PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-24 (24)
 

Clipboard (0)
None
Journals
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Controversial significance of early S100B levels after cardiac surgery 
BMC Neurology  2004;4:24.
Background
The brain-derived protein S100B has been shown to be a useful marker of brain injury of different etiologies. Cognitive dysfunction after cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass has been reported to occur in up to 70% of patients. In this study we tried to evaluate S100B as a marker for cognitive dysfunction after coronary bypass surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass in a model where the inflow of S100B from shed mediastinal blood was corrected for.
Methods
56 patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting underwent prospective neuropsychological testing. The test scores were standardized and an impairment index was constructed. S100B was sampled at the end of surgery, hourly for the first 6 hours, and then 8, 10, 15, 24 and 48 hours after surgery. None of the patients received autotransfusion.
Results
In simple linear analysis, no significant relation was found between S100B levels and neuropsychological outcome. In a backwards stepwise regression analysis the three variables, S100B levels at the end of cardiopulmonary bypass, S100B levels 1 hour later and the age of the patients were found to explain part of the neuropsychological deterioration (r = 0.49, p < 0.005).
Conclusions
In this study we found that S100B levels 1 hour after surgery seem to be the most informative. Our attempt to control the increased levels of S100B caused by contamination from the surgical field did not yield different results. We conclude that the clinical value of S100B as a predictive measurement of postoperative cognitive dysfunction after cardiac surgery is limited.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-4-24
PMCID: PMC544890  PMID: 15601479
2.  Morphological brain differences between adult stutterers and non-stutterers 
BMC Neurology  2004;4:23.
Background
The neurophysiological and neuroanatomical foundations of persistent developmental stuttering (PDS) are still a matter of dispute. A main argument is that stutterers show atypical anatomical asymmetries of speech-relevant brain areas, which possibly affect speech fluency. The major aim of this study was to determine whether adults with PDS have anomalous anatomy in cortical speech-language areas.
Methods
Adults with PDS (n = 10) and controls (n = 10) matched for age, sex, hand preference, and education were studied using high-resolution MRI scans. Using a new variant of the voxel-based morphometry technique (augmented VBM) the brains of stutterers and non-stutterers were compared with respect to white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) differences.
Results
We found increased WM volumes in a right-hemispheric network comprising the superior temporal gyrus (including the planum temporale), the inferior frontal gyrus (including the pars triangularis), the precentral gyrus in the vicinity of the face and mouth representation, and the anterior middle frontal gyrus. In addition, we detected a leftward WM asymmetry in the auditory cortex in non-stutterers, while stutterers showed symmetric WM volumes.
Conclusions
These results provide strong evidence that adults with PDS have anomalous anatomy not only in perisylvian speech and language areas but also in prefrontal and sensorimotor areas. Whether this atypical asymmetry of WM is the cause or the consequence of stuttering is still an unanswered question.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-4-23
PMCID: PMC539354  PMID: 15588309
3.  Androgen-induced cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in a young body builder: case report 
BMC Neurology  2004;4:22.
Background
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is an infrequent disease with a variety of causes. Pregnancy, puerperium, contraceptive pills and intracranial infections are the most common causes. The patient may present with headache, focal neurological deficits and seizures.
The clinical outcome is highly variable and treatment with heparin is advised.
Case presentation
The patient is a 22 year old male who presented with headache, repeated vomiting and papilledema.
He was a bodybuilder doing exercise since 5 years ago, who had used nandrolone decaonoate 25 milligrams intramuscularly during the previous 5 months. Brain MRI and MRV showed superior sagital and transverse sinus thrombosis and extensive investigations did not reveal any known cause.
Conclusions
We suggested that androgen was the predisposing factor in our patient. Androgens may increase coagulation factors or platelet activity and cause arterial or venous thrombosis.
As athletes may hide using androgens it should be considered as a predisposing factor for thrombotic events in such patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-4-22
PMCID: PMC539263  PMID: 15579201
4.  Thrombomodulin Ala455Val Polymorphism and the risk of cerebral infarction in a biracial population: the Stroke Prevention in Young Women Study 
BMC Neurology  2004;4:21.
Background
The genes encoding proteins in the thrombomodulin-protein C pathway are promising candidate genes for stroke susceptibility because of their importance in thrombosis regulation and inflammatory response. Several published studies have shown that the Ala455Val thrombomodulin polymorphism is associated with ischemic heart disease, but none has examined the association with stroke. Using data from the Stroke Prevention in Young Women Study, we sought to determine the association between the Ala455Val thrombomodulin polymorphism and the occurrence of ischemic stroke in young women.
