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1.  Medication-related problem type and appearance rate in ambulatory hemodialysis patients 
BMC Nephrology  2003;4:10.
Background
Hemodialysis (HD) patients are at risk for medication-related problems (MRP). The MRP number, type, and appearance rate over time in ambulatory HD patients has not been investigated.
Methods
Randomly selected HD patients were enrolled to receive monthly pharmaceutical care visits. At each visit, MRP were identified through review of the patient chart, electronic medical record, patient interview, and communications with other healthcare disciplines. All MRP were categorized by type and medication class. MRP appearance rate was determined as the number of MRP identified per month/number of months in study. The number of MRP per patient-drug exposures were determined using: {[(number of patients) × (mean number of medications)]/(number of months of study)} /number of MRP identified. Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation or percentages.
Results
Patients were 62.6 ± 15.9 years old, had 6.4 ± 2.0 comorbid conditions, were taking 12.5 ± 4.2 medications, and 15.7 ± 7.2 doses per day at baseline. Medication-dosing problems (33.5%), adverse drug reactions (20.7%), and an indication that was not currently being treated (13.5%) were the most common MRP. 5,373 medication orders were reviewed and a MRP was identified every 15.2 medication exposures. Overall MRP appearance rate was 0.68 ± 0.46 per patient per month.
Conclusion
MRP continue to occur at a high rate in ambulatory HD patients. Healthcare providers taking care of HD patients should be aware of this problem and efforts to avoid or resolve MRP should be undertaken at all HD clinics.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-4-10
PMCID: PMC317309  PMID: 14690549
2.  Recovery of renal function in dialysis patients 
BMC Nephrology  2003;4:9.
Background
Although recovery of renal functions in dialysis dependent patients is estimated to be greater than 1%, there are no indicators that actually suggest such revival of renal function. Residual renal function in dialysis patients is unreliable and seldom followed. Therefore renal recovery (RR) in dialysis dependent patients may remain unnoticed. We present a group of dialysis dependent patients who regained their renal functions. The aim of this project is to determine any indicators that may identify the recovery of renal functions in dialysis dependent patients.
Methods
All the discharges from the chronic dialysis facilities were identified. Among these discharges deaths, transplants, voluntary withdrawals and transfers either to another modality or another dialysis facility were excluded in order to isolate the patients with RR. The dialysis flow sheets and medical records of these patients were subsequently reviewed.
Results
Eight patients with a mean age of 53.8 ± 6.7 years (± SEM) were found to have RR. Dialysis was initiated due to uremic symptoms in 6 patients and fluid overload in the remaining two. The patients remained dialysis dependent for 11.1 ± 4.2 months. All these patients had good urine output and 7 had symptoms related to dialysis. Their mean pre-initiation creatinine and BUN levels were 5.21 ± 0.6 mg/dl and 72.12 ± 11.12 mg/dl, respectively. Upon discontinuation, they remained dialysis free for 19.75 ± 5.97 months. The mean creatinine and BUN levels after cessation of dialysis were 2.85 ± 0.57 mg/dl and 29.62 ± 5.26 mg/dl, respectively, while the mean creatinine clearance calculated by 24-hour urine collection was 29.75 ± 4.78 ml/min. One patient died due to HIV complications. One patient resumed dialysis after nine months. Remaining continue to enjoy a dialysis free life.
Conclusion
RR must be considered in patients with good urine output and unresolved acute renal failure. Dialysis intolerance may be an indicator of RR among such patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-4-9
PMCID: PMC270015  PMID: 14563216
Cessation of dialysis; Dialysis dependence; Recovery of renal functions; Residual renal function
3.  Calciphylaxis in chronic, non-dialysis-dependent renal disease 
BMC Nephrology  2003;4:8.
Background
Calciphylaxis cutis is characterized by media calcification of arteries and, most prominently, of cutaneous and subcutaneous arterioles occurring in renal insufficiency patients.
