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1.  Successful recovery of infective endocarditis-induced rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis by steroid therapy combined with antibiotics: a case report 
BMC Nephrology  2004;5:18.
Background
The mortality rate among patients with infective endocarditis, especially associated with the presence of complications or coexisting conditions such as renal failure and the use of combined medical and surgical therapy remains still high. Prolonged parenteral administration of a bactericidal antimicrobial agent or combination of agents is usually recommended, however, the optimal therapy for infective endocarditis associated with renal injury is not adequately defined.
Case presentation
Patient was a 24-years old man who presented to our hospital with fever, fatigue, and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. He had a history of ventricular septum defect (VSD). A renal biopsy specimen revealed crescentic glomerulonephritis and echocardiogram revealed VSD with vegetation on the tricuspid valve. Specimens of blood demonstrated Propionibacterium Acnes. The intensive antibiotic therapy with penicillin G was started without clinical improvement of renal function or resolution of fever over the next 7 days. After the short-term treatment of low dose of corticosteroid combined with continuous antibiotics, high fever and renal insufficiency were dramatically improved.
Conclusion
Although renal function in our case worsened despite therapy with antibiotics, a short-term and low dose of corticosteroid therapy with antibiotics was able to recover renal function and the patient finally underwent tricuspid valve-plasty and VSD closure. We suggest that the patients with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis associated with infective endocarditis might be treated with a short-term and low dose of corticosteroid successfully.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-5-18
PMCID: PMC544880  PMID: 15610562
2.  Lipoprotein lipase in hemodialysis patients: indications that low molecular weight heparin depletes functional stores, despite low plasma levels of the enzyme 
BMC Nephrology  2004;5:17.
Background
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) has a central role in the catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. The enzyme is anchored to the vascular endothelium through interaction with heparan sulphate proteoglycans and is displaced from this interaction by heparin. When heparin is infused, there is a peak of LPL activity accompanied by a reduction in triglycerides (TG) during the first hour, followed by a decrease in LPL activity to a stable plateau during the remaining session while TG increase towards and beyond baseline. This suggests that tissue stores of LPL become depleted. It has been argued that low molecular weight (LMW) heparins cause less disturbance of the LPL system than conventional heparin does.
Methods
We have followed LPL activity and TG during a dialysis-session with a LMW heparin (dalteparin) using the same patients and regime as in a previous study with conventional heparin, i.e. a primed infusion.
Results
The shape of the curve for LPL activity resembled that during the earlier dialyses with conventional heparin, but the values were lower during dialysis with dalteparin. The area under the curve for LPL activity during the peak period (0–180 minutes) was only 27% and for the plateau period (180–240 minutes) it was only 36% of that observed with conventional heparin (p < 0.01). These remarkably low plasma LPL activities prompted us to re-analyze LPL activity and to measure LPL mass in frozen samples from our earlier studies. There was excellent correlation between the new and old values which rules out the possibility of assay variations as a confounding factor. TG increased from 2.14 mmol/L before, to 2.59 mmol/L after the dialysis (p < 0.01). From 30 minutes on, the TG values were significantly higher after dalteparin compared to conventional heparin (p < 0.05).
Conclusion
These results indicate that LMW heparins disturb the LPL system as much or more than conventional heparin does.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-5-17
PMCID: PMC534103  PMID: 15527497
3.  Active collaboration with primary care providers increases specialist referral in chronic renal disease 
BMC Nephrology  2004;5:16.
Background
Late referral to specialist nephrological care is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and cost. Consequently, nephrologists' associations recommend early referral. The recommendations' effectiveness remains questionable: 22–51% of referrals need renal replacement therapy (RRT) within 3–4 months. This may be due to these recommendations addressing the specialist, rather than the primary care providers (PCP).
The potential of specialist intervention aiming at slowing progression of chronic renal failure was introduced individually to some 250 local PCPs, and referral strategies were discussed. To overcome the PCPs' most often expressed fears, every referred patient was asked to report back to his PCP immediately after the initial specialist examination, and new medications were prescribed directly, and thus allotted to the nephrologist's budget.