Methods
All 59 hospitals in the greater Baltimore-Washington area participated in a population-based case-control study of stroke in young women. We compared 141 cases of first ischemic stroke (44% black) among women 15 to 44 years of age with 210 control subjects (35% black) who were identified by random digit dialing and frequency matched to the cases by age and geographical region of residence. Data on historical risk factors were collected by standardized interview. Genotyping of the thrombomodulin Ala455Val polymorphism was performed by pyrosequencing.
Results
The A allele (frequency = 0.85) was associated with stroke under the recessive model. After adjustment for age, race, cigarette smoking, hypertension, and diabetes, the AA genotype, compared with the AV and VV genotypes combined, was significantly associated with stroke (odds ratio 1.9, 95% CI 1.1–3.3). The AA genotype was more common among black than white control subjects (81% versus 68%) but there was no significant interaction between the risk genotype and race (adjusted odds ratio 2.7 for blacks and 1.6 for whites). A secondary analysis removing all probable (n = 16) and possible (n = 15) cardioembolic strokes demonstrated an increased association (odds ratio 2.2, 95% CI 1.2–4.2).
Conclusions
Among women aged 15 to 44 years, the AA genotype is more prevalent among blacks than whites and is associated with increased risk of early onset ischemic stroke. Removing strokes potentially related to cardioembolic phenomena increased this association. Further studies are needed to determine whether this polymorphism is functionally related to thrombomodulin expression or whether the association is due to population stratification or linkage to a nearby functional polymorphism.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-4-21
PMCID: PMC538749  PMID: 15574195
5.  Homozygosity for a missense mutation in the 67 kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase in a family with autosomal recessive spastic cerebral palsy: parallels with Stiff-Person Syndrome and other movement disorders 
BMC Neurology  2004;4:20.
Background
Cerebral palsy (CP) is an heterogeneous group of neurological disorders of movement and/or posture, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 1000 live births. Non-progressive forms of symmetrical, spastic CP have been identified, which show a Mendelian autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. We recently described the mapping of a recessive spastic CP locus to a 5 cM chromosomal region located at 2q24-31.1, in rare consanguineous families.
Methods
Here we present data that refine this locus to a 0.5 cM region, flanked by the microsatellite markers D2S2345 and D2S326. The minimal region contains the candidate gene GAD1, which encodes a glutamate decarboxylase isoform (GAD67), involved in conversion of the amino acid and excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate to the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
Results
A novel amino acid mis-sense mutation in GAD67 was detected, which segregated with CP in affected individuals.
Conclusions
This result is interesting because auto-antibodies to GAD67 and the more widely studied GAD65 homologue encoded by the GAD2 gene, are described in patients with Stiff-Person Syndrome (SPS), epilepsy, cerebellar ataxia and Batten disease. Further investigation seems merited of the possibility that variation in the GAD1 sequence, potentially affecting glutamate/GABA ratios, may underlie this form of spastic CP, given the presence of anti-GAD antibodies in SPS and the recognised excitotoxicity of glutamate in various contexts.
GAD1 single nucleotide substitutions detected on mutation analysis and occurring in sequences submitted to NCBI SNP database and in the literature. This is not a definitive list, but includes those described at the time of the mutational analysis. *Nucleotide positions were not provided by Maestrini et al. [47].
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-4-20
PMCID: PMC544830  PMID: 15571623
6.  Supracubital perineurioma misdiagnosed as carpal tunnel syndrome: case report 
BMC Neurology  2004;4:19.
Background
Perineuriomas have been defined as tumorous lesions of the peripheral nerves which derive from perineurial cell proliferation and may be associated with abnormalities on chromosome 22.
Case presentation
Three years after a painful cubital vein procaine injection, a 33 year-old man developed a median nerve lesion, initially diagnosed as carpal tunnel syndrome. Symptoms progressed despite appropriate surgery. Clinical and electrophysiological re-evaluation revealed a fusiform mass at the distal upper arm, confirmed by MRI. Immunohistochemical studies classified the tumor as a mixed perineurioma and neuroma.
Conclusions
Perineurioma mixed with neuroma may potentially caused by the previous trauma or cytotoxic effects of procaine.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-4-19
PMCID: PMC535354  PMID: 15555068
7.  Efficacy of repeated intrathecal triamcinolone acetonide application in progressive multiple sclerosis patients with spinal symptoms 
BMC Neurology  2004;4:18.
Background
There are controversial results on the efficacy of the abandoned, intrathecal predominant methylprednisolone application in multiple sclerosis (MS) in contrast to the proven effectiveness in intractable postherpetic neuralgia.
