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1.  Perceptions of preceptorship in clinical practice after completion of a continuous professional development course- a qualitative study Part II 
BMC Nursing  2015;14:41.
Background
For health care professionals, clinical practice is a vital part of education, and in several countries, teaching is a regulated part of the role of nurses and health care staff. The added responsibility of taking on the teaching of students during clinical practice; thus, balancing clinical and educational demands, might lead to feelings of stress and burnout. Being a skilled and experienced professional is not automatically linked to being a skilled educator as teaching of a subject is a completely different story. Preceptors who participate in educational initiatives are better prepared to address challenges and are more satisfied with the preceptor role. The aim of the current study was to evaluate preceptors’ experiences of preceptorship in clinical practice after completion of a credit bearing continuous professional development course on advanced level.
Methods
This was a small-scale interpretative qualitative study drawing data from focus group interviews and written accounts from reflective journals. Data were analysed through the process of naturalistic inquiry.
Results
Our findings show that the participants, who took part in and completed the CPD course, had developed skills and competences they believed to be necessary to drive pedagogical development at their respective workplaces. This is illustrated by the main category Leading educational development and explained by four sub-categories: 1/ increased ability to give collegial support; 2/ increased trust in one’s abilities; 3/ increased emphasis on reflection; and 4/ increased professional status.
Conclusions
A well-structured program based on the needs of preceptors and developed in partnership between educational and clinical settings seems to be successful in terms of preceptors’ perceived increase of their competence, abilities and professional status. What seems to be missing, not only from the current study but also from previous research, is to what extent properly prepared preceptors impact on student learning and this needs to be further investigated.
doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0092-8
PMCID: PMC4521316
Advanced level; Clinical practice; Evaluation; Preceptor; Professional development
2.  When care situations evoke difficult emotions in nursing staff members: an ethnographic study in two Norwegian nursing homes 
BMC Nursing  2015;14:40.
Background
Caring practice in nursing homes is a complex topic, especially the challenges of meeting the basic needs of residents when their behaviour evokes difficult emotions. Cognitive and physical changes related to aging and disability can contribute to behaviours considered to be unacceptable. For example, resident behaviours such as spitting, making a mess with food or grinding teeth are behaviours that most people do not want to see, hear or experience. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of how nursing home staff members deal with such behaviours in care situations.
Methods
This article draws on ethnographic data to describe how nursing home staff members manage unpleasant resident behaviours. The study was based on two long-term units in two Norwegian public nursing homes. The Region’s Medical Ethics Committee and the Norwegian Social Science Data Services granted approval. In total, 45 participants (37 nursing aides and eight nurses) agreed to participate in this study. Ten of the participants were interviewed at the end of the field study.
Results
This study indicates that nursing home staff members experience difficult emotions related to some residents’ behaviours. However, they found these feelings difficult to express and rarely verbalized them openly. In addition, they were characterized by a strong obligation to help all residents, despite their own feelings. Therefore, it appears that an inner struggle occurs as a part of everyday practice.
Conclusions
Despite these difficult emotions, nursing staff members believed that they needed to manage their responses and continued to offer good care to all residents. These findings extend our understanding of this unarticulated part of nursing home practice.
doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0093-7
PMCID: PMC4520056
Aversion; Emotions; Ethnography; Nursing homes; Practice
3.  Clinical supervision in primary health care; experiences of district nurses as clinical supervisors - a qualitative study 
BMC Nursing  2015;14:39.
Background
Learning in the clinical environment is an important part of nursing education. Several recent studies focusing on clinical learning have been based on hospital settings. Little is known about primary health care (PHC) as clinical environment where district nurses (DNs) or nurses supervise students. It is important to understand more about opportunities and difficulties in supervising in this area in order to develop PHC as an optimal learning environment for nursing students. The main objective of this study was to gain an understanding of supervisors’ experiences of supervising undergraduate students at PHC units.
Methods
A qualitative research approach was used to collect data and analyse supervisors’ experiences. Six focus groups were carried out with 24 supervisors. Focus group data were audio-taped. The data were analysed using an inductive content analysis.
Results
Three themes illustrated supervisors’ experiences: abandonment, ambivalence and sharing the holistic approach. Supervisors felt abandoned by their managers, colleagues and nurse teachers from universities. They experienced ambivalence due to simultaneously being supervisors for students and carrying out their daily work with patients. At the same time, they were proud to be DNs and willing to share their unique role to apply a holistic approach and continuity in patient care with students.
Conclusion
When supervising students in PHC, social support and communication between supervisors and their colleagues and management as well as nurse teachers need to be taken into consideration both at universities and at primary health care units.
doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0089-3
PMCID: PMC4517626  PMID: 26221078
District nurse; Supervisor; Primary health care; Qualitative content analysis
4.  Invisible no more: a scoping review of the health care aide workforce literature 
BMC Nursing  2015;14:38.
Background
Healthcare aides (HCAs) are the primary caregivers for vulnerable older persons. They have many titles and are largely unregulated, which contributes to their relative invisibility. The objective of this scoping review was to evaluate the breadth and depth of the HCA workforce literature.
Methods
We conducted a search of seven online bibliographic databases. Studies were included if published since 1995 in English, peer-reviewed journals. Results were iteratively synthesized within and across the following five categories: education, supply, use, demand and injury and illness.