Methods
In retrospective analysis, the stage of renal disease in patients referred within three months before the introductory round (group A, n = 18), was compared to referrals two years later (group B, n = 50).
Results
Relative number of patients remained stable (28%) for mild/ moderate chronic kidney disease (MMCKD), while there was a noticeable shift from patients referred severe chronic kidney disease (SCKD) (group A: 44%, group B: 20%) to patients referred in moderate chronic kidney disease (MCKD) (group A: 28%, group B: 52%).
Conclusion
Individually addressing PCPs' ignorance and concerns noticeably decreased late referral. This stresses the importance of enhancing the PCPs' problem awareness and knowledge of available resources in order to ensure timely specialist referral.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-5-16
PMCID: PMC529261  PMID: 15498108
4.  Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis: one year outcome of total and separate kidney function following stenting 
BMC Nephrology  2004;5:15.
Background
Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is a known cause of hypertension and ischemic nephropathy. Stenting of the artery is a valid approach, in spite of cases of unexpected adverse evolution of renal function.
Methods
In this study, 27 patients with unilateral RAS were subjected to stenting and followed for a period of one year, while 19 patients were observed while on medical treatment only. The group of 27 patients, 67.33 ± 6.8 years of age, creatinine of 2.15 ± 0.9 mg/dl, following stenting, were followed at intervals with biochemical tests, renal scintigraphy and doppler ultrasonography. The control group (70.0 ± 6.1 years, creatinine 1.99 ± 0.7 mg/dl) was also followed for one year.
Result
One year after stenting mean creatinine clearance (Ccr) increased from 36.07 ± 17.2 to 40.4 ± 21.6 ml/min (NS). Arterial BP, decreased after 1,3,6, and 12 months (p < 0.05). The number of antihypertensive drugs also decreased (p < 0.05). A significant increase in proteinuria was also observed. In the control group both Ccr, BP and proteinuria did not show significant changes. Based on renal scintigraphy and Ccr at subsequent times, it was possibile to evaluate the timecourse of renal function in both kidneys of the stented patients. In the stented kidneys Ccr increased significantly. On the controlateral kidney a decrease of renal function (p < 0.05) was observed. Resistance index appeared to be a risk factor of the functional outcome.
Conclusions
Stenting of RAS due to atherosclerosis is followed by stabilization or improvement of Ccr, mainly at the stented kidney, while contralateral renal function showed a decrease.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-5-15
PMCID: PMC527878  PMID: 15488139
5.  BIOKID: Randomized controlled trial comparing bicarbonate and lactate buffer in biocompatible peritoneal dialysis solutions in children [ISRCTN81137991] 
BMC Nephrology  2004;5:14.
Background
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is the preferred dialysis modality in children. Its major drawback is the limited technique survival due to infections and progressive ultrafiltration failure. Conventional PD solutions exert marked acute and chronic toxicity to local tissues. Prolonged exposure is associated with severe histopathological alterations including vasculopathy, neoangiogenesis, submesothelial fibrosis and a gradual loss of the mesothelial cell layer. Recently, more biocompatible PD solutions containing reduced amounts of toxic glucose degradation products (GDPs) and buffered at neutral pH have been introduced into clinical practice. These solutions contain lactate, bicarbonate or a combination of both as buffer substance. Increasing evidence from clinical trials in adults and children suggests that the new PD fluids may allow for better long-term preservation of peritoneal morphology and function. However, the relative importance of the buffer in neutral-pH, low-GDP fluids is still unclear. In vitro, lactate is cytotoxic and vasoactive at the concentrations used in PD fluids. The BIOKID trial is designed to clarify the clinical significance of the buffer choice in biocompatible PD fluids.
Methods/design
The objective of the study is to test the hypothesis that bicarbonate based PD solutions may allow for a better preservation of peritoneal transport characteristics in children than solutions containing lactate buffer. Secondary objectives are to assess any impact of the buffer system on acid-base status, peritoneal tissue integrity and the incidence and severity of peritonitis.