Methods
We performed an analysis of the efficacy of the application of 40 mg of the sustained release steroid triamcinolone acetonide (TCA). We intrathecally injected in sterile saline dissolved TCA six times within three weeks on a regular basis every third day in 161 hospitalized primary and predominant secondary progressive MS patients with spinal symptoms. The MS patients did not experience an acute onset of exacerbation or recent distinct increased progression of symptoms. We simultaneously scored the MS patients with the EDSS and the Barthel index, estimated the walking distance and measured somatosensory evoked potentials. Additionally the MS patients received a standardized rehabilitation treatment.
Results
EDSS score and Barthel index improved, walking distance increased, latencies of somatosensory evoked potentials of the median and tibial nerves shortened in all MS patients with serial evaluation (p < 0.0001 for all variables). Side effects were rare, five patients stopped TCA application due to onset of a post lumbar puncture syndrome.
Conclusions
Repeated intrathecal TCA application improves spinal symptoms, walking distance and SSEP latencies in progressive MS patients in this uncontrolled study. Future trials should evaluate the long-term benefit of this invasive treatment.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-4-18
PMCID: PMC535343  PMID: 15530171
8.  Traumatic-event headaches 
BMC Neurology  2004;4:17.
Background
Chronic headaches from head trauma and whiplash injury are well-known and common, but chronic headaches from other sorts of physical traumas are not recognized.
Methods
Specific information was obtained from the medical records of 15 consecutive patients with chronic headaches related to physically injurious traumatic events that did not include either head trauma or whiplash injury. The events and the physical injuries produced by them were noted. The headaches' development, characteristics, duration, frequency, and accompaniments were recorded, as were the patients' use of pain-alleviative drugs. From this latter information, the headaches were classified by the diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Society as though they were naturally-occurring headaches. The presence of other post-traumatic symptoms and litigation were also recorded.
Results
The intervals between the events and the onset of the headaches resembled those between head traumas or whiplash injuries and their subsequent headaches. The headaches themselves were, as a group, similar to those after head trauma and whiplash injury. Thirteen of the patients had chronic tension-type headache, two had migraine. The sustained bodily injuries were trivial or unidentifiable in nine patients. Fabrication of symptoms for financial remuneration was not evident in these patients of whom seven were not even seeking payments of any kind.
Conclusions
This study suggests that these hitherto unrecognized post-traumatic headaches constitute a class of headaches characterized by a relation to traumatic events affecting the body but not including head or whiplash traumas. The bodily injuries per se can be discounted as the cause of the headaches. So can fabrication of symptoms for financial remuneration. Altered mental states, not systematically evaluated here, were a possible cause of the headaches. The overall resemblance of these headaches to the headaches after head or whiplash traumas implies that these latter two headache types may likewise not be products of structural injuries.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-4-17
PMCID: PMC529263  PMID: 15516263
9.  Differential diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis from partially-treated pyogenic meningitis by cell ELISA 
BMC Neurology  2004;4:16.
Background
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a major global health problem, and it is sometimes difficult to perform a differential diagnosis of this disease from other diseases, particularly partially-treated pyogenic meningitis (PTPM). In an earlier study, we demonstrated the presence of a 30-kD protein antigen in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of TBM patients. We have also shown that lymphocytes from CSF of TBM patients respond differently to this antigen than do those from PTPM patients. The purpose of this study was to develop an assay that can discriminate between TBM and PTPM.
Methods
We developed a cell enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (Cell ELISA) to quantitatively measure production of antibodies against the 30-kD protein in B cells from CSF of TBM and PTPM patients.
Results
The cell ELISA yielded 92% (11/12) sensitivity and 92% (11/12) specificity for the differential diagnosis of TBM from PTPM.
Conclusion
When induced with the 30-kD protein antigen, B cells derived from CSF of TBM patients respond to IgG production within 24 h while those derived from PTPM patients do not respond.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-4-16
PMCID: PMC529262  PMID: 15498107
10.  Lack of association between vascular dementia and Chlamydia pneumoniae infection: a case-control study 
BMC Neurology  2004;4:15.
Background
Chronic inflammation appears to play a role in the pathogenesis of vascular dementia. Given the association between Chlamydia pneumoniae and stroke, the possibility exists that previous exposure to C. pneumoniae may play a role in vascular dementia. The objective of this study was to determine if there was an association between serological evidence of C. pneumoniae infection or inflammatory markers with vascular dementia.
Methods
28 case-patients with vascular dementia at a geriatric clinic and 24 caregiver-controls were tested for C. pneumoniae IgG and IgA antibodies. The association between vascular dementia and C. pneumoniae titres as well as inflammatory markers was estimated by using both conditional logistic regression and stratified logistic regression.
