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1.  Pulpal sequelae after trauma to anterior teeth among adult Nigerian dental patients 
BMC Oral Health  2007;7:11.
Background
Epidemiological studies show that about 11.6% to 33.0% of all boys and about 3.6% to 19.3% of all girls suffer dental trauma of varying severity before the age of 12 years. Moderate injuries to the periodontium such as concussion and subluxation are usually associated with relatively minor symptoms and hence may go unnoticed by the patient or the dentist, if consulted. Patients with these kinds of injuries present years after a traumatic accident most of the time with a single discoloured tooth. This study sets out to document the incidence of various posttraumatic sequelae of discoloured anterior teeth among adult Nigerian dental patients.
Methods
One hundred and sixty eight (168) traumatized discoloured anterior teeth in 165 patients were studied. Teeth with root canal treatment were excluded from the study. Partial obliteration was recorded when the pulp chamber or root canal was not discernible or reduced in size on radiographs, total obliteration was recorded when pulp chamber and root canal were not discernible. A retrospective diagnosis of concussion was made from patient's history of trauma to the tooth without abnormal loosening, while subluxation was made from patient's history of trauma to the tooth with abnormal loosening.
Results
Of the 168 traumatized discoloured anterior teeth, 47.6% and 31.6% had partial and total obliteration of the pulp canal spaces respectively, 20.8% had pulpal necrosis. Concussion and subluxation injuries resulted more in obliteration of the pulp canal space, while fracture of the teeth resulted in more pulpal necrosis (p < 0.001). Injuries sustained during the 1st and 2nd decade of life resulted more in obliteration of the pulp canal space, while injuries sustained in the 3rd decade resulted in more pulpal necrosis.
Conclusion
Calcific metamorphosis developed more in teeth with concussion and subluxation injuries. Pulpal necrosis occurred more often in traumatized teeth including fractures.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-7-11
PMCID: PMC2014742  PMID: 17764551
2.  The prevalence of dental erosion in Nigerian patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease 
BMC Oral Health  2005;5:1.
Background
In various people of the Western world, gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) has been reported to be a common problem. Various studies have also assessed the relationship between GOR and dental erosion. The authors are not aware of such studies in Nigerians. It is therefore the aims of the present study to estimate the prevalence of GOR; to estimate the prevalence of dental erosion in patients with GORD; to document the oral findings in patients diagnosed with GORD and to compare these findings with previous studies elsewhere.
Methods
A total of 225 subjects comprising of 100 volunteers and 125 patients diagnosed with GORD were involved in this study. History of gastric juice regurgitation and heartburn were recorded. Oral examination to quantify loss of tooth structure was done using the tooth wear index (TWI) designed by Smith and Knight (1984).
Results
Twenty patients with GORD presented with dental erosion in the maxillary anterior teeth with TWI scores ranging from 1–3. The prevalence of erosion was found to be statistically significant between GORD patients (16%) and control (5%) (p < 0.05), but not significant between endoscopic diagnostic groups (p > 0.05).
Conclusion
The present study supports the consideration of dental erosion as the extra-oesophageal manifestation of GORD. However the association between GORD and burning mouth sensation needs more investigation.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-5-1
PMCID: PMC554987  PMID: 15740613
3.  Endodontic flare-ups: comparison of incidence between single and multiple visit procedures in patients attending a Nigerian teaching hospital 
BMC Oral Health  2004;4:4.
Background
Until recently the most accepted technique of doing root canal treatment stresses multiple visit procedure. Most schools also concentrated upon teaching the multi-visit concept. However, it has now been reported that the procedure of single visit treatment is advocated by at least 70% of schools in all geographical areas. It was therefore the aims of the present study to find the incidence of post-obturation flare-ups following single and multiple visit endodontic treatment procedures, and to establish the relationship between pre-operative and post-obturation pain in patients referred for endodontic therapy in a Nigerian teaching Hospital.
Methods
Data collected included pulp vitality status, the presence or absence of pre-operative, inter-appointment and post-obturation pain. Pain was recorded as none, slight, or moderate/severe. Flare-ups were defined as either patient's report of pain not controlled with over the counter medication or as increasing swelling. The patients were recalled at three specific post-obturation periods, 1st, 7th and 30th day. The presence or absence of pain, or the appropriate degree of pain was recorded for each recall visits and the interval between visits. The compiled data were analysed using chi-square where applicable. P level ≤ 0.05 was taken as significant.
Results
Ten endodontic flare-ups (8.1%) were recorded in the multiple visit group compared to 19 (18.3%) flare-ups for the single visit group, P = 0.02. For both single and multiple visit procedures, there were statistically significant correlations between pre-operative and post-obturation pain (P = 0.002 and P = 0.0004 respectively). Teeth with vital pulps reported the lowest frequency of post-obturation pain (48.8%), while those with nonvital pulps were found to have the highest frequency of post-obturation pain (50.3%), P = 0.9.
Conclusion
The present study reported higher incidences of post-obturation pain and flare-ups following the single visit procedures. However, single visit endodontic therapy has been shown to be a safe and effective alternative to multiple visit treatment, especially in communities where patients default after the first appointment at which pain is relieved.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-4-4
PMCID: PMC539257  PMID: 15566567

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