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1.  Intimate partner violence and Musculoskeletal injury: bridging the knowledge gap in Orthopaedic fracture clinics 
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious health issue. There have been widespread research efforts in the area of IPV over the past several decades, primarily focusing on obstetrics, emergency medicine, and primary care settings. Until recently there has been a paucity of research focusing on IPV in surgery, and thus a resultant knowledge gap. Renewed interest in the underlying risk of IPV among women with musculoskeletal injuries has fueled several important studies to determine the nature and scope of this issue in orthopaedic surgery. Our review summarizes the evidence from surgical research in the field of IPV and provides recommendations for developing and evaluating an IPV identification and support program and opportunities for future research.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-23
PMCID: PMC3585708  PMID: 23316813
Intimate partner violence; Domestic violence; Identification program; Orthopaedic surgery; Musculoskeletal injury
2.  Biomarkers of peripheral muscle fatigue during exercise 
Background
Biomarkers of peripheral muscle fatigue (BPMFs) are used to offer insights into mechanisms of exhaustion during exercise in order to detect abnormal fatigue or to detect defective metabolic pathways. This review aims at describing recent advances and future perspectives concerning the most important biomarkers of muscle fatigue during exercise.
Results
BPMFs are classified according to the mechanism of fatigue related to adenosine-triphosphate-metabolism, acidosis, or oxidative-metabolism. Muscle fatigue is also related to an immunological response. impaired calcium handling, disturbances in bioenergetic pathways, and genetic responses. The immunological and genetic response may make the muscle susceptible to fatigue but may not directly cause muscle fatigue. Production of BPMFs is predominantly dependent on the type of exercise. BPMFs need to change as a function of the process being monitored, be stable without appreciable diurnal variations, correlate well with exercise intensity, and be present in detectable amounts in easily accessible biological fluids. The most well-known BPMFs are serum lactate and interleukin-6. The most widely applied clinical application is screening for defective oxidative metabolism in mitochondrial disorders by means of the lactate stress test. The clinical relevance of most other BPMFs, however, is under debate, since they often depend on age, gender, physical fitness, the energy supply during exercise, the type of exercise needed to produce the BPMF, and whether healthy or diseased subjects are investigated.
Conclusions
Though the role of BPMFs during fatigue is poorly understood, measuring BPMFs under specific, standardised conditions appears to be helpful for assessing biological states or processes during exercise and fatigue.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-13-218
PMCID: PMC3534479  PMID: 23136874
Biomarker; Biological marker; Muscle fatigue; Monitoring; Muscle exercise; Exercise fatigue
3.  Malformations of the craniocervical junction (chiari type I and syringomyelia: classification, diagnosis and treatment) 
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders  2009;10(Suppl 1):S1.
Chiari disease (or malformation) is in general a congenital condition characterized by an anatomic defect of the base of the skull, in which the cerebellum and brain stem herniate through the foramen magnum into the cervical spinal canal. The onset of Chiari syndrome symptoms usually occurs in the second or third decade (age 25 to 45 years). Symptoms may vary between periods of exacerbation and remission. The diagnosis of Chiari type I malformation in patients with or without symptoms is established with neuroimaging techniques. The most effective therapy for patients with Chiari type I malformation/syringomyelia is surgical decompression of the foramen magnum, however there are non-surgical therapy to relieve neurophatic pain: either pharmacological and non-pharmacological. Pharmacological therapy use drugs that act on different components of pain. Non-pharmacological therapies are primarly based on spinal or peripheral electrical stimulation.
It is important to determine the needs of the patients in terms of health-care, social, educational, occupational, and relationship issues, in addition to those derived from information aspects, particularly at onset of symptoms.
Currently, there is no consensus among the specialists regarding the etiology of the disease or how to approach, monitor, follow-up, and treat the condition.
It is necessary that the physicians involved in the care of people with this condition comprehensively approach the management and follow-up of the patients, and that they organize interdisciplinary teams including all the professionals that can help to increase the quality of life of patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-10-S1-S1
PMCID: PMC2796052  PMID: 20018097

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