5), 1.8 (95 % CI 1.1-3.2) and 6.7 (95 % CI 2.6-17.5). Vesiculobullous and ulcerative lesions of OML disease groups associated statistically significantly with OIDP.
OIDP was more frequently affected among skin diseased patients with than without OML. The frequency of the impacts differed according to the number of type of OML, oral symptoms, and OML disease groups. Dentists and dermatologists should pay special attention to skin diseased patients because they are likely to experience oral impacts on daily performances.
dermatology; oral mucosal lesions; oral impact on daily performance; quality of life
In western Sweden, the aim was to study the associations between oral health variables and total and central adiposity, respectively, and to investigate the influence of socio-economic factors (SES), lifestyle, dental anxiety and co-morbidity.
The subjects constituted a randomised sample from the 1992 data collection in the Prospective Population Study of Women in Gothenburg, Sweden (n = 999, 38- > =78 yrs). The study comprised a clinical and radiographic examination, together with a self-administered questionnaire. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) > =30 kg/m2, waist-hip ratio (WHR) > =0.80, and waist circumference >0.88 m. Associations were estimated using logistic regression including adjustments for possible confounders.
The mean BMI value was 25.96 kg/m2, the mean WHR 0.83, and the mean waist circumference 0.83 m. The number of teeth, the number of restored teeth, xerostomia, dental visiting habits and self-perceived health were associated with both total and central adiposity, independent of age and SES. For instance, there were statistically significant associations between a small number of teeth (<20) and obesity: BMI (OR 1.95; 95% CI 1.40-2.73), WHR (1.67; 1.28-2.19) and waist circumference (1.94; 1.47-2.55), respectively. The number of carious lesions and masticatory function showed no associations with obesity. The obesity measure was of significance, particularly with regard to behaviour, such as irregular dental visits, with a greater risk associated with BMI (1.83; 1.23-2.71) and waist circumference (1.96; 1.39-2.75), but not with WHR (1.29; 0.90-1.85).
Associations were found between oral health and obesity. The choice of obesity measure in oral health studies should be carefully considered.
Body mass index; Waist-to-hip ratio; Waist circumference; Number of teeth; Health behaviour
We aimed to assess the oral health status and risk factors for dental caries and periodontal disease among Sudanese adults resident in Khartoum State. To date, this information was not available to health policy planners in Sudan.
A descriptive population-based survey of Sudanese adults aged ≥ 16 years was conducted. After stratified sampling, 1,888 adult patients from public dental hospitals and dental health centres scattered across Khartoum State, including different ethnic groups present in Sudan, were examined in 2009-10. Data were collected using patient interviews and clinical examinations. Dental status was recorded using the DMFT index, community periodontal index (CPI), and a validated tooth wear index.
Caries prevalence was high, with 87.7% of teeth examined having untreated decay. Periodontal disease increased in extent and severity with age. For 25.8% of adults, tooth wear was mild; 8.7% had moderate and 1% severe toothwear. Multivariate analysis revealed that decay was less prevalent in older age groups but more prevalent in southern tribes and frequent problem based attenders; western tribes and people with dry mouths who presented with less than18 sound, untreated natural teeth (SUNT). Older age groups were more likely to present with tooth wear; increasing age and gender were associated with having periodontal pocketing ≥ 4 mm.
The prevalence of untreated caries and periodontal disease was high in this population. There appear to be some barriers to restorative dental care, with frequent use of dental extractions to treat caries and limited use of restorative dentistry. Implementation of population-based strategies tailored to the circumstances of Sudanese population is important to improve oral health status in Sudan.
Little is known about oral health in early childhood in the West Indies or the views and experiences of caregivers about preventive oral care and dental attendance The aims of this study were to explore and understand parents and caregivers’ experience of oral healthcare for their preschool aged children and how, within their own social context, this may have shaped their oral health attitudes and behaviours. These data can be used to inform oral health promotion strategies for this age group.
After ethical approval, a qualitative study was undertaken using a focus group approach with a purposive sample of parents and caregivers of preschool children in central Trinidad.
Group discussions were initiated by use of a topic guide. Audio recording and field notes from the three focus groups, with a total of 18 participants, were transcribed and analysed using a thematic approach.
