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1.  Methodological issues in epidemiological studies of periodontitis - how can it be improved? 
BMC Oral Health  2010;10:8.
Background
This position paper was commissioned by the European Association of Dental Public Health, which has established six working groups to investigate the current status of six topics related to oral public health. One of these areas is epidemiology of periodontal diseases.
Methods
Two theses "A systematic review of definitions of periodontitis and the methods that have been used to identify periodontitis" [1] and "Factors affecting community oral health care needs and provision" [2] formed the starting point for this position paper. Additional relevant and more recent publications were retrieved through a MEDLINE search.
Results
The literature reveals a distinct lack of consensus and uniformity in the definition of periodontitis within epidemiological studies. There are also numerous differences in the methods used. The consequence is that data from studies using differing case definitions and differing survey methods are not easily interpretable or comparable. The limitations of the widely used Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Need (CPITN) and its more recent derivatives are widely recognized. Against this background, this position paper reviews the current evidence base, outlines existing problems and suggests how epidemiology of periodontal diseases may be improved.
Conclusions
The remit of this working group was to review and discuss the existing evidence base of epidemiology of periodontal diseases and to identify future areas of work to further enhance it.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-10-8
PMCID: PMC2874507  PMID: 20409298
2.  Research gaps identified during systematic reviews of clinical trials: glass-ionomer cements 
BMC Oral Health  2012;12:18.
Background
To report the results of an audit concerning research gaps in clinical trials that were accepted for appraisal in authored and published systematic reviews regarding the application of glass-ionomer cements (GIC) in dental practice
Methods
Information concerning research gaps in trial precision was extracted, following a framework that included classification of the research gap reasons: ‘imprecision of information (results)’, ‘biased information’, ‘inconsistency or unknown consistency’ and ‘not the right information’, as well as research gap characterization using PICOS elements: population (P), intervention (I), comparison (C), outcomes (O) and setting (S). Internal trial validity assessment was based on the understanding that successful control for systematic error cannot be assured on the basis of inclusion of adequate methods alone, but also requires empirical evidence about whether such attempt was successful.
Results
A comprehensive and interconnected coverage of GIC-related clinical topics was established. The most common reasons found for gaps in trial precision were lack of sufficient trials and lack of sufficient large sample size. Only a few research gaps were ascribed to ‘Lack of information’ caused by focus on mainly surrogate trial outcomes. According to the chosen assessment criteria, a lack of adequate randomisation, allocation concealment and blinding/masking in trials covering all reviewed GIC topics was noted (selection- and detection/performance bias risk). Trial results appear to be less affected by loss-to-follow-up (attrition bias risk).
Conclusion
This audit represents an adjunct of the systematic review articles it has covered. Its results do not change the systematic review’s conclusions but highlight existing research gaps concerning the precision and internal validity of reviewed trials in detail. These gaps should be addressed in future GIC-related clinical research.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-12-18
PMCID: PMC3461440  PMID: 22747674
3.  Aligned carbon nanotube containing scaffolds for neural tissue regeneration 
Neural Regeneration Research  2016;11(7):1062-1063.
doi:10.4103/1673-5374.187028
PMCID: PMC4994439  PMID: 27630680
4.  Biokinetic datasets of PEI F25-LMW complexed and non-complexed 32P-siRNA within different lung compartments 
Data in Brief  2016;7:1175-1178.
Biokinetics data of lung-administered PEI F25-LMW/siRNA polyplexes within different lung compartments are presented. Thereby, at three different timepoints (1 h, 3 h, 8 h), the data was determined by calculations to the 32P-radioactivity in the whole mouse body. Additionally, data was optimized to the available PEI F25-LMW/siRNA polyplexes in the target organ and therefore normalized to the sum of all lung compartments. Methods, other biokinetics data and the discussion of the results are published in “Biokinetic studies of non-complexed siRNA versus nano-sized PEI F25-LMW/siRNA polyplexes following intratracheal instillation into mice” (Lipka et al., 2016 [1]).
doi:10.1016/j.dib.2016.03.092
PMCID: PMC5063804  PMID: 27761500
Biokinetic data; Lung; PEI
6.  The prevalence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity among preterm babies admitted to Soba Neonatal Intensive Care Unit 
This is a prospective hospital based study conducted in Soba University Hospital (SUH), Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) between January 2012 and January 2013, to determine the prevalence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) among preterm babies admitted to Soba NICU and to assess the outcome of those babies. Ninety-two neonates with gestational age less than 34 weeks at birth were included in the study. Thirty-three of them were males and 59 were females. All of them were admitted to the NICU due to prematurity. Data was collected in a structured questionnaire. Thirty-four infants (37%) developed ROP in one or both eyes; 12 (35.3%) of them developed stage 3 and underwent laser therapy, 2 of them had aggressive posterior form, which was treated with Evastin injection. Seven (20.3%) neonates diagnosed as stage 2, and 13 (37.7%) had stage 1. Statistically, there were significant relationships between ROP and gestational age, birth weight (BW), oxygen therapy, sepsis, and blood transfusion (p=0.000). No significant relationship was found between the occurrence of ROP and sex of the baby, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), hyperbilirubineamia, intraventricular haemorrage (IVH) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), p >0.000 in all of them. The prevalence of ROP in this study was 37%. Low BW, low gestational age, oxygen therapy, and blood transfusion were all significant risk factors for ROP. ROP should be highlighted in Sudan, and screening program should be recommended for all premature babies.
PMCID: PMC4949793  PMID: 27493400
Intensive care; laser; Neonate; Prematurity; Retinopathy; Soba University Hospital; Sudan

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