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1.  Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in Tehran province: a population-based study 
BMC Ophthalmology  2009;9:12.
Background
To determine the prevalence and characteristics of diabetic retinopathy (DR) among Iranian patients with diabetes.
Methods
Design: population-based cross-sectional study.
Participants: patients with diabetes aged 25 to 64 years in Tehran province, Iran. This survey was conducted from April to October 2007. The study sample was derived from the first national survey of risk factors for non-communicable disease. Diabetes mellitus was defined as a fasting plasma glucose of ≥ 7.0 mmol/l (126 mg/dl) or more, use of diabetic medications, or a physician's diagnosis of diabetes. All patients known to have diabetes underwent an eye examination by bio-microscope and indirect ophthalmoscope to check for any signs of DR through dilated pupils by + 78 lens. Participants were also interviewed and examined to determine their demographic characteristics, medical conditions and the regularity of their eye visits.
Results
Among 7989 screened patients, 759 (9.5%) had diabetes. Of them, 639 patients (84.2%) underwent eye examination. Five patients (0.7%) with media opacity were excluded. Of 634 examined patients with diabetes, 240 had some degree of diabetic retinopathy, and the overall standardized prevalence of any retinopathy was 37.0% (95% CI: 33.2-40.8), including 27.3% (95% CI: 23.7-30.8) (n = 175) with non-proliferative and 9.6% (95% CI: 7.3-11.9) (n = 65) with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Clinically significant macular edema and vision-threatening retinopathy were detected in 5.8% (95% CI: 4.0-7.7) (n = 38) and 14.0% (95% CI: 11.3-16.7) (n = 95) of patients, respectively. Only 143 patients (22.6%) with diabetes had a history of regular eye examination.
Conclusion
This study demonstrated a high prevalence and poor control of DR in Tehran province. This suggests the need for adequate prevention and treatment in patients with diabetes.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-9-12
PMCID: PMC2770536  PMID: 19835608
2.  Single-session photodynamic therapy combined with intravitreal bevacizumab and triamcinolone for neovascular age-related macular degeneration 
BMC Ophthalmology  2007;7:10.
Background
To evaluate the efficacy of triple therapy consisting of single-session photodynamic therapy (PDT), intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) and intravitreal triamcinolone (IVT) as initial pulse therapy followed by repeat intravitreal bevacizumab injections for maintenance treatment in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
Methods
In a prospective interventional case series, patients with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to AMD underwent pulse therapy with single-session PDT according to the standard protocol followed by 1.25 mg IVB and 2 mg IVT 48 hours later. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was assessed and optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescein angiography (FA) were performed prior to treatment. BCVA and OCT measurements were repeated at 6 week intervals and FA was obtained after 12 weeks and when necessary thereafter. Repeat injections of IVB were performed based on fluorescein angiographic evidence of CNV leakage.
Results
This series included 17 eyes of 17 patients with mean age of 67.6 ± 7.2 years. Mean follow up duration was 50.4 ± 15.5 weeks. Mean BCVA prior to treatment was 0.74 ± 0.33 logMAR which improved to 0.52 ± 0.36 logMAR after 12 weeks (P = 0.012) and 0.41 ± 0.38 logMAR after 24 weeks (P = 0.001). Mean pretreatment central macular thickness (CMT) was 395 ± 181μ which was significantly reduced to 217 ± 69μ (P = 0.005), 231 ± 79μ (P = 0.028) and 221 ± 87μ (P = 0.05) six, twelve and twenty-four weeks after initial treatment respectively. Visual acuity improvement and CMT reduction was maintained during the follow-up period. IVB injections were repeated once, twice and three times in 10, 7 and 2 eyes at a mean interval of 20.2 ± 10.1, 19 ± 13.7 and 15 ± 1.4 weeks after initial therapy, respectively.
Conclusion
Initial pulse triple therapy consisting of single-session PDT combined with IVB and IVT improves vision and reduces CMT in neovascular AMD. Repeat IVB injections maintain the visual gain from the initial combination therapy.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-7-10
PMCID: PMC1904176  PMID: 17555600

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