Results
Of 5,045 citations screened, 82 studies met inclusion criteria. Few examined HCA education; particularly trainee characteristics, program location, length and content. Results in supply indicated that the average HCA was female, 36–45 years and had an education level of high school or less. Home health HCAs were, on average, older and were more likely to be immigrants than those working in other settings. The review of studies exploring HCA use revealed that their role was unclear – variation in duties, level of autonomy and work setting make describing “the” role of an HCA near impossible. Projected increased demand for HCAs and high rates of turnover, both at the profession and facility-level, elicit predictions of future HCA shortages. Home health HCAs experienced comparatively lower job stability, earned less, worked the fewest hours and were less likely to have fringe benefits than HCAs employed in hospitals and nursing homes. The review of studies related to HCA illness and injury revealed that they were at comparatively higher risk of injury than registered nurses and licensed practical nurses.
Conclusions
This is the largest, most comprehensive scoping review of HCA workforce literature to date. Our results indicate that the HCA workforce is both invisible and ubiquitous; as long as this is the case, governments and healthcare organizations will be limited in their ability to develop and implement feasible, effective HCA workforce plans. The continued undervaluation of HCAs adversely impacts care providers, the institutions they work for and those who depend on their care. Future workforce planning and research necessitates national HCA registries, or at minimum, directories.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0090-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0090-x
PMCID: PMC4511030  PMID: 26203297
Health manpower; Review; Home health aides; Nurses’ aides; Frail elderly; Nursing homes; Home care services; Health services accessibility
5.  Mental health nurses’ support to caregivers of older adults with severe mental illness: a qualitative study 
BMC Nursing  2015;14:37.
Background
Literature has shown the serious impact of severe mental illness on the daily life of caregivers. We studied reported caregiver support practices by mental health nurses for use in the development of a nursing intervention. We aimed to explore current caregiver support practices by mental health nurses.
Methods
Twenty-one participants completed semi-structured interviews, and 17 participants attended two focus groups. All interviews were audio-taped, transcribed and coded for qualitative analysis.
Results
The diversity in caregiver support could best be described by three prototypes: the tolerator, the preventer and the concerner, representing three approaches of involvement with caregivers. At one end of the spectrum are mental health nurses (MHN) who are essentially only concerned with the wellbeing of the care recipient and see the caregiver as a potential impediment in reaching the client’s goals. We call these the tolerators. At the other end of the spectrum are the MHNs who see the caregiver and the care recipient as inextricably connected with each other. In these cases the MHN directs her/his intervention towards both the informal caregiver and the care recipient. We call these the concerners. In the middle position are MHNs who realize that caregivers are important agents in the achievement of the client’s goals, and therefore consider preventing them from becoming overburdened as an important goal. We call these the preventers.
Conclusions
Based on the extent to which the MHNs believe that the informal caregiver plays a necessary role in the client’s support system, and the degree to which they feel responsible for the caregiver’s wellbeing, three MHN prototypes can be distinguished. These prototypes determine how the nurses’ vision directs their understanding of their role and responsibilities and the content of their behaviour. This implies that a change in behaviour needs to be preceded by a change in vision. Therefore, promoting family support cannot be achieved by one-size-fits-all-programmes.
doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0087-5
PMCID: PMC4479244  PMID: 26109909
Older adults; Severe mental illness; Mental health nurses; Nursing practice; Caregiver support
6.  The significance of information after discharge for colorectal cancer surgery–a qualitative study 
BMC Nursing  2015;14:36.
Background
The aim was to explore patients’ experiences of information and their information needs after discharge for colorectal cancer surgery.
Methods
Thirty one interviews were performed with sixteen patients during the first seven weeks at home after discharge. Patients were included from three hospitals in the south of Sweden, two of which used an enhanced recovery programme.
Results
Trying to regain control in life by using information was the overall theme emerging from the interviews. Patients experienced the bodily changes after surgery and the emotional impact of the cancer disease, and these combined experiences seriou/sly affected their ability to manage their daily lives. They both needed, and were in search of, information to increase participation in their own cancer trajectory and to facilitate the regaining of some measure of control in their lives. Waiting for different kinds of information increased the anguish and fear in the face of an unknown future.
Conclusions
This study showed that receiving information was vital when patients tried to regain control in life after colorectal cancer surgery. The information was necessary in order to facilitate and manage the transition from hospital to home, and the need varied between different transitions. Patients needed more information to manage the daily life at home, but also to understand what the cancer disease really meant to them. This suggests a need for patients to participate more actively in the information and the discharge planning.
doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0086-6
PMCID: PMC4456055  PMID: 26045695
7.  Registered nurses’ experiences of patient violence on acute care psychiatric inpatient units: an interpretive descriptive study 
BMC Nursing  2015;14:35.
Background
Nurses working in acute care psychiatry settings experience high rates of patient violence which influences outcomes for nurses and the organization. This qualitative study explored psychiatric nurses’ experiences of patient violence in acute care inpatient psychiatric settings.
Methods
An interpretive descriptive design guided this study that included 17 semi-structured interviews with a purposeful sample of 12 Canadian registered nurses who self-reported experiencing patient violence within acute care inpatient psychiatry. Thematic analysis and constant comparison techniques were used for analysis. A problem, needs and practice analysis was also used to structure overall data interpretation.
Results
Thirty three unique exposures to patient violence among the sample of nurses were analysed. Nurses reported experiencing physical, emotional and verbal violence. For many, patient violence was considered “part of the job.” Nurses often struggled with role conflict between one’s duty to care and one’s duty to self when providing care following a critical incident involving violence. Issues of power, control and stigma also influenced nurse participant perceptions and their responses to patient violence. Nurses used a variety of strategies to maintain their personal safety and to prevent, and manage patient violence. Nurses endorsed the need for improved education, debriefing following an incident, and a supportive work environment to further prevent patient violence. Present findings have implications for reducing the barriers to reporting violent experiences and the creation of best practice guidelines to reduce patient violence in the workplace.