Results
When matched cases were compared to controls, there was no significant difference in elevated C. pneumoniae specific IgG antibodies (titre ≥ 1:32), odds ratio [OR] 1.3 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.3 to 6.0), p = 0.71, or in elevated C. pneumoniae specific IgA antibodies (titre ≥ 1:16), OR 2.0 (95%CI 0.5 to 8.0), p = 0.33 indicative of past or persistent C. pneumoniae infection. Similarly, no difference in high IgG or IgA antibody levels (IgG titre ≥ 1:512 or IgA titre ≥ 1:64) between the two groups, indicative of recent C. pneumoniae infection, was found, OR 0.4 (95%CI 0.1 to 2.1), p = 0.27. For C-reactive protein (CRP), the mean difference between 18 matched pairs (case – control) was – 3.33 mg/L. There was no significant difference between cases and controls when comparing log transformed values, OR 0.03 (95%CI 0.00 to 2.89), p = 0.13 or comparing CRP values above or below the median, OR 0.8 (95%CI 0.2 to 3.4), p = 0.71. For fibrinogen, the mean difference between pairs (case – control) was -0.07 g/L. There was no statistical difference between cases and controls when comparing log transformed values, OR 0.6 (95%CI 0.0 to 31.2), p = 0.79 or between fibrinogen values above and below the median, OR = 0.5 (95%CI 0.1 to 2.0), p = 0.50.
Conclusion
We found no evidence for a significant association between C. pneumoniae infection, inflammatory markers such as CRP and fibrinogen, and vascular dementia.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-4-15
PMCID: PMC524508  PMID: 15476562
11.  Mechanisms underlying fatigue: a voxel-based morphometric study of chronic fatigue syndrome 
BMC Neurology  2004;4:14.
Background
Fatigue is a crucial sensation that triggers rest, yet its underlying neuronal mechanisms remain unclear. Intense long-term fatigue is a symptom of chronic fatigue syndrome, which is used as a model to study the mechanisms underlying fatigue.
Methods
Using magnetic resonance imaging, we conducted voxel-based morphometry of 16 patients and 49 age-matched healthy control subjects.
Results
We found that patients with chronic fatigue syndrome had reduced gray-matter volume in the bilateral prefrontal cortex. Within these areas, the volume reduction in the right prefrontal cortex paralleled the severity of the fatigue of the subjects.
Conclusion
These results are consistent with previous reports of an abnormal distribution of acetyl-L-carnitine uptake, which is one of the biochemical markers of chronic fatigue syndrome, in the prefrontal cortex. Thus, the prefrontal cortex might be an important element of the neural system that regulates sensations of fatigue.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-4-14
PMCID: PMC524491  PMID: 15461817
12.  Randomised controlled trial of gabapentin in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 [ISRCTN84121379] 
BMC Neurology  2004;4:13.
Background
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type one (CRPS I) or formerly Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD) is a disabling syndrome, in which a painful limb is accompanied by varying symptoms. Neuropathic pain is a prominent feature of CRPS I, and is often refractory to treatment. Since gabapentin is an anticonvulsant with a proven analgesic effect in various neuropathic pain syndromes, we sought to study the efficacy of the anticonvulsant gabapentin as treatment for pain in patients with CRPS I.
Methods
We did a randomized double blind placebo controlled crossover study with two three-weeks treatment periods with gabapentin and placebo separated by a two-weeks washout period. Patients started at random with gabapentin or placebo, which was administered in identical capsules three times daily. We included 58 patients with CRPS type 1.
Results
Patients reported significant pain relief in favor of gabapentin in the first period. Therapy effect in the second period was less; finally resulting in no significant effect combining results of both periods. The CRPS patients had sensory deficits at baseline. We found that this sensory deficit was significantly reversed in gabapentin users in comparison to placebo users.
Conclusions
Gabapentin had a mild effect on pain in CRPS I. It significantly reduced the sensory deficit in the affected limb. A subpopulation of CRPS patients may benefit from gabapentin.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-4-13
PMCID: PMC523854  PMID: 15453912
13.  Frequency of myasthenic crisis in relation to thymectomy in generalized myasthenia gravis: A 17-year experience 
BMC Neurology  2004;4:12.
Background
Myasthenic crisis is the most serious life-threatening event in generalized myasthenia gravis (MG) patients. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term impact of thymectomy on rate and severity of these attacks in Iranian patients.
Methods
We reviewed the clinical records from 272 myasthenic patients diagnosed and treated in our neurology clinic during 1985 to 2002. Fifty-three patients were excluded because of unconfirmed diagnosis, ocular form of MG, contraindication to surgery, concomitant diseases and loss to follow-up. The Osserman classification was used to assess the initial severity of the disease. Frequency and severity of the attacks were compared between two groups with appropriate statistical tests according to the nature of variables. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the predictors of myasthenic crisis in the group of patients without thymoma.