Despite some ambivalence toward the importance of the primary teeth, the role of fluoride and confusion about when to take a child for their first dental visit, most participants understood the need to ensure good oral hygiene and dietary habits for their child. Problems expressed included, overcoming their own negative experiences of dentistry, which along with finding affordable and suitable dental clinics, affected their attitude to taking their child for a dental visit. There was difficulty in establishing good brushing routines and controlling sweet snacking in the face of many other responsibilities at home. Lack of availability of paediatric dental services locally and information on oral health care were also highlighted. Many expressed a need for more contact with dental professionals in non-clinic settings, for oral health care advice and guidance.
Parents and caregivers in this qualitative study showed generally positive attitudes towards oral health but appear to have encountered several barriers and challenges to achieving ideal preventive care for their child, with respect to healthy diet, good oral hygiene and dental attendance. Oral health promotion should include effective dissemination of oral health information, more practical health advice and greater access to dental care for families with preschool children.
Preschool children; Oral health; Parents; Caregivers; Qualitative; Focus groups; West Indies
In recent decades, studies in the field of public health have increasingly focused on social determinants that affect the health-illness process. The epidemiological perspective considers oral health to be a reflection of socioeconomic and environmental aspects, and it is particularly influenced by the social context. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the severity of dental caries among adults aged 35 to 44 years and characteristics on the different levels at which the determinants of caries operate (individual, social structure and social context).
A home-based, cross-sectional field study was carried out involving a sample of 1,150 adults (35 to 44 years of age) residing in metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The DMFT (decayed, missing, filled tooth) index (≥14) was used to determine the severity of dental caries. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out using the Poisson regression model with the level of significance set at 5% (p < 0.05) and 95% confidence intervals.
The majority of the participants (68.5%) had high caries severity. The rate of high-severity caries in the group between 40 and 44 years of age was 1.15-fold (CI: 1.04-1.26) greater than that among those aged 35 to 39 years. A greater prevalence of high caries severity was found among those who frequently visited the dentist (PR = 1.18; CI: 1.07-1.30), those with a lower income (PR = 1.11; CI: 1.01-1.23), those who reported that their neighborhood did not come together in the previous year to petition political leaders for benefits (PR = 1.16; CI: 1.05-1.28) and those who are unable to make decisions (without empowerment) (PR = 1.12; CI: 1.01-1.24).
The present study revealed high dental caries severity in adults, which was associated with individual characteristics, health-related behavior and social structure and contextual variables. These findings underscore the importance of considering social determinants involved in the health-illness process when carrying out epidemiological studies on dental caries.
Socioeconomic factors; Oral health; Epidemiology
Studies on rural–urban differences in dental care have primarily focused on differences in utilization rates and preventive dental services. Little is known about rural–urban differences in the use of wider range of dental procedures. This study examined patterns of preventive, restorative, endodontic, and extraction procedures provided to children enrolled in Delta Dental of Wisconsin (DDWI).
We analyzed DDWI enrollment and claims data for children aged 0-18 years from 2002 to 2008. We modified and used a rural and urban classification based on ZIP codes developed by the Wisconsin Area Health Education Center (AHEC). We categorized the ZIP codes into 6 AHEC categories (3 rural and 3 urban). Descriptive and multivariable analysis using generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) were used to examine the patterns of dental procedures provided to children. Tukey-Kramer adjustment was used to control for multiple comparisons.
Approximately, 50%, 67% and 68 % of enrollees in inner-city Milwaukee, Rural 1 (less than 2500 people), and suburban-Milwaukee had at least one annual dental visit, respectively. Children in inner city-Milwaukee had the lowest utilization rates for all procedures examined, except for endodontic procedures. Compared to children from inner-city Milwaukee, children in other locations had significantly more preventive procedures. Children in Rural 1-ZIP codes had more restorative, endodontic and extraction procedures, compared to children from all other regions.
We found significant geographic variation in dental procedures received by children enrolled in DDWI.