Conclusions
Understanding the perspectives and experiences of nurses in acute inpatient psychiatry leads to greater understanding of the phenomenon of patient violence and may inform the development of interventions to prevent and to respond to patient violence, as well as support nurses working within the acute care setting.
doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0079-5
PMCID: PMC4440495  PMID: 25999795
Patient violence; Aggression; Inpatient psychiatry; Registered Nurse; Interpretive description
8.  Knowledge and practice of nurses towards prevention of pressure ulcer and associated factors in Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia 
BMC Nursing  2015;14:34.
Background
Pressure ulcers are the common conditions among patients hospitalized in acute and chronic care facilities and impose significant burden on patients, their relatives and caregivers. Pressure ulcers have been described as one of the most costly and physically debilitating complications since the 20th century. The pain and discomfort due to pressure ulcer prolongs illness, rehabilitation, time of discharge and even contribute to disability and death. This study was aimed to assess knowledge, practice and factors associated with pressure ulcer prevention among nurses in Gondar University Hospital, North-west Ethiopia.
Method
An institution-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from March 15 - April 10, 2014 among 248 nurses in Gondar University hospital. A pretested and structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were entered using EPI info version 3.5.3 statistical software and analyzed using SPSS version 20 statistical package. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the study population in relation to relevant variables. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was also carried out to see the effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable.
Result
Nearly half (54.4 %) of the nurses had good knowledge; similarly 48.4 % of them had good practice on prevention of pressure ulcer. Educational status [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 2.4, 95 % CI (1.39-4.15)], work experience [AOR = 4.8, 95 % CI (1.31-10.62)] and having formal training [AOR = 4.1, 95 % CI (1.29-9.92)] were significantly associated with knowledge on prevention of pressure ulcer. While, satisfaction with nursing leadership [AOR = 1.9, 95 % CI (1.04-3.82)], staff shortage [AOR = 0.07, 95 % CI (0.03-0.13)] and inadequate facilities and equipment [AOR = 0.4, 95 % CI (0.19-0.83)] were found to be significantly associated with the practice on prevention of pressure ulcer.
Conclusion
Knowledge and practice of the nurses regarding prevention of pressure ulcer was found to be inadequate. Having higher educational status, attending formal training and being experienced were positively associated with knowledge; while shortage of facilities and equipments, dissatisfaction with nursing leadership and inadequate staff number showed negative association with practice of nurse’s pressure ulcer prevention. In-service training and upgrading courses are some of the important steps to improve nurses’ knowledge and practice on prevention of ulcer pressure.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0076-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0076-8
PMCID: PMC4450466  PMID: 26034398
Pressure ulcer; Knowledge and practice
9.  The influences of nursing transformational leadership style on the quality of nurses’ working lives in Taiwan: a cross-sectional quantitative study 
BMC Nursing  2015;14:33.
Background
Taiwan’s NHI system is one of the most successful health care models for countries around the globe. However, little research has demonstrated the mental health issues associated with nursing transformational leadership style under the NHI system, especially in the quality of nurses’ working lives in Taiwan. It is important to know the relationship between transformational leadership style and the mental health of nurses, organisational commitment and job satisfaction. The research aimed to understand the influences of nursing transformational leadership style on the quality of nurses’ working lives in Taiwan. The research hypothesis was that transformational leadership styles would have positive influence on the quality of nurses’ working lives.
Methods
This was a cross-sectional quantitative study. Nurses from each type of hospital ownership (private, public and religious) were recruited. Participation was voluntary and signed informed consent was obtained. The inclusion criteria were nurses with at least one year’s work experience in the hospitals. Self-administrated questionnaires were used. A total of 807 participants were contacted and 651 questionnaires were fully completed (response rate 80.7 %). A theory driven model was used to test the research hypotheses using structural equation modelling performed with AMOS 16.0.
Results
Transformational leadership contributes significantly to supervisor support. Workplace support, particularly from the supervisor, is an important mediator variable that explains the relationship between transformational leadership and job satisfaction. Organisational commitment was the strongest factor relevant to the general health well-being in Taiwanese nurses than job satisfaction. The hypothesized positive relationships between transformational leadership and all variables were supported by the data.
Conclusions
Our findings have important consequences for organisational health. Our model demonstrates a complete picture of the work relationships on the quality of nurses’ working lives. The results provided information about the subordinates’ perceptions of transformational nursing leadership styles and mental health outcomes in different hospital settings, as well as identified organisational factors that could improve the quality of nurses’ working lives.
doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0082-x
PMCID: PMC4437742  PMID: 25991910
Transformational leadership; Job satisfaction; Organisational commitment; Quality of working life
10.  Developing a student-led health and wellbeing clinic in an underserved community: collaborative learning, health outcomes and cost savings 
BMC Nursing  2015;14:32.
Background
The University of New England (UNE), Australia decided to develop innovative placement opportunities for its increasing numbers of nursing students. Extensive community and stakeholder consultation determined that a community centre in rural New South Wales was the welcomed site of the student-led clinic because it fit the goals of the project—to increase access to health care services in an underserved area while providing service learning for students.
Methods
Supported by a grant from Health Workforce Australia and in partnership with several community organisations, UNE established a student-led clinic in a disadvantaged community using an engaged scholarship approach which joins academic service learning with community based action research. The clinic was managed and run by the students, who were supervised by university staff and worked in collaboration with residents and local health and community services.
