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1.  Refractive change following pseudophakic vitrectomy 
BMC Ophthalmology  2008;8:19.
To assess the occurrence and magnitude of refractive change in pseudophakic eyes undergoing 20 gauge pars plana vitrectomy without scleral buckling and to investigate possible aetiological factors.
Retrospective case note review of 87 pseudophakic eyes undergoing 20 gauge pars plana vitrectomy for a variety of vitreo-retinal conditions over a three-year period. Anterior chamber depth (ACD) was measured before and after vitrectomy surgery in 32 eyes. Forty-three pseudophakic fellow eyes were used as controls.
Eighty-seven eyes (84 patients) were included in the study. Mean spherical equivalent refraction prior to vitrectomy was -0.20 dioptres, which changed to a mean of -0.65 dioptres postoperatively (standard deviation of refractive change 0.59, range-2.13 to 0.75 dioptres) (p < 0.001). Sixty-one of the 87(70%) eyes experienced a myopic shift and 45(52%) eyes had a myopic shift of -0.5 dioptres or more. Mean fellow eye refraction was -0.19 dioptres preoperatively and -0.17 dioptres postoperatively (p = 0.14)(n = 37)
Mean ACD preoperatively was 3.29 mm and postoperatively 3.27 mm (p = 0.53) (n = 32) and there was no significant change in ACD with tamponade use. Regression analysis revealed no statistically significant association between changes in anterior chamber depth, as well as a wide variety of other pre-, intra and postoperative factors examined, and the refractive change observed.
Significant refractive changes occur in some pseudophakic patients undergoing 20 g pars plana vitrectomy. The mean change observed was a small myopic shift but the range was large. The aetiology of the refractive change is uncertain.
PMCID: PMC2577621  PMID: 18851731
2.  Refractile superficial retinal crystals and chronic retinal detachment: Case report 
BMC Ophthalmology  2006;6:3.
Few previous reports have described the presence of retinal refractile opacities at the macular area in patients presenting with longstanding peripheral retinal detachment. The exact nature of these opacities is unknown.
Case presentation
Two patients were referred with an abnormal appearance of refractile opacities in the macular area noted during routine examination. Both were found to have longstanding peripheral retinal detachments. Subretinal fluid analysis of one patient revealed the presence of multiple birefringent crystals. We hypothesise that these crystals are the origin of the refractile macular opacities noted.
This report describes the rare presentation of asymptomatic peripheral retinal detachment by the detection of refractile macular opacities on routine examination. It highlights the importance of meticulous peripheral retinal examination in these cases. The article also describes the findings of the subretinal fluid analysis and discusses the possible hypothesis behind their appearance.
PMCID: PMC1388244  PMID: 16409642

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