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1.  Risk of intracranial hemorrhage associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in patients with end stage renal disease 
BMC Nephrology  2014;15:39.
Background
An analysis of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in a national sample of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients receiving long-term dialysis has not been reported. It is often assumed that patients with ADPKD are not at increased risk of ICH after starting dialysis. We hypothesized that patients with ADPKD would have a higher subsequent risk of ICH even after the start of chronic dialysis.
Methods
Retrospective cohort study of Medicare primary patients with and without ADPKD in the United States Renal Data System (USRDS), initiated on chronic dialysis or transplanted between 1 January 1999 and 3 July 2009, and followed until 31 December 2009. Covariates included age, gender, race, prior stroke, diabetes mellitus, dialysis modality, body mass index, serum albumin and other co-morbid conditions from the Medical Evidence Form. Primary outcome was ICH, based on inpatient and outpatient Medicare claims, and all-cause mortality. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used for unadjusted assessment of time to events. Cox regression was used for assessment of factors associated with ICH and mortality. We performed competing risk regression using kidney transplant and death as competing risks. Kidney transplant was also modeled as a time-dependent covariate in Cox regression.
Results
Competing risk regression demonstrated that ADPKD had a subhazard ratio 2.97 for ICH (95% CI 2.27-3.89). Adjusted Cox analysis showed that ADPKD patients had an AHR for death of 0.59 vs. non-ADPKD patients (95% CI 0.57-0.61).
Conclusions
ADPKD is a significant risk factor for ICH among patients on maintenance dialysis. Our Medicare primary cohort was older than in previous studies of intracranial aneurysm rupture among ADPKD patients. There are also limitations inherent to using the USRDS database.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-15-39
PMCID: PMC3939494  PMID: 24571546
Intracranial hemorrhage; Intracranial aneurysm; Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; Stroke; Dialysis; USRDS; Competing risk
2.  HIVAN and medication use in chronic dialysis patients in the United States: analysis of the USRDS DMMS Wave 2 study 
BMC Nephrology  2003;4:5.
Background
The use and possible effects of factors known to improve outcomes in patients with human immunodeficiency virus associated nephropathy (HIVAN), namely of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE) and antiretroviral therapy, has not been reported for a national sample of dialysis patients.
Methods
We conducted a historical cohort study of the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Study (DMMS) Wave 2 to identify risk factors associated with increased mortality in these patients. Data were available for 3374 patients who started dialysis and were followed until March 2000. Cox Regression analysis was used to model adjusted hazard ratios (AHR) with HIVAN as a cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD) and its impact on mortality during the study period, adjusted for potential confounders.
Results
Of the 3374 patients who started dialysis, 36 (1.1%) had ESRD as a result of HIVAN. Only 22 (61%) of patients with HIVAN received antiretroviral agents, and only nine patients (25%) received combination antiretroviral therapy, and only 14% received ACE inhibitors. Neither the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs (AHR, 0.62, 95% CI, 0.10, 3.86, p = 0.60), or ACE inhibitors were associated with a survival advantage. Patients with HIVAN had an increased risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.74, 95% Confidence Interval, 3.12, 7.32, p < 0.01) compared to patients with other causes of ESRD.
Conclusions
Medications known to improve outcomes in HIV infected patients were underutilized in patients with HIVAN. Adjusted for other factors, a primary diagnosis of HIVAN was associated with increased mortality compared with other causes of ESRD.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-4-5
PMCID: PMC166168  PMID: 12837135
HIV; antiretroviral; angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors; dialysis; end-stage renal disease; calcium channel blockers; dihydropyridine; USRDS; heart failure; hyperparathyroidism
3.  Atrial fibrillation in chronic dialysis patients in the United states: risk factors for hospitalization and mortality 
BMC Nephrology  2003;4:1.
Background
The incidence and risk factors for hospitalized atrial fibrillation have not been previously assessed in a national population of dialysis patients.