Results
Local families, many of whom were Indigenous Australians, received increased access to culturally appropriate health services. In the first year, the clinic increased from a one day per week to a three day per week service and offered over 1000 occasions of care and involved 1500 additional community members in health promotion activities. This has led to improved health outcomes for the community and cost savings to the health service estimated to be $430,000. The students learned from members of the community and community members learned from the students, in a collaborative process. Community members benefited from access to drop in help that was self-determined.
Conclusions
The model of developing student-led community health and wellbeing clinics in underserved communities not only fulfils the local, State Government, Federal Government and international health reform agenda but it also represents good value for money. It offers free health services in a disadvantaged community, thereby improving overall health and wellbeing. The student-led clinic is an invaluable and sustainable link between students, health care professionals, community based organisations, the university, and the community. The community benefits from the clinic by learning to self-manage health and wellbeing issues. The benefits for students are that they gain practical experience in an interdisciplinary setting and through exposure to a community with unique and severe needs.
doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0083-9
PMCID: PMC4470340  PMID: 26085815
Rural health; Primary health care; Student-led clinic; Aboriginal health
11.  Learning transitions–a descriptive study of nurses’ experiences during advanced level nursing education 
BMC Nursing  2015;14:30.
Background
Building capacity in a changing health care system is a challenge for advanced nursing education programs. Master-level nursing education is increasingly becoming the required education level for specialist nurses, and additional studies are needed to learn more about students’ experiences and learning transitions while undertaking such education. This study aimed to explore nursing students’ experience of their learning transitions while undertaking advanced nursing education and to describe how they translated the new knowledge and competence they gained into clinical practice.
Methods
We used a qualitative research design with narrative self-reported reflections. 34 nurses (95 % women) from both urban and rural areas working with children, with adults in outpatient and inpatient endocrinology clinics in hospitals or with adults, including older people, attending primary health care services participated in the study. We collected data at two time points 15 months apart. Time one was the first week of the advanced nursing education, and time two was the completion of the education program. We used Malterud’s modification of Giorgi’s phenomenological analysis, otherwise known as systematic text condensation, to analyze the data.
Results
Two core themes captured the participants’ experiences. The first theme was “assessing the situation of people with diabetes from a different perspective”, with the subthemes “an expanded perspective of practice and higher level of reflection”, “applying critical thinking in practice” and “changing patient-nurse relationships in diabetes care”. The second core theme was “a change in participants’ perception of their professional position”, with the subthemes “a greater knowledge base enhancing professional confidence” and “a more equal position within the professional team”.
Conclusions
The study provides in-depth information about transition into advanced nursing education and can inform curriculum developers, nurse educators, policy-makers and nursing managers about how nursing education broadened participants’ perspectives of nursing and enhanced their confidence and professional position.
doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0080-z
PMCID: PMC4431375  PMID: 25977642
Learning transitions; Nursing education; Qualitative research; Diabetes nursing
12.  Motivations of nursing students regarding their educational preparation for mental health nursing in Australia and the United Kingdom: a survey evaluation 
BMC Nursing  2015;14:29.
Background
There has been much debate by both academics and clinical agencies about the motivations and abilities of nurse graduates to work in mental health nursing. The aim of this study was to recruit student nurses from a dedicated mental health nursing program in the United Kingdom (UK) and a comprehensive nursing program in Australia and illuminate their motivations towards considering mental health nursing as a career choice.
Methods
This study comprised of two UK and four Australian Schools of Nursing within Universities. A 12 item survey was developed for the purpose of this study and was checked for face validity by experienced mental health nurses. Convenience sampling was used and 395 responses were received.
Results
The comprehensive program represented by the Australian sample, revealed a third of respondents indicated that mental health nursing was definitely not a career option, while only 8 % of the UK specialised program reported mental health nursing was not seven for them. In both groups a higher level of motivation to work in mental health emanated from personal experience and/or work experience/exposure to mental health care.
Conclusions
A greater focus on clinical exposure in comprehensive programs could enhance professional experience needed to increase student motivations for mental health nursing.
doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0084-8
PMCID: PMC4460663  PMID: 26060425
Curriculum; Mental health nursing; Motivation; Nursing education; Psychiatric nursing
13.  Assessing the impact of academic-practice partnerships on nursing staff 
BMC Nursing  2015;14:28.
Background
The ‘spillover effect’ of academic-practice partnerships on hospital nursing staff has received limited attention. In 2007, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) created the VA Nursing Academy (VANA) to fund fifteen partnerships between schools of nursing and local VA healthcare facilities. In this paper, we examine the experiences of the VA staff nurses who worked on the units used for VANA clinical training.
Methods
We used survey methods to collect information from staff nurses at all active VANA sites on their characteristics, exposure to the program’s clinical training activities, satisfaction with program components, and perspectives of the impact on their work and their own plans for education (N = 314). Our analyses utilized descriptive statistics and bivariate and multivariate regression.
Results
Results show that staff nurses working on VANA units had moderately high levels of exposure to the program’s clinical education activities, and most reported positive experiences with those activities. The vast majority (80 %) did not perceive the presence of students as making their work more difficult. Among those who were enrolled or considering enrolling in a higher education program, over a quarter (28 %) said that their VA’s participation in VANA had an influence on this decision.