Case Report
A 53-year-old woman with chronic cardiac and renal failure complained of painful crural, non-varicosis ulcers. She was hospitalized in an immobilized condition due to both the crural ulcerations and the existing heart-failure state (NYHA III-IV) having pleural and pericardial effusions, atrial fibrillation and weight loss of 30 kg over the past year. Despite normalization of calcium-phosphorus balance and improvement of renal function, the clinical course of crural ulcerations deteriorated during the following 3 months. After failure of surgical debridements, multiple courses of sterile-maggot therapy were introduced at a late stage to stabilize the wounds. The patient died of recurrent wound infections and sepsis paralleled by exacerbations of renal malfunction.
Conclusions
The role of renal disease in vascular complications is discussed. Sterile-maggot debridement may constitute a therapy for the ulcerated calciphylaxis at an earlier stage, i.e. when first ulcerations appear.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-4-8
PMCID: PMC222929  PMID: 14514359
4.  Autoimmune hemolytic anemia occurred prior to evident nephropathy in a patient with chronic hepatitis C virus infection: case report 
BMC Nephrology  2003;4:7.
Background
Renal involvement in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection has been suggested to be due to a variety of immunological processes. However, the precise mechanism by which the kidneys are damaged in these patients is still unclear.
Case presentation
A 66 year old man presented with the sudden onset of autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Concomitant with a worsening of hemolysis, his initially mild proteinuria and hemoglobinuria progressed. On admission, laboratory tests revealed that he was positive for hepatitis C virus in his blood, though his liver function tests were all normal. The patient displayed cryoglobulinemia and hypocomplementemia with cold activation, and exhibited a biological false positive of syphilic test. Renal biopsy specimens showed signs of immune complex type nephropathy with hemosiderin deposition in the tubular epithelial cells.
Conclusions
The renal histological findings in this case are consistent with the deposition of immune complexes and hemolytic products, which might have occurred as a result of the patient's underlying autoimmune imbalance, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and chronic hepatitis C virus infection.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-4-7
PMCID: PMC200975  PMID: 12946280
5.  Familial Mediterranean fever, Inflammation and Nephrotic Syndrome: Fibrillary Glomerulopathy and the M680I Missense Mutation 
BMC Nephrology  2003;4:6.
Background
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by inflammatory serositis (fever, peritonitis, synovitis and pleuritis). The gene locus responsible for FMF was identified in 1992 and localized to the short arm of chromosome 16. In 1997, a specific FMF gene locus, MEFV, was discovered to encode for a protein, pyrin that mediates inflammation. To date, more than forty missense mutations are known to exist. The diversity of mutations identified has provided insight into the variability of clinical presentation and disease progression.
Case Report
We report an individual heterozygous for the M680I gene mutation with a clinical diagnosis of FMF using the Tel-Hashomer criteria. Subsequently, the patient developed nephrotic syndrome with biopsy-confirmed fibrillary glomerulonephritis (FGN). Further diagnostic studies were unremarkable with clinical workup negative for amyloidosis or other secondary causes of nephrotic syndrome.
Discussion
Individuals with FMF are at greater risk for developing nephrotic syndrome. The most serious etiology is amyloidosis (AA variant) with renal involvement, ultimately progressing to end-stage renal disease. Other known renal diseases in the FMF population include IgA nephropathy, IgM nephropathy, Henoch-Schönlein purpura as well as polyarteritis nodosa.
Conclusion
To our knowledge, this is the first association between FMF and the M680I mutation later complicated by nephrotic syndrome and fibrillary glomerulonephritis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-4-6
PMCID: PMC194618  PMID: 12908875
6.  Total and corrected antioxidant capacity in hemodialyzed patients 
BMC Nephrology  2003;4:4.
Background
Oxidative stress may play a critical role in the vascular disease of end stage renal failure and hemodialysis patients. Studies, analyzing either discrete analytes and antioxidant substances, or the integrated total antioxidant activity of human plasma during hemodialysis, give contradictory results.