Methods
We analyzed the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Study (DMMS) Wave II in a historical cohort study of hospitalized atrial fibrillation. Data from 3374 patients who started dialysis in 1996 with valid follow-up times were available for analysis, censored at the time of renal transplantation and followed until November 2000. Cox Regression analysis was used to model factors associated with time to first hospitalization for atrial fibrillation (ICD9 code 427.31x) adjusted for comorbidities, demographic factors, baseline laboratory values, blood pressures, dialysis modality, and cardioprotective medications.
Results
The incidence density of atrial fibrillation was 12.5/1000 person years. Factors associated with atrial fibrillation were older age (> = 71 years vs. <48 years), extremes (both high and low) of pre-dialysis systolic blood pressure, dialysis modality (hemodialysis vs. peritoneal dialysis), and digoxin use. Baseline use of coumadin was associated with reduced mortality in patients later hospitalized for atrial fibrillation.
Conclusions
Dialysis patients had a high incidence of atrial fibrillation. This risk was largely segregated among those with established risk factors for atrial fibrillation, and hemodialysis patients. Use of coumadin was associated with improved survival among patients later hospitalized for atrial fibrillation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-4-1
PMCID: PMC149358  PMID: 12546711
atrial fibrillation; hospitalization; dialysis; coumadin; beta-blockers; USRDS; age; blood pressure
4.  Hospitalized poisonings after renal transplantation in the United States 
BMC Nephrology  2002;3:10.
Background
The national incidence of and risk factors for hospitalized poisonings in renal transplant recipients has not been reported.
Methods
Historical cohort study of 39,628 renal transplant recipients in the United States Renal Data System between 1 July 1994 and 30 June 1998. Associations with time to hospitalizations for a primary diagnosis of poisonings (ICD-9 codes 960.x-989.x) within three years after renal transplant were assessed by Cox Regression.
Results
The incidence of hospitalized poisonings was 2.3 patients per 1000 person years. The most frequent causes of poisonings were immunosuppressive agents (25.3%), analgesics/antipyretics (14.1%), psychotropic agents (10.0%), and insulin/antidiabetic agents (7.1%). In Cox Regression analysis, low body mass index (BMI, <21.6 vs. >28.3 kg/m2, adjusted hazard ratio (AHR), 3.02, 95% CI, 1.45–6.28, and allograft rejection, AHR 1.83, 95% CI, 1.15–2.89, were the only factors independently associated with hospitalized poisonings. Hospitalized poisonings were independently associated with increased mortality (AHR, 1.54, 95% CI 1.22–1.92, p = 0.002).
Conclusions
Hospitalized poisonings were associated with increased mortality after renal transplantation. However, almost all reported poisonings in renal transplant recipients were due to the use of prescribed medications. Allograft rejection and low BMI were the only independent risk factors for poisonings identified in this population.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-3-10
PMCID: PMC139992  PMID: 12450414
poisonings; drug overdose; medication error; body mass index; rejection; diabetes; complications; USRDS; pharmacist
5.  A multidisciplinary program for achieving lipid goals in chronic hemodialysis patients 
BMC Nephrology  2002;3:9.
Background
There is little information on how target lipid levels can be achieved in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients in a systematic, multidisciplinary fashion.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed a pharmacist-directed hyperlipidemia management program for chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. All 26 adult patients on chronic HD at a tertiary care medical facility were entered into the program. A clinical pharmacist was responsible for laboratory monitoring, patient counseling, and the initiation and dosage adjustment of an appropriate 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor (statin) using a dosing algorithm and monitoring guidelines. The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol goal was ≤ 100 mg/dl. A renal dietitian provided nutrition counseling and the nephrologist was notified of potential or existing drug interactions or adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Patients received a flyer containing lipid panel results to encourage compliance. Data was collected at program initiation and for 6 months thereafter.
Results
At the start of the program, 58% of patients were at target LDL cholesterol. At 6 months, 88% had achieved target LDL (p = 0.015). Mean LDL cholesterol decreased from 96 ± 5 to 80 ± 3 mg/dl (p < 0.01), and mean total cholesterol decreased from 170 ± 7 to 151 ± 4 mg/dl (p < 0.01). Fifteen adjustments in drug therapy were made. Eight adverse drug reactions were identified; 2 required drug discontinuation or an alternative agent. Physicians were alerted to 8 potential drug-drug interactions, and appropriate monitoring was performed.
