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2.  Assessment and comparative analysis of a rapid diagnostic test (Tubex®) for the diagnosis of typhoid fever among hospitalized children in rural Tanzania 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2011;11:147.
Background
Typhoid fever remains a significant health problem in many developing countries. A rapid test with a performance comparable to that of blood culture would be highly useful. A rapid diagnostic test for typhoid fever, Tubex®, is commercially available that uses particle separation to detect immunoglobulin M directed towards Salmonella Typhi O9 lipopolysaccharide in sera.
Methods
We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the Tubex test among Tanzanian children hospitalized with febrile illness using blood culture as gold standard. Evaluation was done considering blood culture confirmed S. Typhi with non-typhi salmonella (NTS) and non - salmonella isolates as controls as well as with non-salmonella isolates only.
Results
Of 139 samples tested with Tubex, 33 were positive for S. Typhi in blood culture, 49 were culture-confirmed NTS infections, and 57 were other non-salmonella infections. Thirteen hemolyzed samples were excluded. Using all non - S. Typhi isolates as controls, we showed a sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 89%. When the analysis was repeated excluding NTS from the pool of controls we showed a sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 97%. There was no significant difference in the test performance using the two different control groups (p > 0.05).
Conclusion
This first evaluation of the Tubex test in an African setting showed a similar performance to those seen in some Asian settings. Comparison with the earlier results of a Widal test using the same samples showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) for any of the performance indicators, irrespective of the applied control group.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-11-147
PMCID: PMC3123569  PMID: 21609455
Salmonella; Tubex®; Widal; Africa; Rapid Diagnostic Test
3.  Evaluation of the Widal tube agglutination test for the diagnosis of typhoid fever among children admitted to a rural hdospital in Tanzania and a comparison with previous studies 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2010;10:180.
Background
The diagnosis of typhoid fever is confirmed by culture of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. typhi). However, a more rapid, simpler, and cheaper diagnostic method would be very useful especially in developing countries. The Widal test is widely used in Africa but little information exists about its reliability.
Methods
We assessed the performance of the Widal tube agglutination test among febrile hospitalized Tanzanian children. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of various anti-TH and -TO titers using culture-confirmed typhoid fever cases as the "true positives" and all other febrile children with blood culture negative for S. typhi as the "true negatives."
Results
We found that 16 (1%) of 1,680 children had culture-proven typhoid fever. A single anti-TH titer of 1:80 and higher was the optimal indicator of typhoid fever. This had a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 98%, NPV of 100%, but PPV was only 26%. We compared our main findings with those from previous studies.
Conclusion
Among febrile hospitalized Tanzanian children with a low prevalence of typhoid fever, a Widal titer of ≥ 1:80 performed well in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and NPV. However a test with improved PPV that is similarly easy to apply and cost-efficient is desirable.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-10-180
PMCID: PMC2898821  PMID: 20565990
4.  Field evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic dipstick test for the diagnosis of cholera in a high-risk population 
Background
Early detection of cholera outbreaks is crucial for the implementation of the most appropriate control strategies.
Methods
The performance of an immunochromatographic dipstick test (Institute Pasteur, Paris, France) specific for Vibrio cholerae O1 was evaluated in a prospective study in Beira, Mozambique, during the 2004 cholera season (January-May). Fecal specimens were collected from 391 patients with acute watery nonbloody diarrhea and tested by dipstick and conventional culture.
Results
The overall sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test compared to culture were 95% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 91%–99%) and 89% (95% CI: 86%–93%), respectively. After stratification by type of sample (rectal swab/bulk stool) and severity of diarrhea, the sensitivity ranged between 85% and 98% and specificity between 77% and 97%.
Conclusion
This one-step dipstick test performed well in the diagnosis of V. cholerae O1 in a setting with seasonal outbreaks where rapid tests are most urgently needed.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-6-17
PMCID: PMC1402302  PMID: 16451731
5.  The burden of diarrhoea, shigellosis, and cholera in North Jakarta, Indonesia: findings from 24 months surveillance 
Background
In preparation of vaccines trials to estimate protection against shigellosis and cholera we conducted a two-year community-based surveillance study in an impoverished area of North Jakarta which provided updated information on the disease burden in the area.
Methods
We conducted a two-year community-based surveillance study from August 2001 to July 2003 in an impoverished area of North Jakarta to assess the burden of diarrhoea, shigellosis, and cholera. At participating health care providers, a case report form was completed and stool sample collected from cases presenting with diarrhoea.
Results
Infants had the highest incidences of diarrhoea (759/1 000/year) and cholera (4/1 000/year). Diarrhea incidence was significantly higher in boys under 5 years (387/1 000/year) than girls under 5 years (309/1 000/year; p < 0.001). Children aged 1 to 2 years had the highest incidence of shigellosis (32/1 000/year). Shigella flexneri was the most common Shigella species isolated and 73% to 95% of these isolates were resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol and tetracycline but remain susceptible to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and ceftriaxone. We found an overall incidence of cholera of 0.5/1 000/year. Cholera was most common in children, with the highest incidence at 4/1 000/year in those less than 1 year of age. Of the 154 V. cholerae O1 isolates, 89 (58%) were of the El Tor Ogawa serotype and 65 (42%) were El Tor Inaba. Thirty-four percent of patients with cholera were intravenously rehydrated and 22% required hospitalization. V. parahaemolyticus infections were detected sporadically but increased from July 2002 onwards.
Conclusion
Diarrhoea causes a heavy public health burden in Jakarta particularly in young children. The impact of shigellosis is exacerbated by the threat of antimicrobial resistance, whereas that of cholera is aggravated by its severe manifestations.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-5-89
PMCID: PMC1276796  PMID: 16242013
6.  Further evidence for association of hepatitis C infection with parenteral schistosomiasis treatment in Egypt 
Background
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and schistosomiasis are major public health problems in the Nile Delta of Egypt. To control schistosomiasis, mass treatment campaigns using tartar emetic injections were conducted in the 1960s through 1980s. Evidence suggests that inadequately sterilized needles used in these campaigns contributed to the transmission of HCV in the region. To corroborate this evidence, this study evaluates whether HCV infections clustered within houses in which household members had received parenteral treatment for schistosomiasis.
Methods
A serosurvey was conducted in a village in the Nile Delta and residents were questioned about prior treatment for schistosomiasis. Sera were evaluated for the presence of antibodies to HCV. The GEE2 approach was used to test for clustering of HCV infections, where correlation of HCV infections within household members who had been treated for schistosomiasis was the parameter of interest.
Results
A history of parenteral treatment for schistosomiasis was observed to cluster within households, OR for clustering: 2.44 (95% CI: 1.47–4.06). Overall, HCV seropositivity was 40% (321/796) and was observed to cluster within households that had members who had received parenteral treatment for schistosomiasis, OR for clustering: 1.76 (95% CI: 1.05–2.95). No such evidence for clustering was found in the remaining households.
Conclusion
Clustering of HCV infections and receipt of parenteral treatment for schistosomiasis within the same households provides further evidence of an association between the schistosomiasis treatment campaigns and the high HCV seroprevalence rates currently observed in the Nile delta of Egypt.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-2-29
PMCID: PMC139974  PMID: 12464161

Results 1-6 (6)