Oral health; Urban; Rural; Dental care for children; Dental Insurance; Health services accessibility
Dental caries remains a significant public health problem, prevalence being linked to social and economic deprivation. Occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars are the most susceptible site in the developing permanent dentition. Cochrane reviews have shown pit and fissure sealants (PFS) and fluoride varnish (FV) to be effective over no intervention in preventing caries. However, the comparative cost and effectiveness of these treatments is uncertain. The primary aim of the trial described in this protocol is to compare the clinical effectiveness of PFS and FV in preventing dental caries in first permanent molars in 6-7 year-olds. Secondary aims include: establishing the costs and the relative cost-effectiveness of PFS and FV delivered in a community/school setting; examining the impact of PFS and FV on children and their parents/carers in terms of quality of life/treatment acceptability measures; and examining the implementation of treatment in a community setting.
The trial design comprises a randomised, assessor-blinded, two-arm, parallel group trial in 6–7 year old schoolchildren. Clinical procedures and assessments will be performed at 66 primary schools, in deprived areas in South Wales. Treatments will be delivered via a mobile dental clinic. In total, 920 children will be recruited (460 per trial arm). At baseline and annually for 36 months dental caries will be recorded using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) by trained and calibrated dentists. PFS and FV will be applied by trained dental hygienists. The FV will be applied at baseline, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 months. The PFS will be applied at baseline and re-examined at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months, and will be re-applied if the existing sealant has become detached/is insufficient. The economic analysis will estimate the costs of providing the PFS versus FV. The process evaluation will assess implementation and acceptability through acceptability scales, a schools questionnaire and interviews with children, parents, dentists, dental nurses and school staff. The primary outcome measure will be the proportion of children developing new caries on any one of up to four treated first permanent molars.
The objectives of this study have been identified by the National Institute for Health Research as one of importance to the National Health Service in the UK. The results of this trial will provide guidance on which of these technologies should be adopted for the prevention of dental decay in the most susceptible tooth-surface in the most at risk children.
ISRCTN ref: ISRCTN17029222 EudraCT: 2010-023476-23 UKCRN ref: 9273
Dental caries; Clinical trial; Pit and fissure sealants; Fluoride varnish; Preventive dentistry; Oral health
The generic and oral health-related quality of life (QoL) has provided opportunity for investigation of the interrelations among generic health, oral health, and related outcomes. The purpose of this study was to identify the generic and oral QoL in the patients with oral mucosal disease (OMD).
Five hundred and thirty-eight OMDs were recruited in this study. The instruments applied were Chinese version of the 36-item short form health survey (SF-36) and the short-form of Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14).
The mean score of sum OHIP-14 was significantly higher in the patients with OMD (10.81 ± 9.01) compared with those in the healthy subjects (HS) (6.55 ± 6.73) (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U test). 56.51% of the OMD patients and 12.94% of the HS reported at least one oral negative impact (p < 0.001, Chi-square test). The overall mean score of SF-36 was significantly lower in the patients with OMD (74.54 ± 12.77) compared with those in the HS (77.97 ± 12.39) (p = 0.021, t-test).
Administration of specific and generic questionnaires of QoL can provide us a detailed picture of the impact of OMDs on patients, and both generic and oral QoL were impaired in the patients with OMD.
Nationally representative clinical data on the oral health needs of Canadians has not been available since the 1970s. The purpose of this study was to determine the normative treatment needs of a nationally representative sample of Canadians and describe how these needs were distributed.
A secondary analysis of data collected through the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) was undertaken. Sampling and bootstrap weights were applied to make the data nationally representative. Descriptive frequencies were used to examine the sample characteristics and to examine the treatment type(s) needed by the population. Bivariate logistic regressions were used to see if any characteristics were predictive of having an unmet dental treatment need, and of having specific treatment needs. Lastly, multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the strongest predictors of having an unmet dental treatment need.
Most of the population had no treatment needs and of the 34.2% who did, most needed restorative (20.4%) and preventive (13.7%) care. The strongest predictors of need were having poor oral health, reporting a self-perceived need for treatment and visiting the dentist infrequently.
It is estimated that roughly 12 million Canadians have at least one unmet dental treatment need. Policymakers now have information by which to assess if programs match the dental treatment needs of Canadians and of particular subgroups experiencing excess risk.
