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1.  Risk factors of one year increment of coronary calcifications and survival in hemodialysis patients 
BMC Nephrology  2010;11:10.
Background
Heart and coronary calcifications in hemodialysis patients are of very common occurrence and linked to cardiovascular events and mortality. Several studies have been published with similar results. Most of them were mainly cross-sectional and some of the prospective protocols were aimed to evaluate the results of the control of altered biochemical parameters of mineral disturbances with special regard to serum calcium, phosphate and CaxP with the use of calcium containing and calcium free phosphate chelating agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in hemodialysis patients classic and some non classic risk factors as predictors of calcification changes after one year and to evaluate the impact of progression on survival.
Methods
81 patients on hemodialysis were studied, with a wide age range and HD vintage. Several classic parameters and some less classic risk factors were studied like fetuin-A, CRP, 25-OHD and leptin. Calcifications, as Agatston scores, were evaluated with Multislice CT basally and after 12-18 months.
Results
Coronary artery calcifications were observed in 71 of 81 patients. Non parametric correlations between Agatston scores and Age, HD Age, PTH and CRP were significant. Delta increments of Agatston scores correlated also with serum calcium, CaxP, Fetuin-A, triglycerides and serum albumin. Logistic regression analysis showed Age, PTH and serum calcium as important predictors of Delta Agatston scores. LN transformation of the not normally distributed variables restricted the significant correlations to Age, BMI and CRP. Considering the Delta Agatston scores as dependent, significant predictors were Age, PTH and HDL. A strong association was found between basal calcification scores and Delta increment at one year. By logistic analysis, the one year increments in Agatston scores were found to be predictors of mortality. Diabetic and hypertensive patients have significantly higher Delta scores.
Conclusions
Progression of calcification is of common occurrence, with special regard to elevated basal scores, and is predictive of survival. Higher predictive value of survival is linked to the one year increment of calcification scores. Some classic and non classic risk factors play an important role in progression. Some of them could be controlled with appropriate management with possible improvement of mortality.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-11-10
PMCID: PMC2903573  PMID: 20565936
2.  Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis: one year outcome of total and separate kidney function following stenting 
BMC Nephrology  2004;5:15.
Background
Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is a known cause of hypertension and ischemic nephropathy. Stenting of the artery is a valid approach, in spite of cases of unexpected adverse evolution of renal function.
Methods
In this study, 27 patients with unilateral RAS were subjected to stenting and followed for a period of one year, while 19 patients were observed while on medical treatment only. The group of 27 patients, 67.33 ± 6.8 years of age, creatinine of 2.15 ± 0.9 mg/dl, following stenting, were followed at intervals with biochemical tests, renal scintigraphy and doppler ultrasonography. The control group (70.0 ± 6.1 years, creatinine 1.99 ± 0.7 mg/dl) was also followed for one year.
Result
One year after stenting mean creatinine clearance (Ccr) increased from 36.07 ± 17.2 to 40.4 ± 21.6 ml/min (NS). Arterial BP, decreased after 1,3,6, and 12 months (p < 0.05). The number of antihypertensive drugs also decreased (p < 0.05). A significant increase in proteinuria was also observed. In the control group both Ccr, BP and proteinuria did not show significant changes. Based on renal scintigraphy and Ccr at subsequent times, it was possibile to evaluate the timecourse of renal function in both kidneys of the stented patients. In the stented kidneys Ccr increased significantly. On the controlateral kidney a decrease of renal function (p < 0.05) was observed. Resistance index appeared to be a risk factor of the functional outcome.
Conclusions
Stenting of RAS due to atherosclerosis is followed by stabilization or improvement of Ccr, mainly at the stented kidney, while contralateral renal function showed a decrease.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-5-15
PMCID: PMC527878  PMID: 15488139
3.  Atherosclerotic ischemic renal disease. Diagnosis and prevalence in an hypertensive and/or uremic elderly population 
BMC Nephrology  2003;4:2.
Background
Atherosclerotic ischemic renal disease is a frequent cause of end-stage renal failure leading to dialysis among the elderly; Its prevalence is inferred from autopsy or retrospective arteriographic studies. This study has been conducted on 269 subjects over 50 with hypertension and/or CRF, unrelated to other known causes of renal disease.
Methods
All 269 patients were studied either by color-flow duplex sonography (n = 238) or by renal scintigraphy (n = 224), and 199 of the 269 patients were evaluated using both of these techniques. 40 patients, found to have renal artery stenosis (RAS), were subjected to 3D-contrast enhancement Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) and/or Selective Angiography (SA). An additional 23 cases, negative both to scintigraphy and to ultrasound study, underwent renal angiography (MRA and/or SA).
Results
Color-duplex sonography, carried out in 238 patients, revealed 49 cases of RAS. MR or SA was carried out in 35 of these 49 patients, and confirmed the diagnosis in 33. Color-duplex sonography showed a PPV value of 94.3% and NPV of 87.0% while renal scintigraphy, carried out in 224 patients, had a PPV of 72.2% and a NPV of 29.4%. Patients with RAS showed a higher degree of renal insufficiency compared to non stenotic patients while there were no differences in proteinuria. RAS, based on color-duplex sonography studies, was present in 11% of patients in the age group 50–59, 18% in the 60–69 and 23% at age 70 and above.
Conclusions
A relatively large percentage of the elderly population with renal insufficiency and/or hypertension is affected by RAS and is at risk of developing end-stage renal failure. Color-duplex ultrasonography is a valid routine method of investigation of population at risk for renal artery stenosis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-4-2
PMCID: PMC150566  PMID: 12622875
renal artery stenosis; atherosclerosis; chronic renal failure; doppler ultrasonography; isotopic renography; magnetic resonance angiography

Results 1-3 (3)