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1.  Fluoride bioavailability in saliva and plaque 
BMC Oral Health  2012;12:3.
Background
Different fluoride formulations may have different effects on caries prevention. It was the aim of this clinical study to assess the fluoride content, provided by NaF compared to amine fluoride, in saliva and plaque.
Methods
Eight trained volunteers brushed their teeth in the morning for 3 minutes with either NaF or amine fluoride, and saliva and 3-day-plaque-regrowth was collected at 5 time intervals during 6 hours after tooth brushing. The amount of collected saliva and plaque was measured, and the fluoride content was analysed using a fluoride sensitive electrode. All subjects repeated all study cycles 5 times, and 3 cycles per subject underwent statistical analysis using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test.
Results
Immediately after brushing the fluoride concentration in saliva increased rapidly and dropped to the baseline level after 360 minutes. No difference was found between NaF and amine fluoride. All plaque fluoride levels were elevated after 30 minutes until 120 minutes after tooth brushing, and decreasing after 360 minutes to baseline. According to the highly individual profile of fluoride in saliva and plaque, both levels of bioavailability correlated for the first 30 minutes, and the fluoride content of saliva and plaque was back to baseline after 6 hours.
Conclusions
Fluoride levels in saliva and plaque are interindividually highly variable. However, no significant difference in bioavailability between NaF and amine fluoride, in saliva, or in plaque was found.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-12-3
PMCID: PMC3295678  PMID: 22230722
2.  In vitro effect of fluoride oral hygiene tablets on artificial caries lesion formation and remineralization in human enamel 
BMC Oral Health  2009;9:25.
Background
Aim of this in-vitro-study was to assess the remineralization potential of a tooth cleaning tablet with different fluoride content.
Methods
Twenty three caries free impacted third molars were examined, enamel surfaces were wax coated leaving two 3 × 4 mm windows for exposure to demineralization/remineralization cycles. The teeth were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 5 control and 6 experimental teeth. Demineralization by standardised HEC-gel, pH 4.7 at 37°C for 72 h, was alternated by rinsing in remineralization solution, pH 7.0 at 37°C for 72 h, total challenge time 432 h. The negative control group N was treated during remineralization cycles with saline; positive control group P was treated with remineralization solution; experimental group D1 was exposed to remineralization solution containing Denttabs®-tablets with 1450 ppm F; experimental group D2 was exposed to remineralization solution and Denttabs®-tablets with 4350 ppm F. Each tooth was cut into serial sections and analyzed by polarized light microscopy for assessment of the different zones of white-spot lesions in 3 representative sections. Statistical analysis was based on the Mann-Whitney-Test.
Results
Both control groups N(-) and P(+) exhibited characteristic white-spot lesions. The remineralization and the demineralization inhibition of the lesions increased considerably from N

Conclusion
Based on these results the novel Denttabs® formulation represents a highly effective oral hygiene product and the remineralization is correlated to the fluoride content.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-9-25
PMCID: PMC2762957  PMID: 19799785
BMC Oral Health  2007;7:14.
Background
One of the important factors of the demineralization and remineralization equilibrium of enamel is the pH of the surrounding solutions. Effort has been laid in the formulation of different fluoride compounds and the fluoride content in toothpastes but much less is known about the influence of the pH of the toothpastes on their effectiveness. It was therefore the aim of this study to investigate the influence of different pH levels on enamel remineralization in an in vitro experiment using polarization light microscopy and EDX quantitative element analysis.
Methods
A 5 × 5 mm window on the enamel surface of 40 caries free extracted human premolars was demineralized in a hydroxyethylcellulose solution at pH 4.8. The teeth were divided into 8 groups and the lower half of the window was covered with varnish serving as control. Each group was then immersed in toothpaste slurry containing amine fluoride (1400 ppm) at pH 4.1, 4.5, 5.1 and 6.9 or control toothpaste slurry without fluoride at pH 4.3, 4.7, 5.3 and 7.0. Serial sections were cut through the lesions and investigated with polarization light microscopy and quantitative EDX element analysis.
Results
The PLM results showed a decreased porous volume of the body of the lesion after incubation with fluoridated toothpaste at pH 4.53 and 5.16. No differences between the experimental window and the control window were found in the other groups. The quantitative element analysis showed no differences in the element content of any of the groups.
Conclusion
From the results it can be concluded that slightly acidified fluoridated dentifrices may have a certain positive effect on enamel remineralization.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-7-14
PMCID: PMC2099426  PMID: 17941981
BMC Oral Health  2006;6:8.
Background
It was the aim of this study to investigate the effect of four different toothpastes with differing fluoride compounds on enamel remineralization.
Methods
A 3 × 3 mm window on the enamel surface of 90 human premolars was demineralized in a hydroxyethylcellulose solution at pH 4.8. The teeth were divided into 6 groups and the lower half of the window was covered with varnish serving as control. The teeth were immersed in a toothpaste slurry containing: placebo tooth paste (group 1); remineralization solution (group 2); Elmex Anticaries (group 3); Elmex Sensitive (group 4); Blend-a-med Complete (group 5) and Colgate GRF (group 6). Ten teeth of each group were used for the determination of the F- content in the superficial enamel layer and acid solubility of enamel expressed in soluble phosphorus. Of 6 teeth of each group serial sections were cut and investigated with polarization light microscopy (PLM) and quantitative energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX).
Results
The PLM results showed an increased remineralization of the lesion body in the Elmex Anticaries, Elmex Sensitive and Colgate GRF group but not in the Blend-a-med group. A statistically significant higher Ca content was found in the Elmex Anticaries group. The fluoride content in the superficial enamel layer was significantly increased in both Elmex groups and the Blend-a-med group. Phosphorus solubility was significantly decreased in both Elmex groups and the Blend-a-med group.
Conclusion
It can be concluded that amine fluoride compounds in toothpastes result in a clearly marked remineralization of caries like enamel lesions followed by sodium fluoride and sodium monofluorophosphate formulations.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-6-8
PMCID: PMC1543617  PMID: 16776820

Results 1-4 (4)