Dental care needs; Health policy; Socio-demographic/economic factors
In addition to its general and periodontal health effects smoking causes tooth staining. Smoking cessation support interventions with an added stain removal or tooth whitening effect may increase motivation to quit smoking. Oral health professionals are well placed to provide smoking cessation advice and support to patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Nicorette® Freshmint Gum used in a smoking cessation programme administered in a dental setting, on extrinsic stain and tooth shade among smokers.
An evaluator-blinded, randomized, 12-week parallel-group controlled trial was conducted among 200 daily smokers motivated to quit smoking. Participants were randomised to use either the Nicorette® Freshmint Gum or Nicorette® Microtab (tablet). Tooth staining and shade were rated using the modified Lobene Stain Index and the Vita® Shade Guide at baseline, weeks 2, 6 and 12. To maintain consistency with other whitening studies, the primary end-point was the mean change in stain index between baseline and week 6. Secondary variables included changes in stain measurements and tooth shade at the other time points the number of gums or tablets used per day and throughout the trial period; and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Treatments were compared using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), using treatment and nicotine dependence as factors and the corresponding baseline measurement as a covariate. Each comparison (modified intention-to-treat) was tested at the 0.05 level, two-sided. Within-treatment changes from baseline were compared using a paired t-test.
At week 6, the gum-group experienced a reduction in mean stain scores whilst the tablet-group experienced an increase with mean changes of -0.14 and +0.12 respectively, (p = 0.005, ANCOVA). The change in mean tooth shade scores was statistically significantly greater in the gum-group than in the tablet group at 2 (p = 0.015), 6 (p = 0.011) and 12 weeks (p = 0.003) with greater lightening in the gum-group at each examination period.
These results support the efficacy of the tested nicotine replacement gum in stain reduction and shade lightening. These findings may help dentists to motivate those wishing to quit smoking using a nicotine replacement gum.
Since 2002, adults have been able to choose oral health care services in the public sector or in the private sector in Finland. Though various subsidies for care exist in both sectors, the Public Dental Service (PDS) is a cheaper option for the patient but, on the other hand, there are no waiting lists for private care. The aim of this study was to assess middle-aged adults' use of dental services, willingness to pay (WTP) and ability to pay (ATP) for unexpected, urgent dental treatment.
Postal questionnaires on use of dental services were sent to a random sample of 1500 47-59 year old adults living in three large municipalities in the Helsinki region. The initial response rate was 65.8%. Two hypothetical scenarios were presented: "What would be the highest price you would be prepared to pay to have a lost filling replaced immediately, or, at the latest, the day after losing the filling?" and " How much could you pay for unexpected dental expenses at two weeks notice, if you suddenly needed more comprehensive treatment?" Logistic regression analysis was used to analyse factors related to WTP and ATP.
Most respondents (89.6%) had visited a dentist recently and a majority (76.1%) had used private services. For immediate replacement of a lost filling, almost all respondents (93.2%) were willing to pay the lower price charged in the PDS and 46.2% were willing to pay the private fee. High income and no subjective need for dental treatment were positively associated with the probability of paying a higher price. Most respondents (93.0%) were able to pay a low fee, EUR 50 and almost half (41.6%) at least EUR 300 for unexpected treatment at short notice. High income and male sex were associated with high ATP.
There was a strong and statistically significant relationship between income and WTP and ATP for urgent dental care, indicating that access to publicly provided services improved equity for persons with low income.
Utilization of dental services; Willingness to pay (WTP); Ability to pay (ATP); Public sector; Private sector
Dental caries is highly prevalent and a significant public health problem among children throughout the world. Epidemiological data regarding prevalence of dental caries amongst Pakistani pre-school children is very limited. The objective of this study is to determine the frequency of dental caries among pre-school children of Saddar Town, Karachi, Pakistan and the factors related to caries.
A cross-sectional study of 1000 preschool children was conducted in Saddar town, Karachi. Two-stage cluster sampling was used to select the sample. At first stage, eight clusters were selected randomly from total 11 clusters. In second stage, from the eight selected clusters, preschools were identified and children between 3- to 6-years age group were assessed for dental caries.