Methods
Recently, we have introduced a new automated method for the determination of Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) of human plasma. We have serially measured TAC and corrected TAC (cTAC: after subtraction of the interactions due to endogenous uric acid, bilirubin and albumin) in 10 patients before the onset of the dialysis session, 10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h into the procedure and after completion of the session.
Results
Our results indicate that TAC decreases, reaching minimum levels at 2 h. However, corrected TAC increases with t1/2 of about 30 min. We then repeated the measurements in 65 patients undergoing dialysis with different filters (36 patients with ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer resin filter -Eval-, 23 patients with two polysulfone filters -10 with F6 and 13 with PSN140-, and 6 patients with hemophan filters). Three specimens were collected (0, 30, 240 min). The results of this second group confirm our initial results, while no significant difference was observed using either filter.
Conclusions
Our results are discussed under the point of view of possible mechanisms of modification of endogenous antioxidants, and the interaction of lipid- and water-soluble antioxidants.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-4-4
PMCID: PMC166281  PMID: 12837136
7.  HIVAN and medication use in chronic dialysis patients in the United States: analysis of the USRDS DMMS Wave 2 study 
BMC Nephrology  2003;4:5.
Background
The use and possible effects of factors known to improve outcomes in patients with human immunodeficiency virus associated nephropathy (HIVAN), namely of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE) and antiretroviral therapy, has not been reported for a national sample of dialysis patients.
Methods
We conducted a historical cohort study of the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Study (DMMS) Wave 2 to identify risk factors associated with increased mortality in these patients. Data were available for 3374 patients who started dialysis and were followed until March 2000. Cox Regression analysis was used to model adjusted hazard ratios (AHR) with HIVAN as a cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD) and its impact on mortality during the study period, adjusted for potential confounders.
Results
Of the 3374 patients who started dialysis, 36 (1.1%) had ESRD as a result of HIVAN. Only 22 (61%) of patients with HIVAN received antiretroviral agents, and only nine patients (25%) received combination antiretroviral therapy, and only 14% received ACE inhibitors. Neither the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs (AHR, 0.62, 95% CI, 0.10, 3.86, p = 0.60), or ACE inhibitors were associated with a survival advantage. Patients with HIVAN had an increased risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.74, 95% Confidence Interval, 3.12, 7.32, p < 0.01) compared to patients with other causes of ESRD.
Conclusions
Medications known to improve outcomes in HIV infected patients were underutilized in patients with HIVAN. Adjusted for other factors, a primary diagnosis of HIVAN was associated with increased mortality compared with other causes of ESRD.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-4-5
PMCID: PMC166168  PMID: 12837135
HIV; antiretroviral; angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors; dialysis; end-stage renal disease; calcium channel blockers; dihydropyridine; USRDS; heart failure; hyperparathyroidism
8.  r.hu-Erythropoietin (EPO) treatment of pre-ESRD patients slows the rate of progression of renal decline 
BMC Nephrology  2003;4:3.
Background
As EPO treatment of chronic anemia of advanced renal disease is now the standard of care we examined if such treatment may slow the progression of renal function decline.
Methods
Data of 18 pre-ESRD patients were analyzed retrospectively 12 months prior and prospectively 12 months after the initiation of EPO. Mean creatinine was 5.0 ± 1.8 mg/dL (Mean ± SEM) when starting EPO at a weekly dose of 5000 ± 500 units once the hematocrit was below 30 %. EPO dose was titrated monthly for a hematocrit between 33.0% and 37.0%. Metabolic complications and hypertension were controlled.
Results
At month_0 the average blood pressure was 148/76 ± 5/4 mmHg and at month_12 it was 145/73 ± 6/3 mmHg (p = 0.75 by 2 tailed paired Student's t test). 12/18 patients were on an ACE-i or ARB before month_0 and 14/18 were on it after (p = 0.71 by Fisher's 2 tailed exact test). The average hematocrit rose from 26.9% ± 0.6 to 33.1 % ± 0.1. When linear regression analysis was applied to pre- and post-EPO 1/creatinine data the mean rate of decline was -0.0140 ± 0.0119 (mean ± SD) and -0.0017 ± 0.0090 (non-parametric Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank sum test: Z value: -2.91; P = 0.004) respectively. 5/18 patients did not require dialysis 12 months after starting EPO (month_0).
