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1.  Evaluating the association of common APOA2 variants with type 2 diabetes 
BMC Medical Genetics  2009;10:13.
Background
APOA2 is a positional and biological candidate gene for type 2 diabetes at the chromosome 1q21-q24 susceptibility locus. The aim of this study was to examine if HapMap phase II tag SNPs in APOA2 are associated with type 2 diabetes and quantitative traits in French Caucasian subjects.
Methods
We genotyped the three HapMap phase II tagging SNPs (rs6413453, rs5085 and rs5082) required to capture the common variation spanning the APOA2 locus in our type 2 diabetes case-control cohort comprising 3,093 French Caucasian subjects. The association between these variants and quantitative traits was also examined in the normoglycaemic adults of the control cohort. In addition, meta-analysis of publicly available whole genome association data was performed.
Results
None of the APOA2 tag SNPs were associated with type 2 diabetes in the French Caucasian case-control cohort (rs6413453, P = 0.619; rs5085, P = 0.245; rs5082, P = 0.591). However, rs5082 was marginally associated with total cholesterol levels (P = 0.026) and waist-to-hip ratio (P = 0.029). The meta-analysis of data from 12,387 subjects confirmed our finding that common variation at the APOA2 locus is not associated with type 2 diabetes.
Conclusion
The available data does not support a role for common variants in APOA2 on type 2 diabetes susceptibility or related quantitative traits in Northern Europeans.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-10-13
PMCID: PMC2650681  PMID: 19216768
2.  The genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes may be modulated by obesity status: implications for association studies 
BMC Medical Genetics  2008;9:45.
Background
Considering that a portion of the heterogeneity amongst previous replication studies may be due to a variable proportion of obese subjects in case-control designs, we assessed the association of genetic variants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in large groups of obese and non-obese subjects.
Methods
We genotyped RETN, KCNJ11, HNF4A, HNF1A, GCK, SLC30A8, ENPP1, ADIPOQ, PPARG, and TCF7L2 polymorphisms in 1,283 normoglycemic (NG) and 1,581 T2D obese individuals as well as in 3,189 NG and 1,244 T2D non-obese subjects of European descent, allowing us to examine T2D risk over a wide range of BMI.
Results
Amongst non-obese individuals, we observed significant T2D associations with HNF1A I27L [odds ratio (OR) = 1.14, P = 0.04], GCK -30G>A (OR = 1.23, P = 0.01), SLC30A8 R325W (OR = 0.87, P = 0.04), and TCF7L2 rs7903146 (OR = 1.89, P = 4.5 × 10-23), and non-significant associations with PPARG Pro12Ala (OR = 0.85, P = 0.14), ADIPOQ -11,377C>G (OR = 1.00, P = 0.97) and ENPP1 K121Q (OR = 0.99, P = 0.94). In obese subjects, associations with T2D were detected with PPARG Pro12Ala (OR = 0.73, P = 0.004), ADIPOQ -11,377C>G (OR = 1.26, P = 0.02), ENPP1 K121Q (OR = 1.30, P = 0.003) and TCF7L2 rs7903146 (OR = 1.30, P = 1.1 × 10-4), and non-significant associations with HNF1A I27L (OR = 0.96, P = 0.53), GCK -30G>A (OR = 1.15, P = 0.12) and SLC30A8 R325W (OR = 0.95, P = 0.44). However, a genotypic heterogeneity was only found for TCF7L2 rs7903146 (P = 3.2 × 10-5) and ENPP1 K121Q (P = 0.02). No association with T2D was found for KCNJ11, RETN, and HNF4A polymorphisms in non-obese or in obese individuals.
Conclusion
Genetic variants modulating insulin action may have an increased effect on T2D susceptibility in the presence of obesity, whereas genetic variants acting on insulin secretion may have a greater impact on T2D susceptibility in non-obese individuals.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-9-45
PMCID: PMC2412856  PMID: 18498634
3.  Evaluating the association of common PBX1 variants with type 2 diabetes 
BMC Medical Genetics  2008;9:14.
Background
PBX1 is a biological candidate gene for type 2 diabetes at the 1q21-q24 susceptibility locus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of common PBX1 variants with type 2 diabetes in French Caucasian subjects.
Methods
Employing a case-control design, we genotyped 39 SNPs spanning the PBX1 locus in 3,093 subjects to test for association with type 2 diabetes.
Results
Several PBX1 SNPs, including the G21S coding SNP rs2275558, were nominally associated with type 2 diabetes but the strongest result was obtained with the intron 2 SNP rs2792248 (P = 0.004, OR 1.20 [95% CI 1.06–1.37]). The SNPSpD multiple testing correction method gave a significance threshold of P = 0.002 for the 39 SNPs genotyped, indicating that the rs2792248 association did not survive multiple testing adjustment. SNP rs2792248 did not show evidence of association with the French 1q linkage signal (P = 0.31; weighted NPL score 2.16). None of the PBX1 SNPs nominally associated with type 2 diabetes were associated with a range of quantitative metabolic traits in the normoglycemic control subjects
Conclusion
The available data does not support a major influence of common PBX1 variants on type 2 diabetes susceptibility or quantitative metabolic traits. In order to make progress in identifying the elusive susceptibility variants in the 1q region it will be necessary to carry out further large association studies, meta-analyses of existing data from individual studies, and deep resequencing of the 1q region.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-9-14
PMCID: PMC2292156  PMID: 18312624
4.  Analysis of KLF transcription factor family gene variants in type 2 diabetes 
BMC Medical Genetics  2007;8:53.