The majority of staff nurses were generally satisfied with their experience with the students. Their satisfaction with the program was related to the level or dose of their exposure to it. Those who were more involved were more satisfied. Greater interaction with the students, more information on the program, and a preceptor role were all independently associated with greater program satisfaction.
Conclusions
Our study suggests that academic-practice partnerships may have positive spillover effects on staff nurses who work on clinical education units. Further, partnerships may be able to foster positive experiences for their unit nurses by focusing on informing and engaging them in clinical training activities. In particular, our results suggest that academic-practice partnerships should keep unit nurses well informed about program content and learning objectives, encourage frequent interaction with students, involve them in partnership-related unit-based activities, and urge them to become preceptors for the students.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0085-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0085-7
PMCID: PMC4430985  PMID: 25977641
Nursing education; Partnerships; Nursing Staff; VA Nursing Academy
14.  Obesity prevention in early life: an opportunity to better support the role of Maternal and Child Health Nurses in Australia 
BMC Nursing  2015;14:26.
Background
Because parents with young children access primary health care services frequently, a key opportunity arises for Maternal and Child Health (MCH) nurses to actively work with families to support healthy infant feeding practices and lifestyle behaviours. However, little is known regarding the extent to which MCH nurses promote obesity prevention practices and how such practices could be better supported.
Methods
This mixed methods study involved a survey of 56 MCH nurses (response rate 84.8 %), 16 of whom participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews. Both components aimed to examine the extent to which nurses addressed healthy infant feeding practices, healthy eating, active play and limiting sedentary behavior during routine consultations with young children 0–5 years. Key factors influencing such practices and how they could be best supported were also investigated. All data were collected from September to December 2013. Survey data were analysed descriptively and triangulated with qualitative interview findings, the analysis of which was guided by grounded theory principles.
Results
Although nurses reported measuring height/length and weight in most consultations, almost one quarter (22.2 %) reported never/rarely using growth charts to identify infants or children at risk of overweight or obesity. This reflected a reluctance to raise the issue of weight with parents and a lack of confidence in how to address it. The majority of nurses reported providing advice on aspects of infant feeding relevant to obesity prevention at most consultations, with around a third (37 %) routinely provided advice on formula preparation. Less than half of nurses routinely promoted active play and only 30 % discussed limiting sedentary behaviour such as TV viewing. Concerns about parental receptiveness and maintaining rapport were key barriers to more effective implementation.
Conclusion
While MCH nurses are well placed to address obesity prevention in early life, there is currently a missed public health opportunity. Improving nurse skills in behaviour change counseling will be key to increasing their confidence in raising sensitive lifestyle issues with parents to better integrate obesity prevention practices into normal MCH service delivery.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0077-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0077-7
PMCID: PMC4429503  PMID: 25972765
Obesity prevention; Children; Infant feeding; Primary health care; Families; Nurses
15.  Career development expectations and challenges of midwives in Urban Tanzania: a preliminary study 
BMC Nursing  2015;14:27.
Background
Approaches to addressing the shortage of midwives are a great need especially in Sub-Saharan Africa including Tanzania. The midwifery shortage in Tanzania consists of two major causes; the first is the shortage of pre-service nursing training and the second is the low rate of retention as it is difficult to sustain midwives’ career motivations. Lack of opportunities for career development, is one of the most related problems to keep midwives motivated. Continuing education as an approach to career development can heighten midwives’ motivation and cultivate more skilled midwives who can educate other midwives or students and who could raise the status of midwives. Effective continuing education is ongoing, interactive, contextually relevant and based on needs assessment, however there is very limited research that describes Tanzanian midwives perspective of expectations for career development; hence this research is significant for revealing important and meaningful professional desires of midwives in Tanzania.
Methods
This was a preliminary qualitative study, using snowball sampling to recruit 16 midwives in Tanzania. The researchers used a semi-structured interview including probing questions with both a focus group and several individuals. The data were collected from July to December 2013 and coded into categories and sub-categories.
Results
There were 14 midwives in the focus group interview and two midwives in the individual interviews. Through data analysis, four major categories (with subcategories) emerged: (1) motivation for learning (to achieve the MDGs, and to raise reproductive health), (2) knowledge is power (to provide good practice based on knowledge, to be a role model, knowledge gives higher position and courage, and knowledge enables one to approach to the government), (3) there is no end to learning (hunger for learning, and ripple effect).
Conclusions
From findings, four major categories plainly showed midwives’ desire for learning, however they experienced a number of barriers to access further education. Continuing education is one of the most important and effective ways to cultivate and retain midwives. In order to respond to the midwives expectations and challenges to overcome the barriers inherent in providing more continuing education, it will be necessary to increase accessible opportunities for career development in Tanzania.
doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0081-y
PMCID: PMC4431371  PMID: 25977640
Midwife; Continuing education; Tanzania; Reproductive health awareness; Life-long learning; Knowledge
16.  The role of a clinical nurse consultant in an Australian Health District: a quantitative survey 
BMC Nursing  2015;14:25.
Background
This study replicates previous research undertaken in 2013 that explored the role of the Clinical Nurse Consultant in a metropolitan health district in Sydney, Australia.
Methods
A descriptive survey, using Likert scales, was used to collect data from Clinical Nurse Consultants.
Results
Clinical Nurse Consultants are well informed about the domains and functions of their role, as stipulated in the relevant award. They identified clinical service and consultancy as the area in which they predominantly practice.
