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1.  Effect of topical fluoroquinolones on the expression of matrix metalloproteinases in the cornea 
BMC Ophthalmology  2003;3:10.
Background
Matrix metalloproteinases play an important role in extracellular matrix deposition and degradation. Based on previous clinical observations of corneal perforations during topical fluoroquinolone treatment, we decided to evaluate the comparative effects of various fluoroquinolone eye drops on the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in cornea.
Methods
Eighty female Lewis rats were divided into two experimental groups: intact and wounded corneal epithelium. Uniform corneal epithelial defects were created in the right eye with application of 75% alcohol in the center of the tissue for 6 seconds. The treatment groups were tested as follows: 1) Tear drops: carboxymethylcellulose sodium 0.5 % (Refresh, Allergan); 2) Ciprofloxacin 0.3% (Ciloxan, Alcon); 3) Ofloxacin 0.3%(Ocuflox, Allergan); 4) Levofloxacin 0.5%(Quixin, Santen). Eye drops were administered 6 times a day for 48 hours. Rats were sacrificed at 48 hours. Immunohistochemical analysis and zymography were conducted using antibodies specific to MMPs-1, 2, 8 and 9.
Results
MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-8 and MMP-9 expression were detected at 48 hrs in undebrided corneal epithelium groups treated with the topical fluoroquinolones. No statistical difference was observed in quantitative expression of MMPs among ciprofloxacin 0.3%, ofloxacin 0.3%, levofloxacin 0.5%. When the artificial tear group and the fluoroquinolone groups with corneal epithelial defect were compared, increased expression of MMPs was observed as a result of the wound healing process. However, the fluoroquinolone treated group exhibited high statistically significantly levels of MMPs expression.
Conclusions
Our study provides preliminary evidence that topical application of fluoroquinolone drugs can induce the expression of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-8 and MMP-9 in the undebrided corneal epithelium compared to artificial tear eye drops.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-3-10
PMCID: PMC239861  PMID: 14529574
Fluoroquinolones; Levofloxacin; Ciprofloxacin; Ofloxacin; Matrix metalloproteinases; Cornea
2.  Longitudinal study on visual outcome and spectacle use after intracapsular cataract extraction in Northern India 
BMC Ophthalmology  2003;3:9.
Purpose
More than 3 million cataract extractions are undertaken in India annually. Almost 60% of these operations are intracapsular Cataract Extractions. The subsequent optical correction is provided by aphakic spectacles. The aim of this study is to assess visual outcome and perceived benefits of post-operative use of aphakic spectacles.
Methods
One hundred and sixty-seven persons who had undergone intracapsular cataract extraction and had been given best corrected aphakic spectacles were evaluated one year following prescription of the best corrected aphakic spectacles. Out of these, 82.6% were re-examined in this interview-based longitudinal study.
Results
The mean age of the male participants was 65.95 years and that of females was 71.26 years. 81.2% of the participants were using the provided spectacles. There was no significant association between the spectacle use and gender of the participant. The commonest reason stated by the respondents, for the non-use of the spectacles was 'poor vision'. 61.7% of the current users of provided spectacles had a visual acuity of 6/18 or better. 91.1% of the current users were very satisfied with the spectacles. All the current users could now manage personal activities and the spectacles had facilitated independent mobility. There was no difference in the level of satisfaction between mono-aphakics and bi-aphakics. Among the satisfied users, the modal spherical power was +10 D followed by + 11 D. About one-third of these required a cylindrical correction.
Conclusion
Following intracapsular cataract extraction, provision of the best correction after cataract surgery is desirable to obtain an optimal visual outcome.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-3-9
PMCID: PMC183851  PMID: 12885300
Cataract; Cataract surgery; spectacles; aphakia; India
3.  The Tehran Eye Study: research design and eye examination protocol 
BMC Ophthalmology  2003;3:8.
Background
Visual impairment has a profound impact on society. The majority of visually impaired people live in developing countries, and since most disorders leading to visual impairment are preventable or curable, their control is a priority in these countries. Considering the complicated epidemiology of visual impairment and the wide variety of factors involved, region specific intervention strategies are required for every community. Therefore, providing appropriate data is one of the first steps in these communities, as it is in Iran. The objectives of this study are to describe the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in the population of Tehran city; the prevalence of refractive errors, lens opacity, ocular hypertension, and color blindness in this population, and also the familial aggregation of refractive errors, lens opacity, ocular hypertension, and color blindness within the study sample.
Methods Design
Through a population-based, cross-sectional study, a total of 5300 Tehran citizens will be selected from 160 clusters using a stratified cluster random sampling strategy. The eligible people will be enumerated through a door-to-door household survey in the selected clusters and will be invited. All participants will be transferred to a clinic for measurements of uncorrected, best corrected and presenting visual acuity; manifest, subjective and cycloplegic refraction; color vision test; Goldmann applanation tonometry; examination of the external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus; and an interview about demographic characteristics and history of eye diseases, eye trauma, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and ophthalmologic cares. The study design and eye examination protocol are described.
