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1.  Impact of a competency based curriculum on quality improvement among internal medicine residents 
BMC Medical Education  2014;14(1):252.
Background
Teaching quality improvement (QI) principles during residency is an important component of promoting patient safety and improving quality of care. The literature on QI curricula for internal medicine residents is limited. We sought to evaluate the impact of a competency based curriculum on QI among internal medicine residents.
Methods
This was a prospective, cohort study over four years (2007–2011) using pre-post curriculum comparison design in an internal medicine residency program in Canada. Overall 175 post-graduate year one internal medicine residents participated. A two-phase, competency based curriculum on QI was developed with didactic workshops and longitudinal, team-based QI projects. The main outcome measures included self-assessment, objective assessment using the Quality Improvement Knowledge Assessment Tool (QIKAT) scores to assess QI knowledge, and performance-based assessment via presentation of longitudinal QI projects.
Results
Overall 175 residents participated, with a response rate of 160/175 (91%) post-curriculum and 114/175 (65%) after conducting their longitudinal QI project. Residents’ self-reported confidence in making changes to improve health increased and was sustained at twelve months post-curriculum. Self-assessment scores of QI skills improved significantly from pre-curriculum (53.4 to 69.2 percent post-curriculum [p-value 0.002]) and scores were sustained at twelve months after conducting their longitudinal QI projects (53.4 to 72.2 percent [p-value 0.005]). Objective scores using the QIKAT increased post-curriculum from 8.3 to 10.1 out of 15 (p-value for difference <0.001) and this change was sustained at twelve months post-project with average individual scores of 10.7 out of 15 (p-value for difference from pre-curriculum <0.001). Performance-based assessment occurred via presentation of all projects at the annual QI Project Podium Presentation Day.
Conclusion
The competency based curriculum on QI improved residents’ QI knowledge and skills during residency training. Importantly, residents perceived that their QI knowledge improved after the curriculum and this also correlated to improved QIKAT scores. Experiential QI project work appeared to contribute to sustaining QI knowledge at twelve months.
doi:10.1186/s12909-014-0252-7
PMCID: PMC4258060  PMID: 25429802
2.  Evaluation of resident attitudes and self-reported competencies in health advocacy 
BMC Medical Education  2010;10:82.
Background
The CanMEDS Health Advocate role, one of seven roles mandated by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons Canada, pertains to a physician's responsibility to use their expertise and influence to advance the wellbeing of patients, communities, and populations. We conducted our study to examine resident attitudes and self-reported competencies related to health advocacy, due to limited information in the literature on this topic.
Methods
We conducted a pilot experience with seven internal medicine residents participating in a community health promotion event. The residents provided narrative feedback after the event and the information was used to generate items for a health advocacy survey. Face validity was established by having the same residents review the survey. Content validity was established by inviting an expert physician panel to review the survey. The refined survey was then distributed to a cohort of core Internal Medicine residents electronically after attendance at an academic retreat teaching residents about advocacy through didactic sessions.
Results
The survey was completed by 76 residents with a response rate of 68%. The majority agreed to accept an advocacy role for societal health needs beyond caring for individual patients. Most confirmed their ability to identify health determinants and reaffirmed the inherent requirements for health advocacy. While involvement in health advocacy was common during high school and undergraduate studies, 76% of residents reported no current engagement in advocacy activity, and 36% were undecided if they would engage in advocacy during their remaining time as residents, fellows or staff. The common barriers reported were insufficient time, rest and stress.
Conclusions
Medical residents endorsed the role of health advocate and reported proficiency in determining the medical and bio-psychosocial determinants of individuals and communities. Few residents, however, were actively involved in health advocacy beyond an individual level during residency due to multiple barriers. Further studies should address these barriers to advocacy and identify the reasons for the discordance we found between advocacy endorsement and lack of engagement.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-10-82
PMCID: PMC2999597  PMID: 21087495
3.  Use of simulator-based medical procedural curriculum: the learner's perspectives 
BMC Medical Education  2010;10:77.
