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1.  Effectiveness of the tailored Evidence Based Practice training program for Filipino physical therapists: a randomized controlled trial 
BMC Medical Education  2014;14:147.
Background
This study evaluated the effectiveness of the contextualized EBP training program for Filipino physical therapists in terms of knowledge, skills, attitudes and behavior.
Methods
A randomized controlled trial was designed to assess the effectiveness of the EBP training program. Fifty four physical therapists were randomly allocated to the EBP group (intervention) and waitlist (control) group. The EBP group had a one day face-to-face training with an online support, whilst the control was waitlisted. There were three measurement points which were pre, post, and three months post intervention for knowledge, skills and attitudes. Activity diaries were used to measure behavior. The diaries were collected after three months. Data analysis was by intention to treat in EBP domains of knowledge, skills and attitudes.
Results
Fifty-four physical therapists were included in the study. Fifty two (52) completed the post training assessment and 26 completed the 3 months post training assessment for EBP knowledge, skills and attitudes. There were significant improvements in these domains in the EBP group from pre to post training and over a period of three months (p < 0.05) compared with the waitlist control group. Thirty seven (37) physical therapists completed their activity diaries over three months. Behavior significantly improved in the EBP group in terms of EBP behaviors (formulating PICO, searching, appraising and applying the evidence) when faced with both new/unique and usual case scenarios (p < 0.05). More physical therapists in the waitlist control group significantly performed non-EBP behaviors (asking doctors and reading textbooks) when faced with new/unique cases compared with the EBP group (p < 0.05). No differences were noted between groups regarding non-EBP behaviors (asking colleagues and doctors and reading textbooks) particularly when faced with usual cases.
Conclusion
The contextually designed EBP training program for Filipino physical therapists was effective in improving knowledge, skills and attitudes to EBP from pre to post training. Improvements were also observed at three months post training in knowledge, skills, attitudes and behavior to EBP. This model of training can be modified as needed based on the needs of the local context. Findings need to be interpreted with caution due to study limitations.
Current controlled trials
ISRCTN74485061 (Registration date: February 9, 2011).
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-14-147
PMCID: PMC4131475  PMID: 25034409
EBP; Training; Physical therapists; Developing country; Knowledge; Skills; Attitudes; Behavior
2.  Exploring the perspectives of allied health practitioners toward the use of journal clubs as a medium for promoting evidence-based practice: a qualitative study 
BMC Medical Education  2011;11:66.
Background
Research evidence suggests that journal clubs (JCs) are one approach which can be used to bridge the gap between research and clinical practice. However, there are issues which potentially threaten their viability such as on-going participation or compliance with attendance, which require further exploration. The objectives of this study are: to explore the views and perspectives of allied health practitioners (AHPs) regarding the use of any type of JC in promoting evidence-based practice (EBP); to identify ways in which an innovative model of JC developed by the International Centre for Allied Health Evidence (iCAHE) might be refined.
Methods
A qualitative descriptive study utilising focus group interviews with various groups of AHP was undertaken-- those who have been exposed to the iCAHE JC model and those who have no experience of the iCAHE model (although they may have had exposure to other forms of JC). Maximum variation sampling was used to recruit participants for the study. Transcripts of focus groups were coded and distilled into content-related categories.
Results
Six focus groups with 39 AHPs were facilitated. Allied health practitioners perspectives' on JCs were classified in five broad categories: utility and benefits of a JC, elements of an effective and sustainable JC, barriers to participation, incentives for participation, and opportunities for improvement in the current iCAHE JC model. Overall, JCs were seen as a forum for reflective practice and keeping up-to-date with research evidence, and a venue for learning the processes involved in critical appraisal. Limited knowledge of statistics and heavy clinical workload were reported as barriers to participation in a JC. Strategies such as mentoring, strong support from managers, and providing CPD (continuing professional development) points can potentially address these barriers. Opportunities for refinement of the current iCAHE model were raised.
Conclusions
This study suggests that a structured model of JC such as iCAHE's model is acceptable, and likely to be used with enthusiasm by AHP to achieve EBP. Future research should explore the impact of iCAHE JC compared with no JC exposure, and other forms of exposure to JCs, in influencing change in allied health practitioners behaviours and evidence implementation.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-11-66
PMCID: PMC3189899  PMID: 21943219
3.  Teaching physiotherapy skills in culturally-diverse classes 
BMC Medical Education  2011;11:34.
Background
Cultural competence, the ability to work in cross-cultural situations, has been acknowledged as a core skill for physiotherapists and other health professionals. Literature in this area has focused on the rationale for physiotherapists to provide culturally-competent care and the effectiveness of various educational strategies to facilitate the acquisition of knowledge about cultural competence by physiotherapists and physiotherapy students. However, there is a paucity of research on how students with different cultural needs, who are attending one university class, can be accommodated within a framework of learning core physiotherapy skills to achieve professional standards.
Results
This paper reports on steps which were taken to resolve the specific needs of a culturally-diverse body of first year physiotherapy students, and the impact this had on teaching in a new physiotherapy program located in Greater Western Sydney, Australia. Physiotherapy legislative, accreditation and registration requirements were considered in addition to anti-discrimination legislation and the four ethical principles of decision making.
Conclusions
Reflection on this issue and the steps taken to resolve it has resulted in the development of a generic framework which focuses on providing quality and equitable physiotherapy education opportunities to all students. This framework is generalizable to other health professions worldwide.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-11-34
PMCID: PMC3146421  PMID: 21679404
4.  Effectiveness of the tailored EBP training program for Filipino physiotherapists: A randomised controlled trial 
BMC Medical Education  2011;11:14.
Astract
Background
Evidence implementation continues to challenge health professionals most especially those from developing countries. Filipino physiotherapists represent a group of health professionals in a developing country who by tradition and historical practice, take direction from a doctor, on treatment options. Lack of autonomy in decision-making challenges their capacity to deliver evidence-based care. However, this scenario should not limit them from updating and up-skilling themselves on evidence- based practice (EBP). EBP training tailored to their needs and practice was developed to address this gap. This study will be conducted to assess the effectiveness of a tailored EBP-training program for Filipino physiotherapists, in improving knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviour to EBP. Participation in this program aims to improve capacity to EBP and engage with referring doctors to determine the most effective treatments for their patients.
Methods/Design
A double blind randomised controlled trial, assessing the effectiveness of the EBP training intervention, compared with a waitlist control, will be conducted. An adequately powered sample of 54 physiotherapists from the Philippines will be recruited and randomly allocated to EBP intervention or waitlist control.
Intervention: The EBP program for Filipino physiotherapists is a one-day program on EBP principles and techniques, delivered using effective adult education strategies. It consists of lectures and practical workshops. A novel component in this program is the specially-developed recommendation form, which participants can use after completing their training, to assist them to negotiate with referring doctors regarding evidence-based treatment choices for their patients.
Pre and post measures of EBP knowledge, skills and attitudes will be assessed in both groups using the Adapted Fresno Test and the Questions to EBP attitudes. Behaviour to EBP will be measured using activity diaries for a period of three months.
Discussion
Should the EBP-training program be found to be effective in improving EBP-uptake in Filipino physiotherapists, it will form the basis of a much needed national intervention which is contextually appropriate to Filipino physiotherapists. It will therefore form the genesis for a model for building EBP capacity of other health professionals in the Philippines as well as physiotherapists in developing countries.
Trial Registration
Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN74485061
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-11-14
PMCID: PMC3100239  PMID: 21489229

Results 1-4 (4)