After a run-in period of 2 months during which a targeted cohort of 60 patients is treated with a conventional, lactate buffered, acidic, GDP containing PD fluid, patients will be stratified according to residual renal function and type of phosphate binding medication and randomized to receive either the lactate-containing Balance solution or the bicarbonate-buffered Bicavera® solution for a period of 10 months. Patients will be monitored by monthly physical and laboratory examinations. Peritoneal equilibration tests, 24-h dialysate and urine collections will be performed 4 times. Peritoneal biopsies will be obtained on occasion of intraabdominal surgery. Changes in small solute transport rates, markers of peritoneal tissue turnover in the effluent, acid-base status and peritonitis rates and severity will be analyzed.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-5-14
PMCID: PMC529259  PMID: 15485574
6.  The role of hemodialysis machines dedication in reducing Hepatitis C transmission in the dialysis setting in Iran: A multicenter prospective interventional study 
BMC Nephrology  2004;5:13.
Background
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a significant problem among patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD). We conducted a prospective multi-center study to evaluate the effect of dialysis machine separation on the spread of HCV infection.
Methods
Twelve randomly selected dialysis centers in Tehran, Iran were randomly divided into two groups; those using dedicated machines (D) for HCV infected individuals and those using non-dedicated HD machines (ND). 593 HD cases including 51 HCV positive (RT-PCR) cases and 542 HCV negative patients were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of HCV infection in the D group was 10.1% (range: 4.6%– 13.2%) and it was 7.1% (range: 4.2%–16.8%) in the ND group. During the study conduction 5 new HCV positive cases and 169 new HCV negative cases were added. In the D group, PCR positive patients were dialyzed on dedicated machines. In the ND group all patients shared the same machines.
Results
In the first follow-up period, the incidence of HCV infection was 1.6% and 4.7% in the D and ND group respectively (p = 0.05). In the second follow-up period, the incidence of HCV infection was 1.3% in the D group and 5.7% in the ND group (p < 0.05).
Conclusions
In this study the incidence of HCV in HD patients decreased by the use of dedicated HD machines for HCV infected patients. Additional studies may help to clarify the role of machine dedication in conjunction with application of universal precautions in reducing HCV transmission.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-5-13
PMCID: PMC529260  PMID: 15469615
7.  Renal outcome in adults with renal insufficiency and irregular asymmetric kidneys 
BMC Nephrology  2004;5:12.
Background
The commonest cause of end-stage renal failure (ESRF) in children and young adults is congenital malformation of the kidney and urinary tract. In this retrospective review, we examine whether progression to ESRF can be predicted and whether treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) can delay or prevent this.
Methods
We reviewed 78 patients with asymmetric irregular kidneys as a consequence of either primary vesico-ureteric reflux or renal dysplasia (Group 1, n = 44), or abnormal bladder function (Group 2, n = 34). Patients (median age 24 years) had an estimated GFR (eGFR) < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 with at least 5 years of follow up (median 143 months). 48 patients received ACEI. We explored potential prognostic factors that affect the time to ESRF using Cox-regression analyses.
Results
At start, mean (SE) creatinine was 189 (8) μmol/l, mean eGFR 41 (1) ml/min 1.73 m2, mean proteinuria 144 (14) mg/mmol creatinine (1.7 g/24 hrs). Of 78 patients, 36 (46%) developed ESRF, but none of 19 with proteinuria less than 50 mg/mmol and only two of 18 patients with eGFR above 50 ml/min did so. Renal outcome between Groups 1 and 2 appeared similar with no evidence for a difference. A benefit in favour of treatment with ACEI was observed above an eGFR of 40 ml/min (p = 0.024).
Conclusion
The similar outcome of the two groups supports the nephrological nature of progressive renal failure in young men born with abnormal bladders. There is a watershed GFR of 40–50 ml/min at which ACEI treatment can be successful at improving renal outcome.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-5-12
PMCID: PMC526254  PMID: 15462683
8.  Comparison of glucose tolerance in renal transplant recipients and hemodialysis patients 
BMC Nephrology  2004;5:11.