Results
110 patients were in thymectomy group and the other 109 patients were on medical therapy. These two groups had no significant differences with respect to age at onset, gender, Osserman score in baseline and follow up period. 62 patients (28.3% of all 219 patients) had reported 89 attacks of myasthenic crisis. 20 patients of 62 (32%) were in thymectomy group and 42 (68%) were in the other group. There was significant difference between the two groups in number of patients with crisis (P = 0.001; odds ratio = 2.8 with 95% CI of 1.5 to 5.2). In addition, these attacks were more severe in group of non-thymectomized patients as the duration of ICU admission was longer and they needed more ventilatory support during their attacks. Regression model showed thymectomy and lower age at onset as two predictors of decrement in myasthenic crisis rate in non-thymomatous MG patients.
Conclusions
It is suggested that frequency and severity of myasthenic attacks as important endpoints in evaluation of MG patients. Thymectomy seems to have a preventive role on rate and severity of these attacks.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-4-12
PMCID: PMC518967  PMID: 15361260
14.  Effects of age and leg length upon central loop of the Gastrocnemius-soleus H-reflex latency 
BMC Neurology  2004;4:11.
Background
central loop of the gastrocnemius-soleus H-reflex latency (Tc) that looks promising in the diagnosis of S1 radiculopathy; has been investigated in a few studies and only two of them have focused on the constitutional factors affecting it. Although leg length has been shown to contribute to the Tc, the role of age is controversial. More confusing, none of the previously performed studies have used strict criteria to rule out subclinical neuropathy, so the results could be misleading. This study has been performed to determine the influence of leg length and age on Tc among a carefully selected group of healthy volunteers.
Methods
after screening forty six volunteers by taking history, physical examination and a brief electrophysiologic study; forty of them were selected to enroll into the study. Tc was obtained in all the study subjects and leg length and age were recorded for correlational analyses.
Results
this group was consisted of 26 males (65%) and 14 females (35%) with the age range of 19–65 years (Mean ± SD: 37 ± 10.7) and leg length range of 29.5–43 centimeters (36.4 ± 3.4).
Mean ± SD for Tc was 6.78 ± 0.3. We found a significant correlation between Tc and leg length (p value= 0.003, r = 0.49 and confidence interval 95% = 0.59–0.88), no significant correlation was found between age and Tc (p value= 0.48, r = 0.11), also we obtained the regression equation as: Tc = 0.04L + 5.28
Conclusions
in contrast to leg length, age was not correlated with Tc. Future studies are required to delineate other contributing factors to Tc.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-4-11
PMCID: PMC517935  PMID: 15347428
central loop of gastrocnemius-soleus H-reflex latency; Central S1 loop latency; sacral radiculopathy
15.  Rizatriptan versus rizatriptan plus rofecoxib versus rizatriptan plus tolfenamic acid in the acute treatment of migraine 
BMC Neurology  2004;4:10.
Background
Rizatriptan is an effective and fast acting drug for the acute treatment of migraine. Some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) have also demonstrated efficacy in treating migraine attacks. There is evidence that the combination of a triptan and a NSAID decreases migraine recurrence in clinical practice. The primary aim of this randomized open label study was to assess the recurrence rates in migraine sufferers acutely treated with rizatriptan (RI) alone vs. rizatriptan plus a COX-2 enzyme inhibitor (rofecoxib, RO) vs. rizatriptan plus a traditional NSAID (tolfenamic acid, TO). We were also interested in comparing the efficacy rates within these three groups.
Methods
We assessed 45 patients from a headache clinic in Rio de Janeiro (35 women and 10 men, ages 18 to 65 years, mean 37 years). Patients with IHS migraine were randomized to one out of 3 groups, where they had to treat 6 consecutive moderate or severe attacks in counterbalanced order. In group 1, patients treated the first two attacks with 10 mg RI, the third and fourth attacks with RI + 50 mg RO and the last attacks with RI + 200 mg of TA. In group 2, we began with RI + TA, followed by RI, and RI + RO. Group 3 treated in the following order: RI + RO, RI + TA, RI alone. The presence of headache, nausea and photophobia at 1, 2 and 4 hours, as well as recurrence and side effects were compared.
Results
A total of 33 patients finished the study, treating 184 attacks. The pain-free rates at 1 hour were: RI: 15.5%; RI + RO: 22.6%; RI + TA: 20.3%(NS). Pain-free rates at 2 h were: RI: 37.9%; RI + RO: 62.9%, and RI + TA: 40.6% (p = 0.008 for RI vs. RI + RO; p = 0.007 for RI + RO vs. RI + TA, NS for RI vs RI + TA). At 4 h, pain-free rates were: RI: 69%; RI + RO: 82.3%; RI + TA: 78.1% (NS for all comparisons). The combination of RI + RO was superior to RI and to RI + TA in regard of the absense of nausea and photophobia at 4 hours. Recurrence (after being pain-free at 2 h) was observed in 50% of patients treated with RI, in 15,4% of those treated with RI + RO, and in 7,7% of those treated with RI + TA.