Conclusion
Despite the clarity of the domains and functions as outlined in the relevant legislated award, the activities undertaken by these clinical nurses are institutionally, individually and contextually constructed.
doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0075-9
PMCID: PMC4445999  PMID: 26019687
Clinical nurse consultant; Advance practice nurse; Domains of practice; Nursing roles
17.  Teaching science content in nursing programs in Australia: a cross-sectional survey of academics 
BMC Nursing  2015;14:24.
Background
Professional nursing practice is informed by biological, social and behavioural sciences. In undergraduate pre-registration nursing programs, biological sciences typically include anatomy, physiology, microbiology, chemistry, physics and pharmacology. The current gap in the literature results in a lack of information about the content and depth of biological sciences being taught in nursing curricula. The aim of this study was to establish what priority is given to the teaching of science topics in these programs in order to inform an understanding of the relative importance placed on this subject area in contemporary nursing education.
Method
This study employed a cross-sectional survey method. This paper reports on the first phase of a larger project examining science content in nursing programs. An existing questionnaire was modified and delivered online for completion by academics who teach science to nurses in these programs. This paper reports on the relative priority given by respondents to the teaching of 177 topics contained in the questionnaire.
Results
Of the relatively small population of academics who teach science to nursing students, thirty (n = 30) completed the survey. Findings indicate strong support for the teaching of science in these programs, with particular priority given to the basic concepts of bioscience and gross system anatomy. Of concern, most science subject areas outside of these domains were ranked as being of moderate or low priority.
Conclusion
While the small sample size limited the conclusions able to be drawn from this study, the findings supported previous studies that indicated inadequacies in the teaching of science content in nursing curricula. Nevertheless, these findings have raised questions about the current philosophy that underpins nursing education in Australia and whether existing practices are clearly focused on preparing students for the demands of contemporary nursing practice. Academics responsible for the design and implementation of nursing curricula are encouraged to review the content of current programs in light of the findings of this research.
doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0074-x
PMCID: PMC4438582  PMID: 25995710
Bioscience; Curriculum content; Curriculum design; Nursing; Science; Undergraduate nursing education
18.  I am only a nurse: a biographical narrative study of a nurse’s self-understanding and its implication for practice 
BMC Nursing  2015;14:23.
Background
The personal is a vital part of professional nursing practice. From a psycho-social perspective, nurses produce and reproduce conceptions of the Self through experience. A literature search on nurses’ self-understanding in a psycho-social perspective yields no results. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate personal and professional experiences that may have formed the self-understanding of a nurse, and how this self-understanding may have influenced her professional practice.
Methods
Using a single case approach, I conducted a Biographical Narrative Interview with a 50-year-old experienced Norwegian nurse. I asked the nurse to tell me the story of her life and how her work has affected her and possibly changed the way she saw herself. The overall aim of the interpretation was to understand the historically situated subjectivity in terms of the nurse’s personal, social and professional constraints and chosen options.
Results
The nurse’s narrative of her life story made it possible to trace a common theme throughout her experiences, the experience of being “only a nurse”. The nurse experienced a low status, as well as a downgrade in the competence needed to deliver quality care in professional relationships. She felt it difficult to identify with the experience of being on the bottom of the social ladder and to identify with the female, mothering ideal connected to nursing. She desired a better position, and wanted to identify with strong women. In contrast to reality, her self-understanding influenced her relationship with her patients, her professional pride and her further professional development.
Conclusions
This study shows that the professional practice of a nurse was informed by her self-understanding. This study suggests that the individual nurse must be given the opportunity to explore her professional vulnerability based on the assumption that it is both personally and socially constituted. This study indicates that the exploration of a nurse’s self-understanding is one way to contribute to professional development.
doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0073-y
PMCID: PMC4415295  PMID: 25931986
Learning from experience; Professional (nurse) development; Self-understanding; Biographical narrative interpretive method; Professional identity formation; Lived experience
19.  Health promotion in schools: a multi-method evaluation of an Australian School Youth Health Nurse Program 
BMC Nursing  2015;14:21.
Background
Health promotion provides a key opportunity to empower young people to make informed choices regarding key health-related behaviours such as tobacco and alcohol use, sexual practices, dietary choices and physical activity. This paper describes the evaluation of a pilot School Youth Health Nurse (SYHN) Program, which aims to integrate a Registered Nurse into school communities to deliver health promotion through group education and individual sessions.
Methods
The evaluation was guided by the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance) framework. The objectives were to explore: 1) whether the Program was accessible to the high school students; 2) the impacts of the Program on key stakeholders; 3) which factors affected adoption of the Program; 4) whether implementation was consistent with the Program intent; and 5) the long-term sustainability of the Program. Research included retrospective analysis of Program records, administration of a survey of student experiences and interviews with 38 stakeholders.
Results
This evaluation provided evidence that the SYHN Program is reaching students in need, is effective, has been adopted successfully in schools, is being implemented as intended and could be maintained with sustained funding. The nurses deliver an accessible and acceptable primary health care service, focused on health promotion, prevention and early intervention. After some initial uncertainty about the scope and nature of the role, the nurses are a respected source of health information in the schools, consulted on curriculum development and contributing to whole-of-school health activities.
Conclusions
Findings demonstrate that the SYHN model is feasible and acceptable to the students and schools involved in the pilot. The Program provides health promotion and accessible primary health care in the school setting, consistent with the Health Promoting Schools framework.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0071-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0071-0
PMCID: PMC4416321  PMID: 25937818
School nursing; Health promotion; Youth health; Health service access
20.  Students’ understanding of “Women-Centred Care Philosophy” in midwifery care through Continuity of Care (CoC) learning model: a quasi-experimental study 
BMC Nursing  2015;14:22.
