PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-7 (7)
 

Clipboard (0)
None
Journals
Authors
more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Serologic indices of hepatitis B virus infection in military recruits in Greece (2004–2005) 
Background
The prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in Greece has been decreasing over the last decades. However, recent epidemiological data are lacking.
Methods
We studied 1,840 Army recruits from 05/2004 until 10/2005, and performed serological testing for HBsAg, anti-HBsAg, and anti-HBcAg. We also examined their association with several factors, including age, residential area, socioeconomic class, and educational level.
Results
Mean age (± SD) of the recruits was 20.5 (± 2.1) years. Antibodies to HBV core antigen [anti-HBcAg (+)] were found in 31 (1.68%) of 1,840 participants. Only 6 (0.32%) were HBsAg (+)/anti-HBsAg (-)/anti-HBcAg (+), while 21 (1.14%) were HBsAg (-)/anti-HBsAg (+)/anti-HBcAg (+), and 4 (0.22%) were HBsAg (-)/anti-HBsAg (-)/anti-HBcAg (+). Overall, 1,144 recruits (62.17%) had antibodies against HBsAg [HBsAg (-)/anti-HBsAg (+)/anti-HBcAg (-)]; 665 recruits (36.14%) had undetectable anti-HBsAg levels. Multivariable analysis showed that younger age (OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.82–0.92) and advanced educational level (OR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.32–1.93) were independently associated with serologic evidence suggestive of previous HBV vaccination.
Conclusion
We document a further decline of the prevalence of chronic HBV infection among Greek military recruits, a fact that may support the effectiveness of the ongoing immunization programme.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-6-163
PMCID: PMC1654164  PMID: 17105648
2.  Prevalence and predictors of tuberculin skin positivity in Hellenic Army recruits 
Background
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the leading causes of death among infectious diseases worldwide. Despite its low incidence rates in countries of Western Europe and North America, the resurgence of TB in Eastern Europe and the increased immigration from high-incidence countries imply that extreme vigilance is required in order to detect early, treat, and isolate all new cases. In this study, we analyzed the prevalence and predictors of tuberculin skin testing positivity in Hellenic Army recruits.
Methods
The study population consisted of 953 Greek military recruits enlisted inthe Army during the period from November 2005 toFebruary 2006. Tuberculin skin testing was performed on all study subjects upon enrollment, according to the routine procedures. A tuberculin skin test reaction size >15 mm was considered positive for all study participants. Epidemiological data regarding age, repatriation status, geographic area of residence, smoking habits, and parental occupation were collected by means of personal interviews. In addition, body weight, height, and body mass index were measured.
Results
The mean age of the studied subjects (± SD) was 23.5 (± 6.4) years. The overall prevalence of tuberculin positivity was 3.9% (37/953), and bivariable analysis showed that it was associated with lower weight (p = 0.047) and repatriation status (p < 0.001). Tuberculin skin testing was positive in 2.6% of natives (24/900) and 24.5% of repatriates (13/53). A backward, stepwise multivariable logistic regression model showed that only repatriation status was independently associated with tuberculin positivity (p < 0.001; odds ratio [OR]: 14.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.5–30.3).
Conclusion
While the incidence of tuberculosis in the native Greek population is low, and comparable to other Western European countries, the extremely high tuberculin positivity in repatriated persons underscores the importance of actively screening for TB in order to promptly identify, isolate, and treat cases of active and latent infection.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-6-102
PMCID: PMC1513578  PMID: 16796738
3.  Secular trends of antimicrobial resistance of blood isolates in a newly founded Greek hospital 
Background
Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most challenging issues in modern medicine.
Methods
We evaluated the secular trends of the relative frequency of blood isolates and of the pattern of their in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility in our hospital during the last four and a half years.
Results
Overall, the data regarding the relative frequency of blood isolates in our newly founded hospital do not differ significantly from those of hospitals that are functioning for a much longer period of time. A noteworthy emerging problem is the increasing antimicrobial resistance of Gram-negative bacteria, mainly Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae to various classes of antibiotics. Acinetobacter baumannii isolates showed an increase of resistance to amikacin (p = 0.019), ciprofloxacin (p = 0.001), imipenem (p < 0.001), and piperacillin/tazobactam (p = 0.01) between the first and second period of the study.
Conclusion
An alarming increase of the antimicrobial resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates has been noted during our study.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-6-99
PMCID: PMC1513235  PMID: 16776825
4.  A bibliometric analysis of research productivity in Parasitology by different world regions during a 9-year period (1995–2003) 
Background
The objective of this study was to estimate the research productivity of different world regions in the field of Parasitology.
Methods
Using the PubMed database we retrieved articles from journals included in the "Parasitology" category of the "Journal Citation Reports" database of the Institute for Scientific Information for the period 1995–2003. Research productivity was evaluated based on a methodology we developed and used in other bibliometric studies by analysing: (1) the total number of publications, (2) the mean impact factor of all papers, and (3) the product of the above two parameters, (4) the research productivity in relation to gross domestic product of each region, and (5) the research productivity in relation to gross national income per capita and population of each region.