Caries prevalence was 51% with a mean dmft score being 2.08 (±2.97) of which decayed teeth constituted 1.95. The mean dmft of males was 2.3 (±3.08) and of females was 1.90 (±2.90). The mean dmft of 3, 4, 5 and 6- year olds was 1.65, 2.11, 2.16 and 3.11 respectively. A significant association was found between dental caries and following variables: age group of 4-years (p-value ² 0.029, RR = 1.248, 95% Bias corrected CI 0.029-0.437) and 5-years (p-value ² 0.009, RR = 1.545, 95% Bias corrected CI 0.047-0.739), presence of dental plaque (p-value ² 0.003, RR = 0.744, 95% Bias corrected CI (−0.433)-(−0.169)), poor oral hygiene (p-value ² 0.000, RR = 0.661, 95% Bias corrected CI (−0.532)-(−0.284)), as well as consumption of non-sweetened milk (p-value ² 0.049, RR = 1.232, 95% Bias corrected CI 0.061-0.367).
Half of the preschoolers had dental caries coupled with a high prevalence of unmet dental treatment needs. Association between caries experience and age of child, consumption of non-sweetened milk, dental plaque and poor oral hygiene had been established.
Dental caries; Prevalence; Pre-school children; Pakistan
The purpose of this study was to compare diagnostic performance for the detection of caries using photographs with an established visual examination method and histological sections as the reference standard.
50 extracted permanent teeth were assessed for the presence of occlusal caries by 9 examiners using two methods; traditional visual examination developed by BASCD and photographs produced by an intra-oral camera. For both methods, diagnoses were made at “caries into dentine” level. The teeth were histologically sectioned and the diagnostic decisions using visual and photographic assessment were compared to the histological reference standard. Inter- and intra- examiner reliability for the methods was assessed and weighted kappa values were calculated.
The visual examination method had a median sensitivity value of 65.6% and a median specificity value of 82.4%. The photographic assessments method had a median sensitivity of 81.3% and a median specificity of 82.4%.
The photographic assessments method had a higher sensitivity for caries detection than the visual examination. The two methods had comparable specificities and good intra- and inter- examiner reliability.
Valid estimation of dental treatment needed at population level is important for service planning. In many instances, planning is informed by survey data, which provide epidemiologically estimated need from the dental fieldworkers’ perspective. The aim of this paper is to determine the validity of this type of information for planning. A comparison of normative (epidemiologically estimated) need for selected treatments, as measured on a randomly-selected representative sample, is compared with treatment actually provided in the population from which the sample was drawn.
This paper compares dental treatment need-estimates, from a national survey, with treatment provided within two choice-of-dentist schemes: Scheme 1, a co-payment scheme for employed adults, and Scheme 2, a ‘free’ service for less-well-off adults. Epidemiologically estimated need for extractions, restorations, advanced restorations and denture treatments was recorded for a nationally representative sample in 2000/02. Treatments provided to employed and less-well-off adults were retrieved from the claims databases for both schemes. We used the chi-square test to compare proportions, and the student’s t-test to compare means between the survey and claims databases.
Among employed adults, the proportion of 35-44-year-olds whose teeth had restorations was greater than estimated as needed in the survey (55.7% vs. 36.7%;p <0.0001). Mean number of teeth extracted was less than estimated as needed among 35-44 and 65+ year-olds.
Among less-well-off adults, the proportion of 16-24-year-olds who had teeth extracted was greater than estimated as needed in the survey (27.4% vs. 7.9%;p <0.0001). Mean number of restorations provided was greater than estimated as needed in the survey for 16-24-year-olds (3.0 vs. 0.9; p <0.0001) and 35-44-year-olds (2.7 vs. 1.4;p <0.01).
Significant differences were found between epidemiologically estimated need and treatment provided for selected treatments, which may be accounted for by measurement differences. The gap between epidemiologically estimated need and treatment provided seems to be greatest for less-well-off adults.
Need; Treatment provided; Extractions; Restorations; Dentures; Proportion of treatments; Mean number of teeth; Survey data; Administrative data
Dental care is the most common unmet health care need for children with chronic conditions. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that not all children with chronic conditions encounter difficulties accessing dental care. The goals of this study are to evaluate dental care use for Medicaid-enrolled children with chronic conditions and to identify the subgroups of children with chronic conditions that are the least likely to use dental care services.