Background
The philosophy of midwifery education is based on the ‘Women-centred care’ model, which provides holistic care to women. Continuity of care (CoC) is integral to the concept of holistic women-centred care and fundamental to midwifery practice. The objective of this study was to determine any differences in students’ understanding of midwifery care philosophy between students who underwent the CoC learning model and those who underwent the fragmented care learning model.
Method
We used a quasi-experiment design. This study was conducted by all final year midwifery students at two schools of midwifery in Indonesia. Fifty four students from one school attended 6 months of clinical training using the CoC learning model. The control group was comprised of 52 students from the other school. These students used the conventional clinical training model (the fragmented care learning model). The independent T-test using SPSS was used to analyse the differences between the two groups of students in terms of understanding midwifey care philosophy in five aspects (personalized, holistic, partnership, collaborative, and evidence-based care).
Results
There were no significant differences between the groups before interventon. There were significant differences between the two groups after clinical training (p < 0.01). The mean post-clinical score of students using all five aspects of the CoC clinical learning model (15.96) was higher than that of the students in the control group (10.65). The CoC clinical learning model was shown to be a unique learning opportunity for students to understand the philosophy of midwifery. Being aligned with midwifery patients and developing effective relationships with them offered the students a unique view of midwifery practice. This also promoted an increased understanding of the philosophy of women-centred care. Zero maternal mortality rate was found in the experiment group.
Conclusion
The results of this study suggest that clinical trainingwith a CoC learning model is more likely to increase students’ understanding of midwifery care philosophy. This in turn improves the quality ofclinical care, thereby enhancing overall health benefits for women.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0072-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0072-z
PMCID: PMC4416326  PMID: 25937819
Midwifery clinical learning; Midwifery care philosophy; Women-centred care; Continuity of care
21.  An educational programme for nursing college staff and students during a MERS- coronavirus outbreak in Saudi Arabia 
BMC Nursing  2015;14:20.
Background
The Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus is a serious and emerging issue in Saudi Arabia and the world. A response was required to reduce possible disease transmission between the hospital and university. College of Nursing academic staff developed a programme in response to the educational and emotional needs of participants.
Methods
A MERS-CoV Task Force responded to the rapidly unfolding epidemic. The aim was to find out what nursing staff and nursing students in the college knew about MERS- CoV. While most gaps in knowledge were addressed after an intense information seminar, other learning needs were identified and responded to.
The Task Force developed mandatory information sessions for all nursing faculty, students and staff. All staff were informed by email, letters and posters. There are 28 faculty staff, 84 support staff and 480 students in the College of Nursing.
The information settings all took place within the College of Nursing, Princess Nourah University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Questionnaires were given to faculty, students and staff to understand their baseline knowledge. After the sessions, faculty, students and staff were asked about what was learned through the sessions, and what educational needs still needed to be addressed.
Approval was sought and received by the Ethics Committee for the College of Nursing. Participants completed informed consent forms and the voluntary nature of the study was explained.
Results
The total number of people attending the education sessions was133, including 65 students. 18 faculty members attended and 57 support staff. Data was gathered on gaps in participant knowledge and a plan was developed to address the gaps. Policies were established around student participation in clinical and return to work practices for staff with any symptoms.
Conclusion
In hospitals there is above average risk for exposure to infectious diseases. Student nurses travel between hospital and university, with the capacity to act as a conduit of pathogens to large, susceptible populations. Nursing colleges must respond thoroughly to protect students and staff and prevent spread of disease into the university community in the midst of an epidemic.
doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0065-y
PMCID: PMC4405869  PMID: 25904821
22.  Recognizing acute delirium as part of your routine [RADAR]: a validation study 
BMC Nursing  2015;14:19.
Background
Although detection of delirium using the current tools is excellent in research settings, in routine clinical practice, this is not the case. Together with nursing staff, we developed a screening tool (RADAR) to address certain limitations of existing tools, notably administration time, ease-of-use and generalizability. The purpose of this study was not only to evaluate the validity and reliability of RADAR but also to gauge its acceptability among the nursing staff in two different clinical settings.
Methods
This was a validation study conducted on three units of an acute care hospital (medical, cardiology and coronary care) and five units of a long-term care facility. A total of 142 patients and 51 residents aged 65 and over, with or without dementia, participated in the study and 139 nurses were recruited and trained to use the RADAR tool. Data on each patient/resident was collected over a 12-hour period. The nursing staff and researchers administered RADAR during the scheduled distribution of medication. Researchers used the Confusion Assessment Method to determine the presence of delirium symptoms. Delirium itself was defined as meeting the criteria for DMS-IV-TR delirium. Inter-rater reliability, convergent, and concurrent validity of RADAR were assessed. At study end, 103 (74%) members of the nursing staff completed the RADAR feasibility and acceptability questionnaire.
Results
Percentages of agreement between RADAR items that bedside nurses administered and those research assistants administered varied from 82% to 98%. When compared with DSM-IV-TR criterion-defined delirium, RADAR had a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 67%. Participating nursing staff took about seven seconds on average, to complete the tool and it was very well received (≥98%) overall.
Conclusions
The RADAR tool proved to be efficient, reliable, sensitive and very well accepted by nursing staff. Consequently, it becomes an appropriate new option for delirium screening among older adults, with or without cognitive impairment, in both hospitals and nursing homes. Further projects are currently underway to validate the RADAR among middle-aged adults, as well as in newer clinical settings; home care, emergency department, medical intensive care unit, and palliative care.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0070-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0070-1
PMCID: PMC4384313  PMID: 25844067
Delirium; Screening tool; Elderly; Long-term care; Acute care; Cognitive impairment
23.  Effectiveness of multifaceted and tailored strategies to implement a fall-prevention guideline into acute care nursing practice: a before-and-after, mixed-method study using a participatory action research approach 
BMC Nursing  2015;14:18.