Conclusion
We expect that findings from the TES will show the status of visual problems and their causes in the community. This study can highlight the people who should be targeted by visual impairment prevention programs.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-3-8
PMCID: PMC169184  PMID: 12859794
4.  Congenital cystic eye with multiple dermal appendages: a case report 
BMC Ophthalmology  2003;3:7.
Background
A partial or complete failure in the involution of the primary optic vesicle resulting in the formation of a cyst is an extremely rare anomaly known as congenital cystic eye. The primary optic vesicle is formed but instead of the anterior part of the vesicle involuting to lie in apposition with the posterior part, a cyst persists at birth and replaces the eye.
Case Presentation
We report a case of congenital cystic eye associated with multiple dermal appendages in a 1-day-old female child. This condition presented at birth as a large orbital mass in the left orbit that bulged forwards and stretched the eyelids. No globe or any other ocular structures were identified in the orbit. Multiple dermal appendages were present in the adjacent part of the face below the left orbit and on the upper part of the neck.
Conclusions
Congenital cystic eye is an extremely rare condition and with only 28 previous cases reported in the literature. We present the second case of congenital cystic eye with multiple dermal appendages of the face and neck.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-3-7
PMCID: PMC166276  PMID: 12841852
5.  Clinical and surgical data of affected members of a classic CFEOM 1 family 
BMC Ophthalmology  2003;3:6.
Background
Congenital fibiosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM1) refers to a group of congenital eye movement disorders that are characterized by non-progressive restrictive ophthalmoplegia. We present clinical and surgical data on affected members of a classic CFEOM1 family.
Methods
Ten members of a fifteen-member, three-generation Italian family affected by classic CFEOM participated in this study. Each affected family member underwent ophthalmologic (corrected visual acuity, pupillary function, anterior segment and fundus examination), orthoptic (cover test, cover-uncover test, prism alternate cover test), and preoperative examinations. Eight of the ten affected members had surgery and underwent postoperative examinations. Surgical procedures are listed.
Results
All affected members were born with varying degrees of bilateral ptosis and ophthalmoplegia with both eyes fixed in a hypotropic position (classic CFEOM). The affected members clinical data prior to surgery, surgery procedures and postoperative outcomes are presented. On 14 operated eyes to correct ptosis there was an improvement in 12 eyes. In addition, the head position improved in all patients.
Conclusions
Surgery is effective at improving ptosis in the majority of patients with classic CFEOM. However, the surgical approach should be individualized to each patient, as inherited CFEOM exhibits variable expressivity and the clinical features may differ markedly between affected individuals, even within the same family.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-3-6
PMCID: PMC155649  PMID: 12702216
congenital fibrosis; extraocular muscles; CFEOM; ptosis
6.  Oxidative stress causes ERK phosphorylation and cell death in cultured retinal pigment epithelium: Prevention of cell death by AG126 and 15-deoxy-delta 12, 14-PGJ2 
BMC Ophthalmology  2003;3:5.
Background
The retina, which is exposed to both sunlight and very high levels of oxygen, is exceptionally rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, which makes it a favorable environment for the generation of reactive oxygen species. The cytotoxic effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced oxidative stress on retinal pigment epithelium were characterized in this study.
Methods
The MTT cell viability assay, Texas-Red phalloidin staining, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were used to assess the effects of oxidative stress on primary human retinal pigment epithelial cell cultures and the ARPE-19 cell line.
Results
The treatment of retinal pigment epithelial cells with H2O2 caused a dose-dependent decrease of cellular viability, which was preceded by a significant cytoskeletal rearrangement, activation of the Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinase, lipid peroxidation and nuclear condensation. This cell death was prevented partially by the prostaglandin derivative, 15d-PGJ2 and by the protein kinase inhibitor, AG126.
Conclusion
15d-PGJ2 and AG126 may be useful pharmacological tools in the future capable of preventing oxidative stress induced RPE cell death in human ocular diseases.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-3-5
PMCID: PMC153521  PMID: 12659653
7.  The PALM Technique: histological findings of masked phototherapeutic keratectomy on rabbit corneas 
BMC Ophthalmology  2003;3:4.
Background
To compare the corneal healing response between conventional and phototherapeutic keratectomy through a masking agent, in rabbit corneas.
Methods
24 adult rabbits underwent phototherapeutic keratectomy. Animals were divided in two groups: 12 received photoablation through a masking agent (PALM gel) and the remaining 12 received conventional phototherapeutic keratectomy of equal depth and served as control. Light and transmission electron microscopy was performed in specimens of both groups obtained: immediately after, four hours, one week, one, three and six months after treatment.
Results
Reepitheliazation was complete within five days in all eyes. Light and transmission electron microscopy did not reveal any differences of the healing process in the experimental eyes compared to the controls.
