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1.  Incidence of new coding for dry eye and ocular infection in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension patients treated with prostaglandin analogs: Retrospective analysis of three medical/pharmacy claims databases 
BMC Ophthalmology  2011;11:14.
Background
To investigate the clinical relevance of two different preservative formulations, we compared 1-year incidence rates of additional coding of dry eye, ocular infection, or ocular surface disease (either dry eye or ocular infection) in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension patients newly treated with latanoprost with benzalkonium chloride (BAK) or with travoprost-Z with SofZia®.
Methods
This was a retrospective study of three U.S.-based patient-centric medical/pharmacy claims databases (MedStat, PharMetrics, i3-Ingenix). Patients were eligible if they filled a prescription for latanoprost or travoprost-Z between October 2006 and Q2 2008 (prescription date = index date) AND were continuously enrolled 6 months prior through 12 months after the index date AND had any open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension diagnosis within 90 days prior to the index date AND did not have an ocular surface disease diagnosis during the 180 days prior to the index date AND if they had not had a prescription for the index agent in the 180 days prior to the index date. Time to incidence of new coding for ocular surface disease in the first year post-index was estimated with a composite endpoint: diagnosis of dry eye or ocular infection by ICD-9-CM or Current Procedural Terminology code OR by prescription for cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion or ocular antibiotics.
Results
In all, 15,933 patients were treated with latanoprost and 7670 with travoprost-Z. Over 1 year, 4.3% of latanoprost and 4.5% of travoprost-Z patients were identified with dry eye (p = 0.28), and 10.9% and 11.1%, respectively, were identified with an ocular infection (p = 0.79). The 1-year incidence of new coding for ocular surface disease also was similar across treatments (13.9% vs 14.3%, respectively; p = 0.48).
Conclusions
The retrospective analysis of three large prescription databases revealed that open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension patients newly treated with latanoprost preserved with BAK or travoprost-Z preserved with SofZia did not differ statistically in rates of dry eye, ocular infection, or ocular surface disease (either dry eye or ocular infection) during the first year post-index. Claims-based analyses are limited by nonrandomization and the inability to account for over-the-counter use or samples.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-11-14
PMCID: PMC3146461  PMID: 21672240
2.  A multicenter, retrospective chart review study comparing index therapy change rates in open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension patients newly treated with latanoprost or travoprost-Z monotherapy 
BMC Ophthalmology  2011;11:13.
Background
Because latanoprost and the original formulation of travoprost that included benzalkonium chloride (BAK) have been shown to be similar with regard to tolerability, we compared initial topical intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering medication change rates in patients newly treated with latanoprost or travoprost-Z monotherapy.
Methods
At 14 clinical practice sites, medical records were abstracted for patients with a diagnosis of open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension and who were ≥40 years of age, had a baseline and at least one follow-up visit, and had no prior history of ocular prostaglandin use. Data regarding demographics, ocular/systemic medical histories, clinical variables, therapy initiations and reasons for changes, adverse events, and resource utilization were recorded from randomly chosen eligible charts. Primary outcomes were rates of and reasons for changing from the initial therapy within six months and across the full study period (1000 days).
Results
Data from 900 medical charts (latanoprost, 632; travoprost-Z, 268) were included. For both cohorts, average follow-up was >1 year. Cohorts were similar with regard to age (median ~67 years), gender distribution (>50% female), and diagnosis (~80% with open-angle glaucoma). Within six months, rates of index therapy change for latanoprost versus travoprost-Z were 21.2% (134/632) and 28.7% (77/268), respectively (p = 0.0148); across the full study period, rates were 34.5% (218/632) and 45.2% (121/268), respectively (p = 0.0026). Among those who changed their index therapy, insufficient IOP control was the most commonly reported reason followed by adverse events; hyperemia was the most commonly reported adverse event at index therapy change.
Conclusions
In this "real world" study of changes in therapy in patients prescribed initial monotherapy with latanoprost with BAK or travoprost-Z with SofZia, medication changes were common in both treatment groups but statistically significantly more frequent with travoprost-Z.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-11-13
PMCID: PMC3136403  PMID: 21668980
3.  Effectiveness of ophthalmic solution preservatives: a comparison of latanoprost with 0.02% benzalkonium chloride and travoprost with the sofZia preservative system 
BMC Ophthalmology  2011;11:8.
Background
Although in vitro and in vivo laboratory studies have suggested that benzalkonium chloride (BAK) in topical ophthalmic solutions may be detrimental to corneal epithelial cells, multiple short- and long-term clinical studies have provided evidence supporting the safety of BAK. Despite the conflicting evidence, BAK is the most commonly used preservative in ophthalmic products largely due to its proven antimicrobial efficacy. This study was designed to characterize the antimicrobial performance of two commonly used topical ocular hypotensive agents that employ different preservative systems: latanoprost 0.005% with 0.02% BAK and travoprost 0.004% with sofZia, a proprietary ionic buffer system.
Methods
Each product was tested for antimicrobial effectiveness by European Pharmacopoeia A (EP-A) standards, the most stringent standards of the three major compendia, which specify two early sampling time points (6 and 24 hours) not required by the United States Pharmacopeia or Japanese Pharmacopoeia. Aliquots were inoculated with between 105 and 106 colony-forming units of the test organisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus brasiliensis. Sampling and enumeration were conducted at protocol-defined time points through 28 days.
Results
BAK-containing latanoprost met EP-A criteria by immediately reducing all bacterial challenge organisms to the test sensitivity and fungal challenges within the first six hours while the preservative activity of travoprost with sofZia did not. Complete bacterial reduction by travoprost with sofZia was not shown until seven days into the test, and fungal reduction never exceeded the requisite 2 logs during the 28-day test. Travoprost with sofZia also did not meet EP-B criteria due to its limited effectiveness against Staphylococcus aureus. Both products satisfied United States and Japanese pharmacopoeial criteria.
Conclusions
Latanoprost with 0.02% BAK exhibited more effective microbial protection than travoprost with sofZia using rates of microbial reduction, time to no recovery for all challenges and evaluation against EP-A criteria as measures. The rapid and complete reduction of all microbial challenges demonstrates that antimicrobial activity of latanoprost with 0.02% BAK exceeds that of travoprost with sofZia preservative system in these products and provides a more protective environment in the event of contamination and subsequent exposure to microorganisms during use.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-11-8
PMCID: PMC3107821  PMID: 21510881

Results 1-3 (3)