Background
Impaired glucose tolerance is a risk factor for atherosclerosis in hemodialysis patients and renal transplant recipients.
Methods
To check the relationship of impaired glucose tolerance with the other atherosclerotic risk factors, fasting blood sugar and the standard two hour glucose tolerance test, serum tryglyceride, serum cholesterol, cyclosporine through level (in renal tranpslant recipients) and hemoglobin A1C were measured in 55 stable renal transplant recipients, 55 hemodialysis patients and 55 healthy controls with similar demographic characteristics. Patients with diabetes mellitus and propranolol consumers were excluded. The mean age and female to male ratio were 39 +/- 7 years and 23/22, respectively.
Results
Four of the renal transplant recipients and twelve of the hemodialysis patients had impaired glucose tolerance. Significant linear correlation was observed with body mass index and IGT only in hemodialysis patients (r = 0.4, p = 0.05). Glucose tolerance also had a significant correlation with triglyceride levels (217.2 +/- 55 mg/dl in hemodialysis patients vs. 214.3 +/- 13 mg/dl in renal transplant recipients and 100.2 +/- 18 mg/dl in control groups, p = 0.001). The glucose tolerance had significant relationship with higher serum cholesterol levels only in the renal transplant recipients (269.7 +/- 54 in renal transplant recipients vs. 199.2 +/- 36.6 mg/dl in hemodialysis and 190.5 +/- 34 mg/dl in control groups, p = 0.0001). In the renal transplant recipients, a linear correlation was observed with glucose tolerance and both the serum cyclosporine level (r = 0.9, p = 0.001) and the hemoglobin A1C concentration (6.2 +/- 0.9 g/dl). The later correlation was also observed in the hemodialysis patients (6.4 +/- 0.7 g/dl; r = 67, p = 0.001).
Conclusions
We conclude that although fasting blood sugar is normal in non-diabetic renal transplant and hemodialysis patients, impaired glucose tolerance could be associated with the other atherosclerotic risk factors.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-5-11
PMCID: PMC522749  PMID: 15355547
9.  Race/ethnicity and disease severity in IgA nephropathy 
BMC Nephrology  2004;5:10.
Background
Relatively few U.S.-based studies in chronic kidney disease have focused on Asian/Pacific Islanders. Clinical reports suggest that Asian/Pacific Islanders are more likely to be affected by IgA nephropathy (IgAN), and that the severity of disease is increased in these populations.
Methods
To explore whether these observations are borne out in a multi-ethnic, tertiary care renal pathology practice, we examined clinical and pathologic data on 298 patients with primary glomerular lesions (IgAN, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, membranous nephropathy and minimal change disease) at the University of California San Francisco Medical Center from November 1994 through May 2001. Pathologic assessment of native kidney biopsies with IgAN was conducted using Haas' classification system.
Results
Among individuals with IgAN (N = 149), 89 (60%) were male, 57 (38%) white, 53 (36%) Asian/Pacific Islander, 29 (19%) Hispanic, 4 (3%) African American and 6 (4%) were of other or unknown ethnicity. The mean age was 37 ± 14 years and median serum creatinine 1.7 mg/dL. Sixty-six patients (44%) exhibited nephrotic range proteinuria at the time of kidney biopsy. The distributions of age, gender, mean serum creatinine, and presence or absence of nephrotic proteinuria and/or hypertension at the time of kidney biopsy were not significantly different among white, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islander groups. Of the 124 native kidney biopsies with IgAN, 10 (8%) cases were classified into Haas subclass I, 12 (10%) subclass II, 23 (18%) subclass III, 30 (25%) subclass IV, and 49 (40%) subclass V. The distribution of Haas subclass did not differ significantly by race/ethnicity. In comparison, among the random sample of patients with non-IgAN glomerular lesions (N = 149), 77 (52%) patients were male, 51 (34%) white, 42 (28%) Asian/Pacific Islander, 25 (17%) Hispanic, and 30 (20%) were African American.