Background
The Krüppel-like factor (KLF) family consists of transcription factors that can activate or repress different genes implicated in processes such as differentiation, development, and cell cycle progression. Moreover, several of these proteins have been implicated in glucose homeostasis, making them candidate genes for involvement in type 2 diabetes (T2D).
Methods
Variants of nine KLF genes were genotyped in T2D cases and controls and analysed in a two-stage study. The first case-control set included 365 T2D patients with a strong family history of T2D and 363 normoglycemic individuals and the second set, 750 T2D patients and 741 normoglycemic individuals, all of French origin. The SNPs of six KLF genes were genotyped by Taqman® SNP Genotyping Assays. The other three KLF genes (KLF2, -15 and -16) were screened and the identified frequent variants of these genes were analysed in the case-control studies.
Results
Three of the 28 SNPs showed a trend to be associated with T2D in our first case-control set (P < 0.10). These SNPs, located in the KLF2, KLF4 and KLF5 gene were then analysed in our second replication set, but analysis of this set and the combined analysis of the three variants in all 2,219 individuals did not show an association with T2D in this French population. As the KLF2, -15 and -16 variants were representative for the genetic variability in these genes, we conclude they do not contribute to genetic susceptibility for T2D.
Conclusion
It is unlikely that variants in different members of the KLF gene family play a major role in T2D in the French population.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-8-53
PMCID: PMC1994949  PMID: 17688680
5.  Secretory granule neuroendocrine protein 1 (SGNE1) genetic variation and glucose intolerance in severe childhood and adult obesity 
BMC Medical Genetics  2007;8:44.
Background
7B2 is a regulator/activator of the prohormone convertase 2 which is involved in the processing of numerous neuropeptides, including insulin, glucagon and pro-opiomelanocortin. We have previously described a suggestive genetic linkage peak with childhood obesity on chr15q12-q14, where the 7B2 encoding gene, SGNE1 is located. The aim of this study is to analyze associations of SGNE1 genetic variation with obesity and metabolism related quantitative traits.
Methods
We screened SGNE1 for genetic variants in obese children and genotyped 12 frequent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Case control analyses were performed in 1,229 obese (534 children and 695 adults), 1,535 individuals with type 2 diabetes and 1,363 controls, all French Caucasians. We also studied 4,922 participants from the D.E.S.I.R prospective population-based cohort.
Results
We did not find any association between SGNE1 SNPs and childhood or adult obesity. However, the 5' region SNP -1,701A>G associated with higher area under glucose curve after oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.0005), higher HOMA-IR (p = 0.005) and lower insulinogenic index (p = 0.0003) in obese children. Similar trends were found in obese adults. SNP -1,701A>G did not associate with risk of T2D but tends to associate with incidence of type 2 diabetes (HR = 0.75 95%CI [0.55–1.01]; p = 0.06) in the prospective cohort.
Conclusion
SGNE1 genetic variation does not contribute to obesity and common forms of T2D but may worsen glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, especially in the background of severe and early onset obesity. Further molecular studies are required to understand the molecular bases involved in this process.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-8-44
PMCID: PMC1936990  PMID: 17617923
6.  Analysis of common PTPN1 gene variants in type 2 diabetes, obesity and associated phenotypes in the French population 
BMC Medical Genetics  2006;7:44.
Background
The protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B, a negative regulator for insulin and leptin signalling, potentially modulates glucose and energy homeostasis. PTP1B is encoded by the PTPN1 gene located on chromosome 20q13 showing linkage with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in several populations. PTPN1 gene variants have been inconsistently associated with T2D, and the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of PTPN1 genetic variations on the risk of T2D, obesity and on the variability of metabolic phenotypes in the French population.
Methods
Fourteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the PTPN1 locus were selected from previous association reports and from HapMap linkage disequilibrium data. SNPs were evaluated for association with T2D in two case-control groups with 1227 cases and 1047 controls. Association with moderate and severe obesity was also tested in a case-control study design. Association with metabolic traits was evaluated in 736 normoglycaemic, non-obese subjects from a general population. Five SNPs showing a trend towards association with T2D, obesity or metabolic parameters were investigated for familial association.
Results
From 14 SNPs investigated, only SNP rs914458, located 10 kb downstream of the PTPN1 gene significantly associated with T2D (p = 0.02 under a dominant model; OR = 1.43 [1.06–1.94]) in the combined sample set. SNP rs914458 also showed association with moderate obesity (allelic p = 0.04; OR = 1.2 [1.01–1.43]). When testing for association with metabolic traits, two strongly correlated SNPs, rs941798 and rs2426159, present multiple consistent associations. SNP rs2426159 exhibited evidence of association under a dominant model with glucose homeostasis related traits (p = 0.04 for fasting insulin and HOMA-B) and with lipid markers (0.02 = p = 0.04). Moreover, risk allele homozygotes for this SNP had an increased systolic blood pressure (p = 0.03). No preferential transmission of alleles was observed for the SNPs tested in the family sample.
Conclusion
In our study, PTPN1 variants showed moderate association with T2D and obesity. However, consistent associations with metabolic variables reflecting insulin resistance and dyslipidemia are found for two intronic SNPs as previously reported. Thus, our data indicate that PTPN1 variants may modulate the lipid profile, thereby influencing susceptibility to metabolic disease.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-7-44
PMCID: PMC1525165  PMID: 16677372

Results 1-6 (6)