Conclusion
Photoablation through the PALM technique did not result any evident alterations of the reepithelisation and stromal healing process.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-3-4
PMCID: PMC151685  PMID: 12597779
corneal healing; gel; masking; PALM; phototherapeutic
8.  Morphological characterization of the AlphaA- and AlphaB-crystallin double knockout mouse lens 
BMC Ophthalmology  2003;3:3.
Background
One approach to resolving some of the in vivo functions of alpha-crystallin is to generate animal models where one or both of the alpha-crystallin gene products have been eliminated. In the single alpha-crystallin knockout mice, the remaining alpha-crystallin may fully or partially compensate for some of the functions of the missing protein, especially in the lens, where both alphaA and alphaB are normally expressed at high levels. The purpose of this study was to characterize gross lenticular morphology in normal mice and mice with the targeted disruption of alphaA- and alphaB-crystallin genes (alphaA/BKO).
Methods
Lenses from 129SvEvTac mice and alphaA/BKO mice were examined by standard scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy methodologies.
Results
Equatorial and axial (sagittal) dimensions of lenses for alphaA/BKO mice were significantly smaller than age-matched wild type lenses. No posterior sutures or fiber cells extending to the posterior capsule of the lens were found in alphaA/BKO lenses. Ectopical nucleic acid staining was observed in the posterior subcapsular region of 5 wk and anterior subcapsular cortex of 54 wk alphaA/BKO lenses. Gross morphological differences were also observed in the equatorial/bow, posterior and anterior regions of lenses from alphaA/BKO mice as compared to wild mice.
Conclusion
These results indicated that both alphaA- and alphaB-crystallin are necessary for proper fiber cell formation, and that the absence of alpha-crystallin can lead to cataract formation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-3-3
PMCID: PMC149350  PMID: 12546709
9.  The effect of ketotifen on inflammatory markers in allergic conjunctivitis: an open, uncontrolled study 
BMC Ophthalmology  2003;3:2.
Background
The efficacy and safety of ketotifen eye drop treatment in allergic conjunctivitis (AC) management is perfectly known by several studies, but the mechanism of action at the biochemical levels is poorly understood so we decided to perform an open, uncontrolled study in order to investigate the effect of the topical administration of ketotifen fumarate 0.05% on biochemical markers of inflammation on conjunctival cells in patients with AC.
Methods
Nineteen patients with symptoms and signs of AC (itching, discharge, burning, redness, increase in the watery discharge, swelling and follicles) and with a history of allergy were prescribed with two daily instillation of one drop of eyewash ketotifen fumarate 0,05% in both eyes during thirty days. They were studied by measuring clinical and immunologic parameters.
Results
Ketotifen fumarate treatment significantly reduced the total symptoms and signs score for each patient as well as each symptoms and signs at all time points compared with day 0 (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.016, respectively). Although the percentage of HLA-DR+ epithelial cells diminished only in 58% of patients, the numbers of CD29+ and eotaxin+ epithelial cells dropped significantly in 68% and 73 % of them (p < 0.0062 and <0.0082, respectively) as a consequence of the treatment. In 9 out of 19 patients a simultaneous decrease in the percentage of epithelial cells positive for CD29 and eotaxin was observed.
Conclusion
Ketotifen besides the well-known effect in reducing signs and symptoms of AC significantly diminished production of eotaxin and expression of CD29 by epithelial cells in patients with seasonal AC.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-3-2
PMCID: PMC140320  PMID: 12515585
10.  Analysis of nuclear fiber cell compaction in transparent and cataractous diabetic human lenses by scanning electron microscopy 
BMC Ophthalmology  2003;3:1.
Background
Compaction of human ocular lens fiber cells as a function of both aging and cataractogenesis has been demonstrated previously using scanning electron microscopy. The purpose of this investigation is to quantify morphological differences in the inner nuclear regions of cataractous and non-cataractous human lenses from individuals with diabetes. The hypothesis is that, even in the presence of the osmotic stress caused by diabetes, compaction rather than swelling occurs in the nucleus of diabetic lenses.
Methods
Transparent and nuclear cataractous lenses from diabetic patients were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Measurements of the fetal nuclear (FN) elliptical angles (anterior and posterior), embryonic nuclear (EN) anterior-posterior (A-P) axial thickness, and the number of EN fiber cell membrane folds over 20 μm were compared.
Results
Diabetic lenses with nuclear cataract exhibited smaller FN elliptical angles, smaller EN axial thicknesses, and larger numbers of EN compaction folds than their non-cataractous diabetic counterparts.
Conclusion
As in non-diabetic lenses, the inner nuclei of cataractous lenses from diabetics were significantly more compacted than those of non-cataractous diabetics. Little difference between diabetic and non-diabetic compaction levels was found, suggesting that diabetes does not affect the degree of compaction. However, consistent with previous proposals, diabetes does appear to accelerate the formation of cataracts that are similar to age-related nuclear cataracts in non-diabetics. We conclude that as scattering increases in the diabetic lens with cataract formation, fiber cell compaction is significant.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-3-1
PMCID: PMC140319  PMID: 12515578

Results 1-10 (10)