Conclusions
Our findings demonstrate both feasibility and efficacy of a multidisciplinary approach in management of hyperlipidemia in HD patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-3-9
PMCID: PMC137601  PMID: 12431277
6.  Polycystic kidney disease in patients on the renal transplant waiting list: trends in hematocrit and survival 
BMC Nephrology  2002;3:7.
Background
The patient characteristics and mortality associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (PKD) have not been characterized for a national sample of end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on the renal transplant waiting list.
Methods
40,493 patients in the United States Renal Data System who were initiated on ESRD therapy between 1 April 1995 and 29 June 1999 and later enrolled on the renal transplant waiting list were analyzed in an historical cohort study of the relationship between hematocrit at the time of presentation to ESRD and survival (using Cox Regression) in patients with PKD as a cause of ESRD.
Results
Hematocrit levels at presentation to ESRD increased significantly over more recent years of the study. Hematocrit rose in parallel in patients with and without PKD, but patients with PKD had consistently higher hemoglobin. PKD was independently associated with higher hematocrit in multiple linear regression analysis (p < 0.0001). In logistic regression, higher hematocrit was independently associated with PKD. In Cox Regression analysis, PKD was associated with statistically significant improved survival both in comparison with diabetic (hazard ratio, 0.64, 95% CI 0.53–0.77, p < 0.001) and non-diabetic (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.56–0.82, p = 0.001) ESRD patients, adjusted for all other factors.
Conclusions
Hematocrit at presentation to ESRD was significantly higher in patients with PKD compared with patients with other causes of ESRD. The survival advantage of PKD in ESRD persisted even adjusted for differences in hematocrit and in comparison with patients on the renal transplant waiting list.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-3-7
PMCID: PMC122070  PMID: 12194700
Polycystic kidney disease; Caucasian; female; EPO; peritoneal dialysis; transplantation; complications; dialysis; USRDS; age; albumin; hemoglobin; weight; dysrythmias; mortality; frequency
7.  Transjugular renal biopsy in high-risk patients: an American case series 
BMC Nephrology  2002;3:5.
Background
In the United States, transjugular renal biopsies using the Quickcore™ side cut needle system have previously been described primarily for transjugular renal biopsy in patients with concurrent liver and kidney disease.
Methods
We describe transjugular renal biopsy with the Quickcore™ system in 9 patients with nephrotic syndrome and contraindications to percutaneous renal biopsy, who underwent biopsy between 23 October 1996 and 12 April 2001. The most common contraindication was oral anticoagulation with coumadin (40%). Other contraindications included horseshoe kidney, severe renal failure, and spontaneous coagulopathy. A 62 cm straight catheter and 60 cm side-cut Quickcore™ biopsy needle were used to obtain cortical tissue. Packing of the biopsy tract with Gelfoam™ was used for venographically identified capsular perforation.
Results
Ten procedures were performed on 9 patients with one requiring re-biopsy (5% of all renal biopsies performed at our institution). There were 9 transjugular renal biopsy and one combined liver-kidney biopsy. A mean of 4 ± 2 passes were made, with a mean of 3 ± 1 cores obtained per procedure. Histologic diagnosis was made in 90% of biopsies and in 100% of patients. Two patients developed transient hydronephrosis associated with gross hematuria; both required transfusion. Capsular perforation occurred in 90%. One patient died of bacterial sepsis, unrelated to the biopsy, several days after the procedure.
Conclusions
Transjugular renal biopsy appears to be efficacious in high-risk patients, for whom the percutaneous approach is contraindicated, including patients on oral anticoagulation. The transfusion rate in the present study was similar to other American reports using this technique.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-3-5
PMCID: PMC117777  PMID: 12113655
transjugular renal biopsy; kidney; liver; anticoagulation; horseshoe kidney; renal failure

Results 1-7 (7)