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1.  Effect of Native American ancestry on iron-related phenotypes of Alabama hemochromatosis probands with HFE C282Y homozygosity 
BMC Medical Genetics  2006;7:22.
Background
In age-matched cohorts of screening study participants recruited from primary care clinics, mean serum transferrin saturation values were significantly lower and mean serum ferritin concentrations were significantly higher in Native Americans than in whites. Twenty-eight percent of 80 Alabama white hemochromatosis probands with HFE C282Y homozygosity previously reported having Native American ancestry, but the possible effect of this ancestry on hemochromatosis phenotypes was unknown.
Methods
We compiled observations in these 80 probands and used univariate and multivariate methods to analyze associations of age, sex, Native American ancestry (as a dichotomous variable), report of ethanol consumption (as a dichotomous variable), percentage transferrin saturation and loge serum ferritin concentration at diagnosis, quantities of iron removed by phlebotomy to achieve iron depletion, and quantities of excess iron removed by phlebotomy.
Results
In a univariate analysis in which probands were grouped by sex, there were no significant differences in reports of ethanol consumption, transferrin saturation, loge serum ferritin concentration, quantities of iron removed to achieve iron depletion, and quantities of excess iron removed by phlebotomy in probands who reported Native American ancestry than in those who did not. In multivariate analyses, transferrin saturation (as a dependent variable) was not significantly associated with any of the available variables, including reports of Native American ancestry and ethanol consumption. The independent variable quantities of excess iron removed by phlebotomy was significantly associated with loge serum ferritin used as a dependent variable (p < 0.0001), but not with reports of Native American ancestry or reports of ethanol consumption. Loge serum ferritin was the only independent variable significantly associated with quantities of excess iron removed by phlebotomy used as a dependent variable (p < 0.0001) (p < 0.0001; ANOVA of regression).
Conclusion
We conclude that the iron-related phenotypes of hemochromatosis probands with HFE C282Y homozygosity are similar in those with and without Native American ancestry reports.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-7-22
PMCID: PMC1421384  PMID: 16533407
2.  Allele frequencies of hemojuvelin gene (HJV) I222N and G320V missense mutations in white and African American subjects from the general Alabama population 
BMC Medical Genetics  2004;5:29.
Background
Homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for coding region mutations of the hemojuvelin gene (HJV) in whites is a cause of early age-of-onset iron overload (juvenile hemochromatosis), and of hemochromatosis phenotypes in some young or middle-aged adults. HJV coding region mutations have also been identified recently in African American primary iron overload and control subjects. Primary iron overload unexplained by typical hemochromatosis-associated HFE genotypes is common in white and black adults in Alabama, and HJV I222N and G320V were detected in a white Alabama juvenile hemochromatosis index patient. Thus, we estimated the frequency of the HJV missense mutations I222N and G320V in adult whites and African Americans from Alabama general population convenience samples.
Methods
We evaluated the genomic DNA of 241 Alabama white and 124 African American adults who reported no history of hemochromatosis or iron overload to detect HJV missense mutations I222N and G320V using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Analysis for HJV I222N was performed in 240 whites and 124 African Americans. Analysis for HJV G320V was performed in 241 whites and 118 African Americans.
Results
One of 240 white control subjects was heterozygous for HJV I222N; she was also heterozygous for HFE C282Y, but had normal serum iron measures and bone marrow iron stores. HJV I222N was not detected in 124 African American subjects. HJV G320V was not detected in 241 white or 118 African American subjects.
Conclusions
HJV I222N and G320V are probably uncommon causes or modifiers of primary iron overload in adult whites and African Americans in Alabama. Double heterozygosity for HJV I222N and HFE C282Y may not promote increased iron absorption.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-5-29
PMCID: PMC544351  PMID: 15610558
3.  HLA-A and -B alleles and haplotypes in 240 index patients with common variable immunodeficiency and selective IgG subclass deficiency in central Alabama 
Background
We wanted to quantify HLA-A and -B phenotype and haplotype frequencies in Alabama index patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and selective IgG subclass deficiency (IgGSD), and in control subjects.
Methods
Phenotypes were detected using DNA-based typing (index cases) and microlymphocytotoxicity typing (controls).