Conclusions
Despite the methodological limitations of this study, the combination of RI and RO revealed a higher response rate at 2 hours. Recurrence was also clearly decreased with both combinations in relation to the use of RI alone. Controlled studies are necessary to provide additional evidence.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-4-10
PMCID: PMC449711  PMID: 15222892
16.  Factors associated with in-hospital mortality following intracerebral hemorrhage: a three-year study in Tehran, Iran 
BMC Neurology  2004;4:9.
Background
Primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one of the common vascular insults with a relatively high rate of mortality. The aim of the current study was to determine the mortality rate and to evaluate the influence of various factors on the mortality of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Demographic characteristics along with clinical features and neuroimaging information on 122 patients with primary ICH admitted to Sina Hospital between 1999–2002 were assessed by multivariate analysis.
Results
Of 122 patients diagnosed with intracerebral hemorrhage, 70 were men and 52 were women. Sixtynine percent of subjects were between 60 to 80 years of age. A history of hypertension was the primary cause in 67.2% of participants and it was found more frequent compared to other cardiovascular risk factors such as a history of ischemic heart disease (17.2%), diabetes mellitus (18%) and cigarette smoking (13.1%).
The overall mortality rate among ICH patients admitted to the hospital was 46.7%. About one third of the deaths occurred within the first two days after brain injury. Factor independently associated with in-hospital mortality were Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score (≤ 8), diabetes mellitus disease, volume of hematoma and and intraventricular hematoma.
Conclusion
Higher rate of mortality were observed during the first two weeks of hospitalization following ICH. Neuroimaging features along with GCS score can help the clinicians in developing their prognosis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-4-9
PMCID: PMC449712  PMID: 15193159
Intracerebral hemorrhage; stroke; GCS; outcome
17.  Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of normal appearing white matter in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: correlations between disability and spectroscopy 
BMC Neurology  2004;4:8.
Background
What currently appears to be irreversible axonal loss in normal appearing white matter, measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is of great interest in the study of Multiple Sclerosis. Our aim is to determine the axonal damage in normal appearing white matter measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and to correlate this with the functional disability measured by Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite scale, Neurological Rating Scale, Ambulation Index scale, and Expanded Disability Scale Score.
Methods
Thirty one patients (9 male and 22 female) with relapsing remitting Multiple Sclerosis and a Kurtzke Expanded Disability Scale Score of 0–5.5 were recruited from four hospitals in Andalusia, Spain and included in the study. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans and neurological disability assessments were performed the same day.
Results
A statistically significant correlation was found (r = -0.38 p < 0.05) between disability (measured by Expanded Disability Scale Score) and N-Acetyl Aspartate (NAA/Cr ratio) levels in normal appearing white matter in these patients. No correlation was found between the NAA/Cr ratio and disability measured by any of the other disability assessment scales.
Conclusions
There is correlation between disability (measured by Expanded Disability Scale Score) and the NAA/Cr ratio in normal appearing white matter. The lack of correlation between the NAA/Cr ratio and the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite score indicates that the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite is not able to measure irreversible disability and would be more useful as a marker in stages where axonal damage is not a predominant factor.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-4-8
PMCID: PMC446197  PMID: 15191618
18.  Low dose intravenous minocycline is neuroprotective after middle cerebral artery occlusion-reperfusion in rats 
BMC Neurology  2004;4:7.
Background
Minocycline, a semi-synthetic tetracycline antibiotic, is an effective neuroprotective agent in animal models of cerebral ischemia when given in high doses intraperitoneally. The aim of this study was to determine if minocycline was effective at reducing infarct size in a Temporary Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion model (TMCAO) when given at lower intravenous (IV) doses that correspond to human clinical exposure regimens.
Methods
Rats underwent 90 minutes of TMCAO. Minocycline or saline placebo was administered IV starting at 4, 5, or 6 hours post TMCAO. Infarct volume and neurofunctional tests were carried out at 24 hr after TMCAO using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) brain staining and Neurological Score evaluation. Pharmacokinetic studies and hemodynamic monitoring were performed on minocycline-treated rats.