Conclusions
With the caveats of referral and biopsy biases, the race/ethnicity distribution of IgAN differs significantly from that of other major glomerulonephridities. However, among individuals undergoing native kidney biopsy, we see no evidence of a race/ethnicity association with severity of disease in IgAN by clinical and IgAN-specific histopathologic criteria. Further studies are needed to identify populations at higher risk for progressive disease in IgAN.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-5-10
PMCID: PMC517500  PMID: 15341669
10.  Dialysis Disequilibrium Syndrome: Brain death following hemodialysis for metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure – A case report 
BMC Nephrology  2004;5:9.
Background
Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS) is the clinical phenomenon of acute neurologic symptoms attributed to cerebral edema that occurs during or following intermittent hemodialysis (HD). We describe a case of DDS-induced cerebral edema that resulted in irreversible brain injury and death following acute HD and review the relevant literature of the association of DDS and HD.
Case Presentation
A 22-year-old male with obstructive uropathy presented to hospital with severe sepsis syndrome secondary to pneumonia. Laboratory investigations included a pH of 6.95, PaCO2 10 mmHg, HCO3 2 mmol/L, serum sodium 132 mmol/L, serum osmolality 330 mosmol/kg, and urea 130 mg/dL (46.7 mmol/L). Diagnostic imaging demonstrated multifocal pneumonia, bilateral hydronephrosis and bladder wall thickening. During HD the patient became progressively obtunded. Repeat laboratory investigations showed pH 7.36, HCO3 19 mmol/L, potassium 1.8 mmol/L, and urea 38.4 mg/dL (13.7 mmol/L) (urea-reduction-ratio 71%). Following HD, spontaneous movements were absent with no pupillary or brainstem reflexes. Head CT-scan showed diffuse cerebral edema with effacement of basal cisterns and generalized loss of gray-white differentiation. Brain death was declared.
Conclusions
Death is a rare consequence of DDS in adults following HD. Several features may have predisposed this patient to DDS including: central nervous system adaptations from chronic kidney disease with efficient serum urea removal and correction of serum hyperosmolality; severe cerebral intracellular acidosis; relative hypercapnea; and post-HD hemodynamic instability with compounded cerebral ischemia.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-5-9
PMCID: PMC515303  PMID: 15318947
11.  Effects of chemokines on proliferation and apoptosis of human mesangial cells 
BMC Nephrology  2004;5:8.
Background
Proliferation and apoptosis of mesangial cells (MC) are important mechanisms during nephrogenesis, for the maintenance of glomerular homeostasis as well as in renal disease and glomerular regeneration. Expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors by intrinsic renal cells, e.g. SLC/CCL21 on podocytes and CCR7 on MC is suggested to play a pivotal role during these processes. Therefore the effect of selected chemokines on MC proliferation and apoptosis was studied.
Methods
Proliferation assays, cell death assays including cell cycle analysis, hoechst stain and measurement of caspase-3 activity were performed.
Results
A dose-dependent, mesangioproliferative effect of the chemokine SLC/CCL21, which is constitutively expressed on human podocytes was seen via activation of the chemokine receptor CCR7, which is constitutively expressed on MC. In addition, in cultured MC SLC/CCL21 had a protective effect on cell survival in Fas-mediated apoptosis. The CXCR3 ligands IP-10/CXCL10 and Mig/CXCL9 revealed a proproliferative effect but did not influence apoptosis of MC. Both the CCR1 ligand RANTES/CCL5 and the amino-terminally modified RANTES analogue Met-RANTES which blocks CCR1 signalling had no effect on proliferation and apoptosis.
Conclusions
The different effects of chemokines and their respective receptors on proliferation and apoptosis of MC suggest highly regulated, novel biological functions of chemokine/chemokine receptor pairs in processes involved in renal inflammation, regeneration and glomerular homeostasis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-5-8
PMCID: PMC493268  PMID: 15265234
Mesangial cell; proliferation; apoptosis; chemokine; chemokine receptor
12.  Reversal of end-stage renal disease after aortic dissection using renal artery stent: a case report 
BMC Nephrology  2004;5:7.
