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1.  Germinal center kinase-like kinase (GLK/MAP4K3) expression is increased in adult-onset Still's disease and may act as an activity marker 
BMC Medicine  2012;10:84.
Background
Germinal center kinase-like kinase (GLK, also termed MAP4K3), a member of the MAP4K family, may regulate gene transcription, apoptosis and immune inflammation in response to extracellular signals. The enhanced expression of GLK has been shown to correspond with disease severity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. We investigated the role of GLK in the pathogenesis of adult-onset Still's disease, which shares some similar clinical characteristics with systemic lupus erythematosus.
Methods
The frequencies of circulating GLK-expressing T-cells in 24 patients with active adult-onset Still's disease and 12 healthy controls were determined by flow cytometry analysis. The expression levels of GLK proteins and transcripts were evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by immunoblotting and quantitative PCR. Serum levels of T helper (Th)17-related cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 and TNF-α, were measured by ELISA.
Results
Significantly higher median frequencies of circulating GLK-expressing T-cells were observed in patients with adult-onset Still's disease (31.85%) than in healthy volunteers (8.93%, P <0.001). The relative expression levels of GLK proteins and transcripts were also significantly higher in patients with adult-onset Still's disease (median, 1.74 and 2.35, respectively) compared with those in healthy controls (0.66 and 0.92, respectively, both P <0.001). The disease activity scores were positively correlated with the frequencies of circulating GLK-expressing T-cells (r = 0.599, P <0.005) and the levels of GLK proteins (r = 0.435, P <0.05) or GLK transcripts (r = 0.452, P <0.05) in patients with adult-onset Still's disease. Among the examined Th17-related cytokines, elevated levels of serum IL-6 and IL-17 were positively correlated with the frequencies of circulating GLK-expressing T-cells and the levels of GLK proteins as well as transcripts in patients with adult-onset Still's disease. GLK expression levels decreased significantly after effective therapy in these patients.
Conclusions
Elevated expression levels of GLK and their positive correlation with disease activity in patients with adult-onset Still's disease indicate that GLK may be involved in the pathogenesis and act as a novel activity biomarker of this disease.
doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-84
PMCID: PMC3424974  PMID: 22867055
Adult-onset Still's disease; GCK-like kinase (GLK, MAP4K3); mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs); pathogenesis; Th17-related cytokines
2.  Blood lipid profiles and peripheral blood mononuclear cell cholesterol metabolism gene expression in patients with and without methotrexate treatment 
BMC Medicine  2011;9:4.
Background
Methotrexate (MTX) is the most commonly prescribed disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) in rheumatoid arthritis. ATP-binding cassette transporter-A1 (ABCA1) and 27-Hydroxylase (HY27) are known antiatherogenic proteins that promote cellular cholesterol efflux. In THP-1 macrophages, MTX can promote the reversal of cholesterol transport, limit foam cell formation and also reverse COX-2 inhibitor-mediated downregulation of ABCA1. Despite its antiatherogenic potential in vitro, the impact of clinical use of low-dose MTX on cholesterol metabolism in humans is unknown. Objective of the study was to examine whether clinical MTX use is associated with altered blood lipids and/or ABCA1/HY27 expressions.
Methods
In all, 100 rheumatoid arthritis subjects were recruited from a medical center in central Taiwan. Plasma lipid profiles and peripheral blood mononuclear cell HY27 and ABCA1 expressions were compared between subjects taking MTX (MTX+) and other disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) (MTX-). Dietary intake was assessed by a registered dietician.
Results
Though no difference observed in the blood lipids between MTX+ and MTX- subjects, the expressions of ABCA1 and HY27 were significantly elevated in MTX+ subjects (n = 67) compared to MTX- subjects (n = 32, p < 0.05). ABCA expression correlated with MTX doses (r = 0.205, p = 0.042), and MTX+ subjects are more likely to have increased HY27 compared to MTX- subjects (OR = 2.5, p = 0.038). Prevalence of dyslipidemia and overweight, and dietary fat/cholesterol intake were lower than that of the age-matched population. Although no differences were observed in the blood lipids, the potential impacts of MTX on cholesterol metabolism should not be overlooked and the atheroprotective effects from MTX induced HY27 and ABCA1 expressions may still be present in those persons with pre-existing dyslipidemia.
Conclusions
We demonstrated novel findings on the increased gene expressions of atheroprotective protein HY27 and ABCA1 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with clinical use of low-dose MTX. Whether MTX induced HY27 and ABCA1 expressions can protect against cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic inflammation through the facilitation of cholesterol export remains to be established. Further studies on the impacts of low-dose MTX on hypercholesterolemic patients are underway.
doi:10.1186/1741-7015-9-4
PMCID: PMC3033360  PMID: 21232092

Results 1-2 (2)