Results
Minocycline at doses of 3 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg IV was effective at reducing infarct size when administered at 4 hours post TMCAO. At doses of 3 mg/kg, minocycline reduced infarct size by 42% while 10 mg/kg reduced infarct size by 56%. Minocycline at a dose of 10 mg/kg significantly reduced infarct size at 5 hours by 40% and the 3 mg/kg dose significantly reduced infarct size by 34%. With a 6 hour time window there was a non-significant trend in infarct reduction. There was a significant difference in neurological scores favoring minocycline in both the 3 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg doses at 4 hours and at the 10 mg/kg dose at 5 hours. Minocycline did not significantly affect hemodynamic and physiological variables. A 3 mg/kg IV dose of minocycline resulted in serum levels similar to that achieved in humans after a standard 200 mg dose.
Conclusions
The neuroprotective action of minocycline at clinically suitable dosing regimens and at a therapeutic time window of at least 4–5 hours merits consideration of phase I trials in humans in view of developing this drug for treatment of stroke.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-4-7
PMCID: PMC415551  PMID: 15109399
19.  Sleep assessment in a population-based study of chronic fatigue syndrome 
BMC Neurology  2004;4:6.
Background
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disabling condition that affects approximately 800,000 adult Americans. The pathophysiology remains unknown and there are no diagnostic markers or characteristic physical signs or laboratory abnormalities. Most CFS patients complain of unrefreshing sleep and many of the postulated etiologies of CFS affect sleep. Conversely, many sleep disorders present similarly to CFS. Few studies characterizing sleep in unselected CFS subjects have been published and none have been performed in cases identified from population-based studies.
Methods
The study included 339 subjects (mean age 45.8 years, 77% female, 94.1% white) identified through telephone screen in a previously described population-based study of CFS in Wichita, Kansas. They completed questionnaires to assess fatigue and wellness and 2 self-administered sleep questionnaires. Scores for five of the six sleep factors (insomnia/hypersomnia, non-restorative sleep, excessive daytime somnolence, sleep apnea, and restlessness) in the Centre for Sleep and Chronobiology's Sleep Assessment Questionnaire© (SAQ©) were dichotomized based on threshold. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale score was used as a continuous variable.
Results
81.4% of subjects had an abnormality in at least one SAQ© sleep factor. Subjects with sleep factor abnormalities had significantly lower wellness scores but statistically unchanged fatigue severity scores compared to those without SAQ© abnormality. CFS subjects had significantly increased risk of abnormal scores in the non-restorative (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 28.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]= 7.4–107.0) and restlessness (OR = 16.0; 95% CI = 4.2–61.6) SAQ© factors compared to non-fatigued, but not for factors of sleep apnea or excessive daytime somnolence. This is consistent with studies finding that, while fatigued, CFS subjects are not sleepy. A strong correlation (0.78) of Epworth score was found only for the excessive daytime somnolence factor.
Conclusions
SAQ© factors describe sleep abnormalities associated with CFS and provide more information than the Epworth score. Validation of these promising results will require formal polysomnographic sleep studies.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-4-6
PMCID: PMC419502  PMID: 15096280
21.  Acute treatment of migraine. Breaking the paradigm of monotherapy 
BMC Neurology  2004;4:4.
Background
Migraine is a highly prevalent disorder. The disability provoked by its attacks results in suffering as well as considerable economic and social losses. The objective of migraine acute treatment is to restore the patient to normal function as quickly and consistently as possible. There are numerous drugs available for this purpose and despite recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms and different biological systems involved in migraine attacks, with the development of specific 5-HT agonists known as triptans, current options for acute migraine still stand below the ideal.
Discussion
Monotherapeutic approaches are the rule but up to one third of all patients discontinue their medications due to lack of efficacy, headache recurrence, cost and/or side effects. In addition, a rationale has been suggested for the development of polytherapeutic approaches, simultaneously aiming at some of the biological systems involved. This paper reviews the fundamentals for this changing approach as well as the evidence of its better efficacy.
Conclusion
As a conclusion, most of the patients with a past history of not responding (no pain-free at 2 hours and/or no sustained pain-free at 24 hours) in at least 5 previous attacks should undergo a combination therapy suiting to their individual profile, which must include analgesics or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents plus a triptan or a gastro kinetic drug. The three-drug regimen may also be considered. In addition, changing the right moment to take it and the choice for formulations other than oral has also to be determined individually and clearly posted to the patient.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-4-4
PMCID: PMC341456  PMID: 15005810
migraine; acute treatment; polytherapy; changing approach
22.  "Closing-in" phenomenon in Alzheimer's disease and subcortical vascular dementia 
BMC Neurology  2004;4:3.
Background
The 'closing-in' phenomenon is defined as a tendency to close in on a model while copying it. This is one of several constructional apraxia observed in dementia, particularly in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of it in the differential diagnosis of AD and subcortical vascular dementia (SVD) and to clarify the factors associated with it.