Background
Medical management is the conventional treatment for Stanford Type B aortic dissections as surgery is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The advent of endovascular interventional techniques has revived interest in treating end-organ complications of Type B aortic dissection. We describe a patient who benefited from endovascular repair of renal artery stenosis caused by a dissection flap, which resulted in reversal of his end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
Case presentation
A 69 y/o male with a Type B aortic dissection diagnosed two months earlier was found to have a serum creatinine of 15.2 mg/dL (1343.7 μmol/L) on routine visit to his primary care physician. An MRA demonstrated a rightward spiraling aortic dissection flap involving the origins of the celiac artery, superior mesenteric artery, and both renal arteries. The right renal artery arose from the false lumen with lack of blood flow to the right kidney. The left renal artery arose from the true lumen, but an intimal dissection flap appeared to be causing an intermittent stenosis of the left renal artery with compromised blood flow to the left kidney. Endovascular reconstruction with of the left renal artery with stent placement was performed. Hemodialysis was successfully discontinued six weeks after stent placement.
Conclusion
Percutaneous intervention provides a promising alternative for patients with Type B aortic dissections when medical treatment will not improve the likelihood of meaningful recovery and surgery entails too great a risk. Nephrologists should therefore be aggressive in the workup of ischemic renal failure associated with aortic dissection as percutaneous intervention may reverse the effects of renal failure in this population.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-5-7
PMCID: PMC416478  PMID: 15125782
13.  Protection of rat renal vitamin E levels by ischemic-preconditioning 
BMC Nephrology  2004;5:6.
Background
During renal transplantation, the kidney remains without blood flow for a period of time. The following reperfusion of this ischemic kidney causes functional and structural injury. Formation of oxygen-derived free radicals (OFR) and subsequent lipid peroxidation (LP) has been implicated as the causative factors of these injuries. Vitamin E is known to be the main endogenous antioxidant that stabilizes cell membranes by interfering with LP. The present study was designed to examine the role of ischemic-preconditioning (repeated brief periods of ischemia, IPC) in prevention of renal injury caused by ischemia-reperfusion (IR) in rats.
Methods
IPC included sequential clamping of the right renal artery for 5 min and release of the clamp for another 5 min for a 3 cycles. IR was induced by 30 min ischemia followed by 10 min reperfusion. Four groups of male rats were used: Control, IPC, IR and IPC-IR. Vitamin E, an endogenous antioxidant and as an index of LP, was measured by HPLC and UV detection in renal venous plasma and tissue. Renal function was assessed by serum creatinine and BUN levels. Renal damage was assessed in sections stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin.
Results
In the IR group, there was a significant decrease in vitamin E in plasma and tissue compared to a control group (p,0.05). In the IPC-IR group, vitamin E concentration was significantly higher than in the IR group (p,0.01). The results showed that 30 min ischemia in the IR group significantly (p,0.05) reduced renal function demonstrated by an increase in serum creatinine levels as compared with the control group. These results in the IPC group also showed a significant difference with the IR group but no significant difference in serum BUN and creatinine between IR and IPC-IR group were detected. Histological evaluation showed no structural damage in the IPC group and an improvement in the IPC-IR group compared to IR alone.
Conclusions
In this study, IPC preserved vitamin E levels, but it could not markedly improve renal function in the early phase (1–2 h) of reperfusion. IPC may be a useful method for antioxidant preservation in organ transplantation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-5-6
PMCID: PMC411039  PMID: 15115553
14.  Hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome (HHS) in an 18-month old-child presenting as malignant hypertension: a case report 
BMC Nephrology  2004;5:5.
Background
The combination of hyponatremia and renovascular hypertension is called hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome (HHS). Malignant hypertension as a presentation has been reported in adults with HHS but is rare in children.