Background
Simulation is increasingly used for teaching medical procedures. The goal of this study was to assess learner preferences for how simulators should be used in a procedural curriculum.
Methods
A 26-item survey was constructed to assess the optimal use of simulators for the teaching of medical procedures in an internal medicine residency curriculum. Survey domains were generated independently by two investigators and validated by an expert panel (n = 7). Final survey items were revised based on pilot survey and distributed to 128 internal medicine residents.
Results
Of the 128 residents surveyed, 106 (83%) responded. Most responders felt that simulators should be used to learn technical skills (94%), refine technical skills (84%), and acquire procedural teaching skills (87%).
Respondents felt that procedures most effectively taught by simulators include: central venous catheterization, thoracentesis, intubation, lumbar puncture, and paracentesis. The majority of learners felt that teaching should be done early in residency (97%).
With regards to course format, 62% of respondents felt that no more than 3-4 learners per simulator and an instructor to learner ratio of 1:3-4 would be acceptable.
The majority felt that the role of instructors should include demonstration of technique (92%), observe learner techniques (92%), teach evidence behind procedural steps (84%) and provide feedback (89%). Commonly cited barriers to procedural teaching were limitations in time, number of instructors and simulators, and lack of realism of some simulators.
Conclusions
Our results suggest that residents value simulator-based procedural teaching in the form of small-group sessions. Simulators should be an integral part of medical procedural education.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-10-77
PMCID: PMC2988805  PMID: 21059253
4.  Using television shows to teach communication skills in internal medicine residency 
Background
To address evidence-based effective communication skills in the formal academic half day curriculum of our core internal medicine residency program, we designed and delivered an interactive session using excerpts taken from medically-themed television shows.
Methods
We selected two excerpts from the television show House, and one from Gray's Anatomy and featured them in conjunction with a brief didactic presentation of the Kalamazoo consensus statement on doctor-patient communication. To assess the efficacy of this approach a set of standardized questions were given to our residents once at the beginning and once at the completion of the session.
Results
Our residents indicated that their understanding of an evidence-based model of effective communication such as the Kalamazoo model, and their comfort levels in applying such model in clinical practice increased significantly. Furthermore, residents' understanding levels of the seven essential competencies listed in the Kalamazoo model also improved significantly. Finally, the residents reported that their comfort levels in three challenging clinical scenarios presented to them improved significantly.
Conclusion
We used popular television shows to teach residents in our core internal medicine residency program about effective communication skills with a focus on the Kalamazoo's model. The results of the subjective assessment of this approach indicated that it was successful in accomplishing our objectives.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-9-9
PMCID: PMC2642813  PMID: 19187563
5.  Real time curriculum map for internal medicine residency 
Background
To manage the voluminous formal curriculum content in a limited amount of structured teaching time, we describe the development and evaluation of a curriculum map for academic half days (AHD) in a core internal medicine residency program.
Methods
We created a 3-year cyclical curriculum map (an educational tool combining the content, methodology and timetabling of structured teaching), comprising a matrix of topics under various specialties/themes and corresponding AHD hours. All topics were cross-matched against the ACP-ASIM in-training examination, and all hours were colour coded based on the categories of core competencies. Residents regularly updated the map on a real time basis.
Results
There were 208 topics covered in 283 AHD hours. All topics represented core competencies with minimal duplication (78% covered once in 3 years). Only 42 hours (15%) involved non-didactic teaching, which increased after implementation of the map (18–19 hours/year versus baseline 5 hours/year). Most AHD hours (78%) focused on medical expert competencies. Resident satisfaction (90% response) was high throughout (range 3.64 ± 0.21, 3.84 ± 0.14 out of 4), which improved after 1 year but returned to baseline after 2 years.
Conclusion
We developed and implemented an internal medicine curriculum map based on real time resident input, with minimal topic duplication and high resident satisfaction. The map provided an opportunity to balance didactic versus non-didactic teaching, and teaching on medical versus non medical expert topics.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-7-42
PMCID: PMC2186308  PMID: 17988402

Results 1-5 (5)