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1.  The distribution of axial length, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and vitreous chamber depth in an adult population of Shahroud, Iran 
BMC Ophthalmology  2012;12:50.
Ocular biometric parameters can be influenced by race, ethnicity, and genetics; their differences across different populations can probably explain differences in refractive errors in these populations. The aim of this study is to determine the normal range of axial length, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and vitreous chamber depth in the population of Shahroud in the north of Iran.
In the first phase of Shahroud Eye Cohort Study, the 40–64 year old population were sampled cross-sectionally; 6311 were invited and 5190 (82.2%) participated in the study. Biometric examinations were done using the LENSTAR/BioGraph (WaveLight AG, Erlangen, Germany) after vision tests and before cycloplegic refraction tests. Any type of eye surgery, extensive pterygium, and lack of cooperation were used as exclusion criteria, and analyses were done with data from 4869 eyes.
We found a mean axial length of 23.14 mm (95% confidence interval [CI], 23.11-23.17), mean anterior chamber depth of 2.62 mm (95% CI, 2.60-2.63), mean lens thickness of 4.28 mm (95% CI, 4.27-4.29), and the mean vitreous chamber depth was 15.72 mm (95% CI, 15.70-15.75).
Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests showed that the distribution of axial length, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and vitreous chamber depth significantly differed from normal; axial length and vitreous chamber depth demonstrated a leptokurtic distribution as well.
Axial length, anterior chamber depth, and vitreous chamber depth significantly decreased with age, and lens thickness significantly increased with age (p < 0.001). All indices were significantly higher in men.
The distributions of axial length, vitreous chamber depth, and lens thickness are reported for the first time in an Iranian adult population. Compared to other studies, axial length was in the mid range, nonetheless, studying axial length components showed that the Iranian population had smaller anterior chamber depth and lens thickness. Age and gender were significantly associated with all indices assessed in this study.
PMCID: PMC3500253  PMID: 22988958
Axial length- Anterior chamber depth lens thickness- Vitreous chamber depth; Normal range
2.  Eye care utilization patterns in Tehran population: a population based cross-sectional study 
BMC Ophthalmology  2006;6:4.
The aim of this study is to determine eye care visits which are an indicator of eye care service utilization by Tehran population and its determinants.
Through a population-based, cross-sectional study, 6497 Tehran citizens were sampled. All participants had complete eye examinations and an interview regarding demographic and socioeconomic status variables, past medical and eye history, and their previous and last eye care visits.
Among those sampled, 4565 people participated in the study (response rate of 70.3%). Among these participants, 34.7 % had never visited an ophthalmologist or optometrist (95% confidence interval [CI]: 32.4 to 36.9) and 43.2% had not seen an eye care provider in the last 5 years. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that men (OR = 1.30), younger participants (each year increase in age: OR = 0.98) and the less educated (each year increase in education: OR = 0.93) were more likely, and the visually impaired were less likely (OR = 0.41) to have neglected eye care.
A large proportion of the population, including those in the high risk group who require eye care, has never utilized any eye care service. These data suggest that efforts have to be made to better understand the causes and to optimize the utilization of the available eye care services in the population.
PMCID: PMC1382253  PMID: 16423308
3.  Evaluation of the prophylactic use of mitomycin-C to inhibit haze formation after photorefractive keratectomy in high myopia: a prospective clinical study 
BMC Ophthalmology  2004;4:12.
To study the effect of prophylactic application of mitomycin-C on haze formation in photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for high myopia.
Fifty-four eyes of 28 myopic patients were enrolled in this prospective study. All eyes were operated by PRK followed by 0.02% mitomycin-C application for two minutes and washed with 20 ml normal saline afterwards. All eyes were examined thoroughly on the first 7 days and one month after surgery; 48 eyes (88.9%) at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Hanna grading (in the scale of 0 to 4+) was used for assessment of corneal haze.
The mean spherical equivalent refraction (SE) was -7.08 diopters (D) ± 1.11 (SD) preoperatively. Six months after surgery, 37 eyes (77.1%) achieved an uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) of 20/20 or better, all eyes had a UCVA of 20/40 or better and 45 (93.7%) eyes had an SE within ± 1.00D. One month postoperatively, 2 eyes (3.7%) had grade 0.5+ of haze, while at 3 and 6 months after surgery no visited eye had haze at all. All eyes had a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/40 or better and there were no lost lines in BCVA by 6 months after surgery. In spatial frequencies of 6 and 12 cycles per degree contrast sensitivity had decreased immediately after PRK and it had increased 1.5 lines by the 6th postoperative month compared to the preoperative data.
The results show the efficacy of mitomycin-C in preventing corneal haze after treatment of high myopia with PRK. This method- PRK + mitomycin-C – can be considered an alternative treatment for myopic patients whose corneal thicknesses are inadequate for laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). However, the results should be confirmed in longer follow-ups.
PMCID: PMC520812  PMID: 15363107
4.  The Tehran Eye Study: research design and eye examination protocol 
BMC Ophthalmology  2003;3:8.
Visual impairment has a profound impact on society. The majority of visually impaired people live in developing countries, and since most disorders leading to visual impairment are preventable or curable, their control is a priority in these countries. Considering the complicated epidemiology of visual impairment and the wide variety of factors involved, region specific intervention strategies are required for every community. Therefore, providing appropriate data is one of the first steps in these communities, as it is in Iran. The objectives of this study are to describe the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in the population of Tehran city; the prevalence of refractive errors, lens opacity, ocular hypertension, and color blindness in this population, and also the familial aggregation of refractive errors, lens opacity, ocular hypertension, and color blindness within the study sample.
Methods Design
Through a population-based, cross-sectional study, a total of 5300 Tehran citizens will be selected from 160 clusters using a stratified cluster random sampling strategy. The eligible people will be enumerated through a door-to-door household survey in the selected clusters and will be invited. All participants will be transferred to a clinic for measurements of uncorrected, best corrected and presenting visual acuity; manifest, subjective and cycloplegic refraction; color vision test; Goldmann applanation tonometry; examination of the external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus; and an interview about demographic characteristics and history of eye diseases, eye trauma, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and ophthalmologic cares. The study design and eye examination protocol are described.
We expect that findings from the TES will show the status of visual problems and their causes in the community. This study can highlight the people who should be targeted by visual impairment prevention programs.
PMCID: PMC169184  PMID: 12859794

Results 1-4 (4)