Case presentation
An eighteen month-old male presented with drowsiness, sudden onset status epilepticus and blood pressure of 210/160. The electrolytes on admission revealed sodium of 120 mEq/L and potassium of 2.1 mEq/L. The peripheral renin activity (PRA) was 172 ng/ml/min (normal 3–11 ng/ml/min) and serum aldosterone level was 91 ng/dl (normal 4 to 16 ng/dl). Patient underwent angioplasty with no success, followed by surgical correction. Two years since the diagnosis, the blood pressure is controlled with labetolol and amlodipine (at less than sixth of the pre-operative dosages). The PRA is 2.4 ng/ml/min and aldosterone 15.5 ng/dl. The child not only had three renal arteries on left but all of them were stenosed which to best of our knowledge has not been described.
Conclusion
As uncommon as HHS with malignant hypertension may be in adults it is under-reported in children and purpose of the case report is to raise its awareness.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-5-5
PMCID: PMC420241  PMID: 15113447
15.  A new mouse model for renal lesions produced by intravenous injection of diphtheria toxin A-chain expression plasmid 
BMC Nephrology  2004;5:4.
Background
Various animal models of renal failure have been produced and used to investigate mechanisms underlying renal disease and develop therapeutic drugs. Most methods available to produce such models appear to involve subtotal nephrectomy or intravenous administration of antibodies raised against basement membrane of glomeruli. In this study, we developed a novel method to produce mouse models of renal failure by intravenous injection of a plasmid carrying a toxic gene such as diphtheria toxin A-chain (DT-A) gene. DT-A is known to kill cells by inhibiting protein synthesis.
Methods
An expression plasmid carrying the cytomegalovirus enhancer/chicken β-actin promoter linked to a DT-A gene was mixed with lipid (FuGENE™6) and the resulting complexes were intravenously injected into adult male B6C3F1 mice every day for up to 6 days. After final injection, the kidneys of these mice were sampled on day 4 and weeks 3 and 5.
Results
H-E staining of the kidney specimens sampled on day 4 revealed remarkable alterations in glomerular compartments, as exemplified by mesangial cell proliferation and formation of extensive deposits in glomerular basement membrane. At weeks 3 and 5, gradual recovery of these tissues was observed. These mice exhibited proteinuria and disease resembling sub-acute glomerulonephritis.
Conclusions
Repeated intravenous injections of DT-A expression plasmid DNA/lipid complex caused temporary abnormalities mainly in glomeruli of mouse kidney. The disease in these mice resembles sub-acute glomerulonephritis. These DT-A gene-incorporated mice will be useful as animal models in the fields of nephrology and regenerative medicine.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-5-4
PMCID: PMC419703  PMID: 15102324
diphtheria toxin; intravenous injection; plasmid/liposome complex; renal disease; cell ablation; glomerulonephritis
16.  A randomized controlled trial of mycophenolate mofetil in patients with IgA nephropathy [ISRCTN62574616] 
BMC Nephrology  2004;5:3.
Background
IgAN is the most common type of glomerulonephritis in the world. Between 15 and 40 percent of adults and children diagnosed with IgAN eventually progress to ESRD. Despite the need for effective treatment strategies, very few RCTs for IgAN have been performed. The most effective therapies for IgAN appear to be corticosteroids, ACEi, and FOS that contain a high concentration of omega 3 fatty acids. While ACEi and FOS are generally well tolerated with minimal side effects, the use of high dose steroids over a long course of therapy is often associated with significant morbidity.
Objective of the study
The objective of the study is to test the hypothesis that treatment with the immunosuppressive agent, MMF, will lead to significant and sustained improvement in urinary protein excretion in patients with IgAN who have been pre-treated (and continue to be treated) with ACEi and FOS compared to a placebo control group of patients receiving comparable doses of ACEi and FOS without MMF.