Results
Data on the country of origin of the research was available for 18,110 out of 18,377 articles (98.6% of all articles from the included journals). Western Europe exceeds all world regions in research production for the period studied (34.8% of total articles), with USA ranking second (19.9%), and Latin America & the Caribbean ranking third (17.2%). The mean impact factor in articles published in Parasitology journals was highest for the USA (1.88). Oceania ranked first in research productivity when adjustments for both the gross national income per capita (GNIPC) and population were made. Eastern Europe almost tripled the production of articles from only 1.9% of total production in 1995 to 4.3% in 2003. Similarly, Latin America and the Caribbean and Asia doubled their production. However, the absolute and relative production by some developing areas, including Africa, is still very low, despite the fact that parasitic diseases are major public health problems in these areas.
Conclusion
Our data suggest that more help should be provided by the developed nations to developing areas for improvement of the infrastructure of research.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-6-56
PMCID: PMC1431540  PMID: 16545114
5.  Outcome of infections due to pandrug-resistant (PDR) Gram-negative bacteria 
Background
The increasing problem of infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria has led to re-use of polymyxins in several countries. However, there are already clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to all available antibiotics, including polymyxins.
Methods
We present a case series of patients with infections due to pathogens resistant to all antimicrobial agents tested, including polymyxins. An isolate was defined as pandrug-resistant (PDR) if it exhibited resistance to all 7 anti-pseudomonal antimicrobial agents, i.e. antipseudomonal penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, monobactams, quinolones, aminoglycosides, and polymyxins.
Results
Clinical cure of the infection due to pandrug-resistant (PDR) Gram-negative bacteria, namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Klebsiella pneumoniae was observed in 4 out of 6 patients with combination of colistin and beta lactam antibiotics.
Conclusion
Colistin, in combination with beta lactam antibiotics, may be a useful agent for the management of pandrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections. The re-use of polymyxins, an old class of antibiotics, should be done with caution in an attempt to delay the rate of development of pandrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-5-24
PMCID: PMC1087841  PMID: 15819983
6.  Worldwide trends in quantity and quality of published articles in the field of infectious diseases 
Background
Trying to confront with the widespread burden of infectious diseases, the society worldwide invests considerably on research. We evaluated the contribution of different world regions in research production in Infectious Diseases.
Methods
Using the online Pubmed database we retrieved articles from 38 journals included in the "Infectious Diseases" category of the "Journal Citation Reports" database of the Institute for Scientific Information for the period 1995–2002. The world was divided into 9 regions based on geographic, economic and scientific criteria. Using an elaborate retrieval system we obtained data on published articles from different world regions. In our evaluation we introduced an estimate of both quantity and quality of research produced from each world region per year using: (1) the total number of publications, (2) the mean impact factor of publications, and (3) the product of the above two parameters.
Results
Data on the country of origin of the research was available for 45,232 out of 45,922 retrieved articles (98.5 %). USA and Western Europe are by far the most productive regions concerning publications of research articles. However, the rate of increase in the production of articles was higher in Eastern Europe, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Asia during the study period. The mean impact factor is highest for articles originating in the USA (3.42), while it was 2.82 for Western Europe and 2.73 for the rest of the world (7 regions combined).
Conclusion
USA and Western Europe make up a striking 80% of the world's research production in Infectious Diseases in terms of both quantity and quality. However, all world regions achieved a gradual increase in the production of Infectious Diseases articles, with the regions ranking lower at present displaying the highest rate of increase.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-5-16
PMCID: PMC1274272  PMID: 15780136
7.  Toxicity after prolonged (more than four weeks) administration of intravenous colistin 
Background
The intravenous use of polymyxins has been considered to be associated with considerable nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity. For this reason, the systemic administration of polymyxins had been abandoned for about 20 years in most areas of the world. However, the problem of infections due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria such us Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumanniii has led to the re-use of polymyxins. Our objective was to study the toxicity of prolonged intravenous administration of colistin (polymyxin E).
Methods
An observational study of a retrospective cohort at "Henry Dunant" Hospital, a 450-bed tertiary care center in Athens, Greece, was undertaken.
Patients who received intravenous colistin for more than 4 weeks for the treatment of multidrug resistant Gram-negative infections were included in the study. Serum creatinine, blood urea, liver function tests, symptoms and signs of neurotoxicity were the main outcomes studied.
Results
We analyzed data for 19 courses of prolonged intravenous colistin [mean duration of administration (± SD) 43.4 (± 14.6) days, mean daily dosage (± SD) 4.4 (± 2.1) million IU, mean cumulative dosage (± SD) 190.4 (± 91.0) million IU] in 17 patients. The median creatinine value increased by 0.25 mg/dl during the treatment compared to the baseline (p < 0.001) but returned close to the baseline at the end of treatment (higher by 0.1 mg/dl, p = 0.67). No apnea or other evidence of neuromuscular blockade was noted in any of these patients who received prolonged treatment with colistin.
Conclusions
No serious toxicity was observed in this group of patients who received prolonged intravenous colistin. Colistin should be considered as a therapeutic option in patients with infections due to multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-5-1
PMCID: PMC547910  PMID: 15642116

Results 1-7 (7)