Methods
We operationally defined and classified it into three types, namely overlap, adherent, and near type. We analyzed the incidence of it in patients with AD (n = 98) and SVD (n = 48).
Results
AD patients exhibited a significantly higher occurrence of it as compared to SVD patients. Among the different types of it, the overlap and adherent types occurred almost exclusively in AD patients. A discriminant analysis in AD subjects revealed that the scores obtained from the MMSE, CDR, Barthel index, and the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test were correlated significantly with the occurrence of it. There was no statistical difference between the Q-EEG parameters of patients that exhibited the closing-in phenomenon and those that did not.
Conclusions
This study suggests that the closing-in phenomenon is phase- and AD-specific and might be a useful tool for the differential diagnosis of AD and SVD.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-4-3
PMCID: PMC341455  PMID: 14741055
23.  Peak plasma interleukin-6 and other peripheral markers of inflammation in the first week of ischaemic stroke correlate with brain infarct volume, stroke severity and long-term outcome 
BMC Neurology  2004;4:2.
Background
Cerebral ischaemia initiates an inflammatory response in the brain and periphery. We assessed the relationship between peak values of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the first week after ischaemic stroke, with measures of stroke severity and outcome.
Methods
Thirty-seven patients with ischaemic stroke were prospectively recruited. Plasma IL-6, and other markers of peripheral inflammation, were measured at pre-determined timepoints in the first week after stroke onset. Primary analyses were the association between peak plasma IL-6 concentration with both modified Rankin score (mRS) at 3 months and computed tomography (CT) brain infarct volume.
Results
Peak plasma IL-6 concentration correlated significantly (p < 0.001) with CT brain infarct volume (r = 0.75) and mRS at 3 months (r = 0.72). It correlated similarly with clinical outcome at 12 months or stroke severity. Strong associations were also noted between either peak plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration or white blood cell (WBC) count, and all outcome measures.
Conclusions
These data provide evidence that the magnitude of the peripheral inflammatory response is related to the severity of acute ischaemic stroke, and clinical outcome.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-4-2
PMCID: PMC331413  PMID: 14725719
stroke acute; interleukin-6; C-reactive protein; inflammation; outcome measures
24.  Loss of circadian rhythm of blood pressure following acute stroke 
BMC Neurology  2004;4:1.
Background
Epidemiology of acute stroke in developing countries differs from that in the developed world, for example, the age at stroke, risk factors, subtypes of stroke and prognosis. Hypertension remains a dominant risk factor and prognostic indicator in patients with stroke in all communities. The risk of stroke is directly related to elevations of blood pressure. A number of clinical studies have shown that the control of hypertension leads to a reduction in the incidence of stroke in a community. However there is still considerable controversy surrounds the changes in blood pressure in various subtypes of strokes and problem of management of elevated BP after stroke. We studied the circadian rhythm of blood pressure in patients following acute stroke.
Methods
To study the circadian rhythm of blood pressure, fifty consecutive patients with an acute stroke who were admitted to medical emergency within 120 hours of onset were included in the study. After a detailed history and clinical examination, a continuous blood pressure monitor (Spacelab 90207) was attached on the side ipsilateral to intracranial lesion (unaffected arm). The blood pressure was recorded for 24 hours at 15 minutes interval during daytime (6.00 am–6.00 pm) and 20 minutes interval overnight (6 pm to 6 am).
Results
Risk factors for stroke in 50 patients included hypertension in 31(62%), diabetes mellitus in 4 (8%), smoking in 13 (26%) and previous history of transient ischemic attack in 7 (14%) patients. Mean systolic pressure and diastolic pressure at admission were higher in patients with hemorrhagic stroke -29 patients (177 ± 24 mmHg and 105 ± 19 mmHg respectively) compared to patients with ischemic strokes-21 patients (150 ± 36 mm Hg and 89 ± 18 mm Hg respectively, p value <0.01 in both comparisons). The normal diurnal variation in blood pressure (night time dipping of more than 10%) was abolished in 44 (88%) of patients. Out of 44 nondippers, 29 patients showed reverse dipping i.e. rise of BP during night time compared to day time levels. None of the risk factors, clinical or laboratory variables, type of stroke or blood pressure changes differed significantly between these two groups.
Conclusions
Therefore, we showed a pathologically reduced or abolished circadian BP variation after stroke. Absence of normal dipping results in a higher 24 hour blood pressure load and may have more target organ damage than those with normal diurnal variation of blood pressure.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-4-1
PMCID: PMC331412  PMID: 14706120
Stroke; Circadian rhythm; Blood pressure; Thrombosis; Hemorrhage

Results 1-24 (24)