This study focused on children with chronic conditions ages 3-14 enrolled in the Iowa Medicaid Program in 2005 and 2006. The independent variables were whether a child had each of the following 10 body system-based chronic conditions (no/yes): hematologic; cardiovascular; craniofacial; diabetes; endocrine; digestive; ear/nose/throat; respiratory; catastrophic neurological; or musculoskeletal. The primary outcome measure was use of any dental care in 2006. Secondary outcomes, also measured in 2006, were use of diagnostic dental care, preventive dental care, routine restorative dental care, and complex restorative dental care. We used Poisson regression models to estimate the relative risk (RR) associated with each of the five outcome measures across the 10 chronic conditions.
Across the 10 chronic condition subgroups, unadjusted dental utilization rates ranged from 44.3% (children with catastrophic neurological conditions) to 60.2% (children with musculoskeletal conditions). After adjusting for model covariates, children with catastrophic neurological conditions were significantly less likely to use most types of dental care (RR: 0.48 to 0.73). When there were differences, children with endocrine or craniofacial conditions were less likely to use dental care whereas children with hematologic or digestive conditions were more likely to use dental care. Children with respiratory, musculoskeletal, or ear/nose/throat conditions were more likely to use most types of dental care compared to other children with chronic conditions but without these specific conditions (RR: 1.03 to 1.13; 1.0 to 1.08; 1.02 to 1.12; respectively). There was no difference in use across all types of dental care for children with diabetes or cardiovascular conditions compared to other children with chronic conditions who did not have these particular conditions.
Dental utilization is not homogeneous across chronic condition subgroups. Nearly 42% of children in our study did not use any dental care in 2006. These findings support the development of multilevel clinical interventions that target subgroups of Medicaid-enrolled children with chronic conditions that are most likely to have problems accessing dental care.
Dental general anaesthesia (DGA) is a very efficient treatment modality, but is considered only in the last resort because of the risks posed by general anaesthesia to patients’ overall health. Health services and their treatment policies regarding DGA vary from country to country. The aims of this work were to determine the reasons for DGA in the Helsinki Public Dental Service (PDS) and to assess the role of patient characteristics in the variation in reasons and in the treatments given with special focus on preventive care.
The data covered all DGA patients treated in the PDS in Helsinki in 2010. The data were collected from patient documents and included personal background: age (<6, 6–12, 13–17, 18–68), gender, immigration, previous conscious sedation and previous DGA; medical background; reasons for DGA and treatments provided. Chi-square tests, Fisher’s exact test, and logistic regression modelling were employed in the statistical analyses.
The DGA patients (n=349) were aged 2.3 to 67.2 years. Immigrants predominated in the youngest age group (p<0.001) and medically compromised patients among the adults (p<0.001) relative to the other age groups. The main reason for DGA was extreme non-cooperation (65%) followed by dental fear (37%) and an excessive need for treatment (26%). In total, 3435 treatments were performed under DGA, 57% of which were restorations, 24% tooth extractions, 5% preventive measures, 5% radiography, 4% endodontics and the remaining 5% periodontics, surgical procedures and miscellaneous. The reasons for DGA and the treatments provided varied according to age, immigration, previous sedation and DGA and medical background. The logistic regression model showed that previous sedation (OR 2.3; 95%CI 1.3-4.1; p=0.005) and extreme non-cooperation (OR 1.7; 95%CI 0.9-3.2; p=0.103) were most indicative of preventive measures given.
Extreme non-cooperation, dental fear and an excessive need for treatment were the main reasons for the use of comprehensive, conservative DGA in the Helsinki PDS. The reasons for the use of DGA and the treatments provided varied according to personal and medical background, and immigration status with no gender-differences. Preventive measures formed only a minor part of the dental care given under DGA.
Dental general anaesthesia; Public Dental Service; Indications; Comprehensive treatment; Preventive treatment; Immigration; Medically compromised patients
There is growing interest in the use of diammine silver fluoride (DSF) as a topical agent to treat dentin hypersensitivity and dental caries as gauged by increasing published research from many parts of the world. While DSF has been available in various formulations for many years, most of its pharmacokinetic aspects within the therapeutic concentration range have never been fully characterized.
