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1.  Reaction of rat connective tissue to mineral trioxide aggregate and diaket 
BMC Oral Health  2011;11:17.
Background
The aim of this study was to compare the reaction of rat connective tissue to two root-end filling materials: white Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (WMTA) and Diaket.
Methods
Each of the materials was placed in dentine tubes and implanted subcutaneously in the dorsal connective tissue of 21 Wistar albino rats. Tissue biopsies were collected 7, 30, and 60 days after the implantation procedure. The specimens were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined microscopically. After determining inflammatory cell numbers in sections from each specimen, inflammatory reaction scores were defined as follows: 0; no or few inflammatory cells (no reaction), 1; less than 25 cells (mild reaction), 2; 25 to 125 cells, (moderate reaction), and 3; 125 or more cells (severe reaction). Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests.
Results
There were statistically significant differences in the median inflammatory cell numbers throughout the three test periods, with the most severe degree of inflammation observed at the one-week period. Few cases of necrosis were observed with WMTA. Diaket exhibited the most severe degree of inflammation and necrosis. After 30 days, both materials provoked moderate inflammatory reaction. The eight-week period showed the least severe degree of inflammation in all groups.
Conclusions
It was concluded that WMTA exhibits a more favourable tissue response compared with Diaket which induced more severe inflammatory reaction than WMTA and the control.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-11-17
PMCID: PMC3107167  PMID: 21569463
2.  Survey of attitudes, materials and methods employed in endodontic treatment by general dental practitioners in North Jordan 
BMC Oral Health  2004;4:1.
Background
General dental practitioners provide the majority of endodontic treatment in Jordan. The aim of this study was to gather information on the methods, materials and attitudes employed in root canal treatment by dentists in North Jordan, in order to evaluate and improve the quality of current practice.
Methods
A questionnaire was posted to all registered general dental practitioners working in private practice in Irbid Governate in North Jordan (n = 181). The questionnaire included information on methods, materials and techniques used in endodontic treatment.
Results
Reply rate was 72% (n = 131). The results demonstrated that only five dentists used rubber dam occasionally and not routinely. The majority used cotton rolls for isolation solely or in combination with a high volume saliva ejector (n = 116). The most widely used irrigants were sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide, which were used by 32.9% (n = 43) and 33.6% (n = 44) of the respondents, respectively. Forty eight percent of the respondents (n = 61) used the cold lateral condensation technique for canal obturation, 31.3% (n = 41) used single cone, 9.9% (n = 13) used vertical condensation and 12.2% (n = 16) used paste or cement only for the obturation. The majority used zinc oxide eugenol as a sealer (72.5%). All, but one, respondents used hand instruments for canal preparation and the technique of choice was step back (52.7%). More than 50% (n = 70) of the dentists took one radiograph for determining the working length, whilst 22.9% (n = 30) did not take any radiograph at all. Most practitioners performed treatment in three visits for teeth with two or more root canals, and in two visits for teeth with a single root canal.
Conclusions
This study indicates that dentists practicing in North Jordan do not comply with international quality standards and do not use recently introduced techniques. Many clinicians never take a radiograph for determining the working length and never used rubber dam or intra-canal medicaments.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-4-1
PMCID: PMC518977  PMID: 15361258

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