Results
A and B phenotypes were determined in 240 index cases (114 CVID, 126 IgGSD) and 1,321 controls and haplotypes in 195 index cases and 751 controls. Phenotyping revealed that the "uncorrected" frequencies of A*24, B*14, B*15, B*35, B*40, B*49, and B*50 were significantly greater in index cases, and frequencies of B*35, B*58, B*62 were significantly lower in index cases. After Bonferroni corrections, the frequencies of phenotypes A*24, B*14, and B*40 were significantly greater in index cases, and the frequency of B*62 was significantly lower in index cases. The most common haplotypes in index cases were A*02-B*44 (frequency 0.1385), A*01-B*08 (frequency 0.1308), and A*03-B*07 (frequency 0.1000), and the frequency of each was significantly greater in index cases than in control subjects ("uncorrected" values of p < 0.0001, 0.0252, and 0.0011, respectively). After performing Bonferroni corrections, however, the frequency of A*02-B*44 alone was significantly increased in probands (p < 0.0085). Three other haplotypes were also significantly more frequent in index cases (A*03-B*14, A*31-B*40, and A*32-B*14). The combined frequencies of three latter haplotypes in index patients and control subjects were 0.0411 and 0.0126, respectively ("uncorrected" value of p < 0.0002; "corrected" value of p = 0.0166). Most phenotype and haplotype frequencies in CVID and IgGSD were similar. 26.7% of index patients were HLA-haploidentical with one or more other index patients. We diagnosed CVID or IgGSD in first-degree or other relatives of 26 of 195 index patients for whom HLA-A and -B haplotypes had been ascertained; A*01-B*08, A*02-B*44, and A*29-B*44 were most frequently associated with CVID or IgGSD in these families. We conservatively estimated the combined population frequency of CVID and IgGSD to be 0.0092 in adults, based on the occurrence of CVID and IgGSD in spouses of the index cases.
Conclusions
CVID and IgGSD in adults are significantly associated with several HLA haplotypes, many of which are also common in the Alabama Caucasian population. Immunoglobulin phenotype variability demonstrated in index cases and family studies herein suggests that there are multiple gene(s) on Ch6p or other chromosomes that modify immunoglobulin phenotypes of CVID and IgGSD. The estimated prevalence of CVID and IgGSD in central Alabama could be reasonably attributed to the fact that many HLA haplotypes significantly associated with these disorders are also common in the general population.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-4-3
PMCID: PMC166147  PMID: 12803653
common variable immunodeficiency; haplotype; HFE; hemochromatosis; HLA; IgG subclass deficiency; population genetics
4.  HLA-A and -B alleles and haplotypes in hemochromatosis probands with HFE C282Y homozygosity in central Alabama 
Background
We wanted to quantify HLA-A and -B allele and haplotype frequencies in Alabama hemochromatosis probands with HFE C282Y homozygosity and controls, and to compare results to those in other populations.
Methods
Alleles were detected using DNA-based typing (probands) and microlymphocytotoxicity (controls).
Results
Alleles were determined in 139 probands (1,321 controls) and haplotypes in 118 probands (605 controls). In probands, A*03 positivity was 0.7482 (0.2739 controls; p =< 0.0001; odds ratio (OR) 7.9); positivity for B*07, B*14, and B*56 was also increased. In probands, haplotypes A*03-B*07 and A*03-B*14 were more frequent (p < 0.0001, respectively; OR = 12.3 and 11.1, respectively). The haplotypes A*01-B*60, A*02-B*39, A*02-B*62, A*03-B*13, A*03-B*15, A*03-B*27, A*03-B*35, A*03-B*44, A*03-B*47, and A*03-B*57 were also significantly more frequent in probands. 37.3% of probands were HLA-haploidentical with other proband(s).
Conclusions
A*03 and A*03-B*07 frequencies are increased in Alabama probands, as in other hemochromatosis cohorts. Increased absolute frequencies of A*03-B*35 have been reported only in the present Alabama probands and in hemochromatosis patients in Italy. Increased absolute frequencies of A*01-B*60, A*02-B*39, A*02-B*62, A*03-B*13, A*03-B*15, A*03-B*27, A*03-B*44, A*03-B*47, and A*03-B*57 in hemochromatosis cohorts have not been reported previously.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-3-9
PMCID: PMC137582  PMID: 12370085
allele; ancestral haplotype; haplotype; HFE; HLA; hemochromatosis; iron; iron overload; population genetics

Results 1-4 (4)