This preliminary study determined the applied doses (3 teeth treated), maximum serum concentrations, and time to maximum serum concentration for fluoride and silver in 6 adults over 4 h. Fluoride was determined using the indirect diffusion method with a fluoride selective electrode, and silver was determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The mean amount of DSF solution applied to the 3 teeth was 7.57 mg (6.04 μL).
Over the 4 hour observation period, the mean maximum serum concentrations were 1.86 μmol/L for fluoride and 206 nmol/L for silver. These maximums were reached 3.0 h and 2.5 h for fluoride and silver, respectively.
Fluoride exposure was below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) oral reference dose. Silver exposure exceeded the EPA oral reference dose for cumulative daily exposure over a lifetime, but for occasional use was well below concentrations associated with toxicity. This preliminary study suggests that serum concentrations of fluoride and silver after topical application of DSF should pose little toxicity risk when used in adults.
Clinical trials registration
Acute pain; Tooth; Medical device; Topical agent; Pharmacology; Toxicology
Over 90% of adults aged 20 years or older with permanent teeth have suffered from dental caries leading to pain, infection, or even tooth loss. Although caries prevalence has decreased over the past decade, there are still about 23% of dentate adults who have untreated carious lesions in the US. Dental caries is a complex disorder affected by both individual susceptibility and environmental factors. Approximately 35-55% of caries phenotypic variation in the permanent dentition is attributable to genes, though few specific caries genes have been identified. Therefore, we conducted the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genes affecting susceptibility to caries in adults.
Five independent cohorts were included in this study, totaling more than 7000 participants. For each participant, dental caries was assessed and genetic markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) were genotyped or imputed across the entire genome. Due to the heterogeneity among the five cohorts regarding age, genotyping platform, quality of dental caries assessment, and study design, we first conducted genome-wide association (GWA) analyses on each of the five independent cohorts separately. We then performed three meta-analyses to combine results for: (i) the comparatively younger, Appalachian cohorts (N = 1483) with well-assessed caries phenotype, (ii) the comparatively older, non-Appalachian cohorts (N = 5960) with inferior caries phenotypes, and (iii) all five cohorts (N = 7443). Top ranking genetic loci within and across meta-analyses were scrutinized for biologically plausible roles on caries.
Different sets of genes were nominated across the three meta-analyses, especially between the younger and older age cohorts. In general, we identified several suggestive loci (P-value ≤ 10E-05) within or near genes with plausible biological roles for dental caries, including RPS6KA2 and PTK2B, involved in p38-depenedent MAPK signaling, and RHOU and FZD1, involved in the Wnt signaling cascade. Both of these pathways have been implicated in dental caries. ADMTS3 and ISL1 are involved in tooth development, and TLR2 is involved in immune response to oral pathogens.
As the first GWAS for dental caries in adults, this study nominated several novel caries genes for future study, which may lead to better understanding of cariogenesis, and ultimately, to improved disease predictions, prevention, and/or treatment.
Dental caries; Genetics; Genome wide association; Permanent dentition; Genomics
Oral cancer is increasing in incidence in the UK and indeed worldwide. Delay in diagnosis is common; up to half of patients are diagnosed with advanced lesions. Thus it is essential to develop methods to aid early detection. This study aimed to assess dental patients’ experiences and awareness of oral cancer and screening within general dental practice.
A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 184 English-speaking adults, with no previous history of oral cancer was conducted. The questionnaire collected data on participant’s knowledge of oral cancer, experience of ‘screening’, attitudes and feelings towards having a screening, anticipated help-seeking behaviours, health-related behaviours (particularly risk factors) and sociodemographics.
Twenty percent of respondents had never heard of oral cancer; 77% knew little or nothing about it and 72% did not know that their Dentist routinely screens for oral cancer. Overall, attitudes to screening were positive. Ninety two percent of respondents would like their Dentist to tell them if they were being screened for signs of oral cancer and 97% would like help from their Dentists to reduce their risk.
Patients seem generally unaware of oral cancer screening by their dentist but are happy to take part in screening, would like to be informed, and welcome the support of their Dentist to reduce their risk of developing oral cancer.
Oral Cancer; Early Detection of Cancer; Screening; Awareness; Public Health