Conclusion
Treatment of the anemia of chronic renal failure with erythropoietin, when instituted together with vigorous metabolic control may slow the rate of renal function decline.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-4-3
PMCID: PMC165597  PMID: 12809563
9.  Atherosclerotic ischemic renal disease. Diagnosis and prevalence in an hypertensive and/or uremic elderly population 
BMC Nephrology  2003;4:2.
Background
Atherosclerotic ischemic renal disease is a frequent cause of end-stage renal failure leading to dialysis among the elderly; Its prevalence is inferred from autopsy or retrospective arteriographic studies. This study has been conducted on 269 subjects over 50 with hypertension and/or CRF, unrelated to other known causes of renal disease.
Methods
All 269 patients were studied either by color-flow duplex sonography (n = 238) or by renal scintigraphy (n = 224), and 199 of the 269 patients were evaluated using both of these techniques. 40 patients, found to have renal artery stenosis (RAS), were subjected to 3D-contrast enhancement Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) and/or Selective Angiography (SA). An additional 23 cases, negative both to scintigraphy and to ultrasound study, underwent renal angiography (MRA and/or SA).
Results
Color-duplex sonography, carried out in 238 patients, revealed 49 cases of RAS. MR or SA was carried out in 35 of these 49 patients, and confirmed the diagnosis in 33. Color-duplex sonography showed a PPV value of 94.3% and NPV of 87.0% while renal scintigraphy, carried out in 224 patients, had a PPV of 72.2% and a NPV of 29.4%. Patients with RAS showed a higher degree of renal insufficiency compared to non stenotic patients while there were no differences in proteinuria. RAS, based on color-duplex sonography studies, was present in 11% of patients in the age group 50–59, 18% in the 60–69 and 23% at age 70 and above.
Conclusions
A relatively large percentage of the elderly population with renal insufficiency and/or hypertension is affected by RAS and is at risk of developing end-stage renal failure. Color-duplex ultrasonography is a valid routine method of investigation of population at risk for renal artery stenosis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-4-2
PMCID: PMC150566  PMID: 12622875
renal artery stenosis; atherosclerosis; chronic renal failure; doppler ultrasonography; isotopic renography; magnetic resonance angiography
10.  Atrial fibrillation in chronic dialysis patients in the United states: risk factors for hospitalization and mortality 
BMC Nephrology  2003;4:1.
Background
The incidence and risk factors for hospitalized atrial fibrillation have not been previously assessed in a national population of dialysis patients.
Methods
We analyzed the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Study (DMMS) Wave II in a historical cohort study of hospitalized atrial fibrillation. Data from 3374 patients who started dialysis in 1996 with valid follow-up times were available for analysis, censored at the time of renal transplantation and followed until November 2000. Cox Regression analysis was used to model factors associated with time to first hospitalization for atrial fibrillation (ICD9 code 427.31x) adjusted for comorbidities, demographic factors, baseline laboratory values, blood pressures, dialysis modality, and cardioprotective medications.
Results
The incidence density of atrial fibrillation was 12.5/1000 person years. Factors associated with atrial fibrillation were older age (> = 71 years vs. <48 years), extremes (both high and low) of pre-dialysis systolic blood pressure, dialysis modality (hemodialysis vs. peritoneal dialysis), and digoxin use. Baseline use of coumadin was associated with reduced mortality in patients later hospitalized for atrial fibrillation.
Conclusions
Dialysis patients had a high incidence of atrial fibrillation. This risk was largely segregated among those with established risk factors for atrial fibrillation, and hemodialysis patients. Use of coumadin was associated with improved survival among patients later hospitalized for atrial fibrillation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-4-1
PMCID: PMC149358  PMID: 12546711
atrial fibrillation; hospitalization; dialysis; coumadin; beta-blockers; USRDS; age; blood pressure

Results 1-10 (10)