Design
After a three month treatment period with the ACEi, lisinopril and the FOS, Omacor®, 100 (2 × 50) patients with IgAN and a urinary P/C ratio ≥ 0.6 (males) and ≥ 0.8 (females) and an estGFR ≥ 40 ml/min/1.73 m2 will be randomized to treatment with either MMF or placebo for one year. All patients will be followed off study drug for a second year, but will continue treatment with lisinopril and Omacor® for the two year duration of the study. The primary outcome measure of change in urine P/C ratio will be assessed at the end of years one and two.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-5-3
PMCID: PMC415550  PMID: 15043759
17.  Severe symptomatic hyponatremia during citalopram therapy - a case report 
BMC Nephrology  2004;5:2.
Background
Hyponatremia secondary to the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone is an uncommon complication of treatment with the new class of antidepressant agents, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The risk of hyponatremia seems to be highest during the first weeks of treatment particularly, in elderly females and in patients with a lower body weight.
Case Presentation
A 61-year-old diabetic male was admitted to the hospital because of malaise, progressive confusion, and a tonic/clonic seizure two weeks after starting citalopram, 20 mg/day. On physical examination the patient was euvolemic and had no evidence of malignancy, cardiac, renal, hepatic, adrenal or thyroid disease. Laboratory tests results revealed hyponatremia, serum hypoosmolality, urine hyperosmolarity, and an elevated urine sodium concentration, leading to the diagnosis of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. Citalopram was discontinued and fluid restriction was instituted. The patient was discharged after serum sodium increased from 124 mmol/L to 134 mmol/L. Two weeks after discharge the patient denied any new seizures, confusion or malaise. At that time his serum sodium was 135 mmol/L.
Conclusions
Because the use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors is becoming more popular among elderly depressed patients the present paper and other reported cases emphasize the need of greater awareness of the development of this serious complication and suggest that sodium serum levels should be monitored closely in elderly patients during treatment with citalopram.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-5-2
PMCID: PMC331411  PMID: 14728721
18.  Determination of iron sucrose (Venofer) or iron dextran (DexFerrum) removal by hemodialysis: an in-vitro study 
BMC Nephrology  2004;5:1.
Background
Intravenous iron is typically administered during the hemodialysis (HD) procedure. HD patients may be prescribed high-flux (HF) or high-efficiency (HE) dialysis membranes. The extent of iron sucrose and iron dextran removal by HD using HF or HE membranes and by ultrafiltration rate (UFR) is unknown.
Methods
Two in vitro HD systems were designed and constructed to determine the dialyzabiltiy of iron from a simulated blood system (SBS) containing 100 mg iron sucrose or iron dextran (system A) or 1000 mg iron sucrose (system B). Both in vitro systems utilized a 6-L closed-loop SBS system that was subject to 4 different HD conditions conducted over 4 hours: HE membrane + 0 ml/hr UFR; HE membrane + 500 ml/hr UFR; HF membrane + 0 ml/hr UFR; HF membrane + 500 ml/hr UFR. Blood flow and dialysate flow rates were 500 ml/min and 800 ml/min, respectively. The dialysate compartment was a 192-L open system for system A and a 6-L closed-loop system for system B. Samples from the SBS and dialysate compartments were taken at various time points and iron elimination rate and HD clearance was determined. Iron removal from the SBS > 15% was considered clinically significant.
Results
The greatest percentage removal from the SBS was 13.5% and -0.03% utilizing system A and B, respectively. Iron sucrose and iron dextran dialysate concentration was below the lower limits of assay (< 2 ppm) for system A. Dialysate recovery of iron was negligible: 0 – 5.4 mg system A and 5.47 – 23.59 mg for system B. Dialyzer type or UFR did not affect iron removal.
Conclusion
HF or HE dialysis membranes do not remove clinically significant amounts of iron sucrose or dextran formulations over a 4-hour HD session. This effect remained constant even controlling for UFR up to 500 ml/hour. Therefore, iron sucrose and iron dextran are not dialyzed by HE or HF dialysis membranes irrespective of UFR.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-5-1
PMCID: PMC324405  PMID: 14718064
iron sucrose; iron dextran; in vitro; hemodialysis; clearance

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