Background
Research- and/or evidence-based knowledge are not routinely adopted in healthcare and nursing practice. It is also unclear which implementation strategies are effective in nursing practice and what expenditures of time and money are required for the successful implementation of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). The aim in this study was to assess the effectiveness and required time investment of multifaceted and tailored strategies for implementing an evidence-based fall-prevention guideline (Falls CPG) into nursing practice in an acute care hospital setting.
Methods
A before-and-after, mixed-method design was used within a participatory action research approach (PAR). The study was carried out in two departments of an Austrian university teaching hospital and included all graduate and assistant nurses. Data were collected through a questionnaire, group discussions and semi-structured interviews. Qualitative data were content-analysed using a template based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), which also served as a theoretical framework for the study. Quantitative data were descriptively analysed using appropriate tests for independent groups.
Results
By applying multifaceted and tailored implementation strategies, the graduate and assistant nurses’ knowledge on fall prevention, how to access the Falls CPG and the guideline itself increased significantly between baseline and final assessment (p ≤ .001). Qualitative data also revealed an increase in participant awareness of fall prevention. A baseline positive attitude towards guidelines improved significantly towards the end of the project (p = .001). Required fall prevention equipment like baby monitors or one-way glide sheets were available for use and any required environmental adaptations, e.g. a handrail in the corridor, were made. Hospital nursing personnel (approximately 150) invested a total of 1192 hours of working time over the course of the project.
Conclusions
Multifaceted strategies tailored to the specific setting within a PAR approach and guided by the CFIR enabled the effective implementation of a CPG into acute care nursing practice. Nursing managers now have sound knowledge of the time resources required for CPG implementation.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0064-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0064-z
PMCID: PMC4394413  PMID: 25870522
Participatory action research; Before-and-after design; Effectiveness; Implementation strategies; Guidelines; Nursing; Fall prevention
24.  Experiences of undergoing cardiac surgery among older people diagnosed with postoperative delirium: one year follow-up 
BMC Nursing  2015;14:17.
Background
Cardiovascular disease is common among old people and many undergo cardiac surgery. Scientific knowledge is available on cardiac surgery from several perspectives. However, we found few studies focusing on older patients’ experiences of cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to illuminate experiences of undergoing cardiac surgery among older people diagnosed with postoperative delirium, a one year follow-up.
Methods
Qualitative interviews were conducted with 49 participants (aged ≥70 years) diagnosed with delirium after cardiac surgery. Data were collected in Sweden during 2010 through individual, semi-structured interviews in participants’ homes one year after surgery. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.
Results
Four themes with sub-themes were formulated: Feeling drained of viability includes having a body under attack, losing strength and being close to death. Feeling trapped in a weird world describes participants having hallucinations, being in a nightmare and being remorseful for their behavior. Being met with disrespect includes feeling disappointed, being forced, and feeling like cargo. On the other hand, Feeling safe, including being in supportive hands and feeling grateful, points to participants’ experiences of good care and the gift of getting a second chance in life.
Conclusions
Even one year after cardiac surgery, participants described in detail feelings of extreme vulnerability and frailty. They also had felt completely in the hands of the health care professionals. Participants described experiences of hallucinations and nightmares during hospitalization. Cardiac surgery was a unique, fearful, traumatic and unpleasant experience yet could also include pleasant or rewarding aspects. It seems that health care professionals need deeper knowledge on postoperative delirium in order to prevent, detect and treat delirium to avoid and relieve the suffering these experiences might cause.
doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0069-7
PMCID: PMC4392811  PMID: 25866476
Cardiac surgery; Delirium; Lived experience; Nursing; Patient’s experience; Perioperative period; Older people
25.  Registered nurses’ descriptions of caring: a phenomenographic interview study 
BMC Nursing  2015;14:16.
Background
Nursing has come a long way since the days of Florence Nightingale and even though no consensus exists it would seem reasonable to assume that caring still remains the inner core, the essence of nursing. In the light of the societal, contextual and political changes that have taken place during the 21st century, it is important to explore whether these might have influenced the essence of nursing. The aim of this study was to describe registered nurses’ conceptions of caring.
Methods
A qualitative design with a phenomenographic approach was used. The interviews with twenty-one nurses took place between March and May 2013 and the transcripts were analysed inspired by Marton and Booth’s description of phenomenography.
Results
The analysis mirrored four qualitatively different ways of understanding caring from the nurses’ perspective: caring as person-centredness, caring as safeguarding the patient’s best interests, caring as nursing interventions and caring as contextually intertwined.
Conclusion
The most comprehensive feature of the nurses’ collective understanding of caring was their recognition and acknowledgment of the person behind the patient, i.e. person-centredness. However, caring was described as being part of an intricate interplay in the care context, which has impacted on all the described conceptions of caring. Greater emphasis on the care context, i.e. the environment in which caring takes place, are warranted as this could mitigate the possibility that essential care is left unaddressed, thus contributing to better quality of care and safer patient care.
doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0067-9
PMCID: PMC4381493  PMID: 25834478
Caring; Conceptions; Interviews; Nursing; Registered nurses; Person-centredness; Phenomenography; Qualitative research

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